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(405 words)

Author(s): Onken, Björn (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] Procuring information about the political and military situation of the enemy played an important part in Greek and Roman warfare (cf. Thuc. 6,32,3 f.). Aside from statements made by deserters,  prisoners of war, or even merchants (cf. Caes. Gall. 4,20,3 f.) and travellers, army commanders and politicians made use of the knowledge gained by spies. In Greek texts, spies are referred to as κατάσκοποι/ katáskopoi, although the distinction between espionage and military intelligence is murky (Hdt. 7,145 f.; Thuc. 6,63,3). In Caesar, spies ( speculatores) are disti…


(97 words)

Author(s): Onken, Björn (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] The lanista trained gladiators (Suet. Iul. 26,3; Sen. Ben. 6,12,2). Lanistae frequently owned fighters themselves, whom they rented or sold to holders of games; thus they had an important function particularly for the holding of games in the smaller country towns (ILS 5163 l. 9f.; 35; 37; 41; 57; 59). Successful lanistae could realize considerable incomes this way; however, their social status was low (Mart. 11,66), and they were not allowed to hold offices in the municipia (ILS 6085 l. 123). Munus, Munera Onken, Björn (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography 1 T. Wiedemann, Emper…

Rural exodus

(957 words)

Author(s): Onken, Björn (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] A. General RE denotes large-scale migration from rural areas into cities, with a change in profession often connected to the change in location. Because ancient societies were at all times agrarian and many cities can be regarded as 'farming communities', RE in Antiquity was as a whole not of such outstanding significance for social change as in the modern era; however, RE was of considerable importance for the development of urban political centres such as Athens, Rome and Alexandria. Onken, Björn (Marburg/Lahn) [German version] B. Greek world In Athens, Solon was …


(1,742 words)

Author(s): Onken, Björn (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] I. Terminology A toll is a duty on goods imported into or exported from an area of rule. The ancient terms τὰ τέλη/ télē (pl.) and portorium can also denote internal tolls and tolls for harbours, roads, bridges and gates, and tele also included other taxes. Nor is the Latin term vectigal restricted to tolls, but also refers to many taxes and even income in general terms. The ἐλλιμένια/ elliménia was on the one hand a fee for the use of a harbour or, on the other hand, the harbour's total income including tolls, or perhaps only a particular ad valor…


(1,073 words)

Author(s): Onken, Björn (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] I. Use In Antiquity presses were used primarily in oil and wine production and for processing papyrus leaves, cloth, fruit, herbs and roots and producing essential oils. By the time of Old Kingdom Egypt treading grapes in vats was customary; for further processing of the mash, bag-presses were used: by winding two sticks fastened on each end of a bag towards one another, additional must could be wrung out of the mash in the sack. In the ancient Mediterranean olives were first pounded or mashed with stones in a mortar, but not entirely squeezed out; later a trapetum (see below…


(610 words)

Author(s): Onken, Björn (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] Leading an insurrection of slaves, the Thracian S. entangled Rome from 73 to 71 BC in the most dangerous slave war of her history (App. B Civ. 1,116-120; Plut. Crassus 8-11: Σπάρτακος; Flor. Epit. 2,8). Together with 70 companions Spartacus had succeeded in escaping from a gladiator school in Capua in 73 BC. With shepherds and other agricultural slaves (Agriculture) joining them, the band around S. grew rapidly. Although S. managed to repel 3,000 Roman soldiers by outmanoeuvering …


(92 words)

Author(s): Onken, Björn (Marburg/Lahn)
[English version] Der l. bildete Gladiatoren aus (Suet. Iul. 26,3; Sen. benef. 6,12,2). Vielfach waren lanistae selbst Besitzer von Kämpfern, die sie an Spielgeber vermieteten oder verkauften; gerade für die Abhaltung von Spielen in den kleineren Landstädten hatten sie daher eine wichtige Funktion (ILS 5163 Z. 9f.; 35; 37; 41; 57; 59). Erfolgreiche lanistae konnten so beträchtliche Einnahmen erzielen, ihr ges. Ansehen war jedoch gering (Mart. 11,66); in den Municipien durften sie keine Ämter übernehmen (ILS 6085 Z. 123). Munera Onken, Björn (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography 1 T. Wiede…


(899 words)

Author(s): Onken, Björn (Marburg/Lahn)
[English version] A. Allgemein L. bezeichnet die Abwanderung großen Ausmaßes aus dem ländlichen Raum in Städte, wobei mit dem Orts- oft auch ein Berufswechsel verbunden ist. Da die ant. Ges. stets Agrar-Ges. blieben und viele Städte als “Ackerbürgerstädte” anzusehen sind, erlangte die L. in der Ant. insgesamt keinen so überragenden Stellenwert für den ges. Wandel wie in der Neuzeit; allerdings war L. für die Entwicklung von städtischen polit. Zentren wie Athen, Rom und Alexandreia von erheblicher Bedeutung. Onken, Björn (Marburg/Lahn) [English version] B. Griechische Welt In Ath…


(1,024 words)

Author(s): Onken, Björn (Marburg/Lahn)
[English version] I. Verwendung P. wurden in der Ant. v. a. bei der Öl- und Weinproduktion sowie für die Verarbeitung von Papyrusblättern, Tuchen, Obst, Kräutern, Wurzeln und zur Herstellung von Duftstoffen eingesetzt. Schon im AR in Ägypten war das Zerstampfen von Weintrauben in Bottichen üblich; zur weiteren Verarbeitung der Maische verwendete man dort Sack-P.: An beiden Enden eines Sackes war ein Stock befestigt; wenn man diese Stöcke gegeneinander verdrehte, wurde aus der Maische im Sack weiterer Most herausgewrungen. Im ant. Mittelmeerraum wurden Oliven zuerst zertre…


(1,441 words)

Author(s): Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Onken, Björn (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East and Egypt The tools of the Near Eastern cultures and Egypt comprised the most important types still used in similar designs and functions today. The use of natural objects as tools and their adaptation in order to improve their properties dates back to the Palaeolithic period (e.g. stone tools with various basic functions; increasing differentiation in relation to the qualities for particular usages). Improvements were made in handling (grip, mounting, shafts), the systematic exploitation of mechanical principles, e.g. axial mounting ( tournet…