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Economy

(6,870 words)

Author(s): Sautter, Hermann | Rüpke, Jörg | Schneider, Helmuth | Otto, Eckart | Penslar, Derek | Et al.
[German Version] I. The Concept – II. Economic Systems and their Theories – III. Economy and Religion I. The Concept The term economy encompasses the totality of all individual actions and social interactions that serve to produce goods (commodities or services [Service sector]) for the purpose of satisfying human needs (Consumption). As a rule, the “production” of commodities means that human labor and …

Heim, Karl

(592 words)

Author(s): Pfleiderer, Georg
[German Version] (Jan 20, 1874, Frauenzimmern – Aug 30, 1958, Tübingen), born and raised in a pastor's family which was strongly under the influence of Pietism. Heim passed through Württemberg's classical propaedeutic-theological training centers (seminaries at Schönthal and Urach, Tübingen Stift [Tübingen: II], among others). After working as a curate and a lecturer, he became a traveling secretary for the Deutsche Christliche Studentenvereinigung (DCSV; German Christian Student Alliance) in Berl…

Beauty

(3,008 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit | Oeming, Manfred | Pfleiderer, Georg
[German Version] I. History of the Concept – II. Bible and Theology – III. Systematic and Practical Theology I. History of the Concept Beauty – Gk τὸ καλόν/ tó kalón, Lat. pulchritudo/pulcher, Ger. die Schönheit, Fr. la beauté – is the positive aesthetic attraction which an object exercises on the beholder by virtue of its felicitous form. In contemplative, aesthetic, and erotic experience beauty is experienced as harmonious and stimulating, as some…

Methodists

(4,477 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A. | Pfleiderer, Georg | Ward, W. Reginald | Wigger, John H. | Price, Lynne
[German Version] I. Confession – II. Church History – III. Methodist World Mission I. Confession Methodism arose as a movement of spiritual renewal in the established Anglican Church of England and Wales in the 1730s and 1740s. Its earliest, least organized phase reflected the influence of three important antecedents – the evangelical Calvinist Puritans, the Pietists of Halle (Pietism), and the Moravians, and a high-church Anglican tradition (High church movement) that had promoted an ideal of the primitive…

Hoffmann

(525 words)

Author(s): Carmel, Alex | Pfleiderer, Georg
[German Version] 1. Gottlieb Wilhelm (Dec 19, 1771, Ostelsheim – Jan 29, 1846, Korntal). Hoffmann regarded as his intellectual father and model the already elderly Gottlieb Friedrich Machtholf (1735–1800), who once brought him the ten heavy folio volumes of Luther's collected works, carrying them on his back for a journey of four hours. In addition to holding several administrative positions in Leonberg and its environs, Hoffmann became one of Württemberg's leading Pietists. The Pietists at the time, beset by Rationalism, were often inclined to em…

Wobbermin, Georg

(216 words)

Author(s): Pfleiderer, Georg
[German Version] To deal with the challenges to systematic theology raised by the history of religions, Wobbermin, a disciple of Ritschl, conceived a theory of theology based on the psychology (VII) of religion, which he viewed as a contemporary extension of the fundamental insights of the Lutheran Reformation (“Faith and God belong together”: Luther, Large Catechism) and the theology of F.D.E. Schleiermacher, as well as a theological adaptation of W. James’s philosophy of religion. Its methodological principle was the “religio-psychological circle”…

Wirtschaft

(6,233 words)

Author(s): Sautter, Hermann | Rüpke, Jörg | Schneider, Helmuth | Otto, Eckart | Penslar, Derek | Et al.
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff Der Begriff »W.« umfaßt die Gesamtheit aller individuellen Handlungen und sozialen Interaktionen, die der Bereitstellung von Gütern (Waren, Dienstleistungen [Dienstleistungssektor]) zum Zwecke der menschlichen Bedürfnisbefriedigung (Konsum) dienen. Daß Waren »bereitgestellt« werden, bedeutet in aller Regel, daß naturgegebene Stoffe unter Einsatz außermenschlicher Energie und menschlicher Arbeitskraft zu konsumreifen Produkten verarbeitet und den Verbrauchern verfügba…

Wobbermin

(204 words)

Author(s): Pfleiderer, Georg
[English Version] , Georg (27.10.1869 Stettin – 15.10.1943 Berlin), syst. Theologe; 1906 a.o. Prof. in Marburg, 1907 o. Prof. in Breslau, Gastprof. an der Yale University; 1915 o. Prof. in Heidelberg (Nachfolge E. Troeltsch), 1922 in Göttingen, 1935–1937 in Berlin; Mithg. der ThLZ 1922–1939. Zur Überwindung der der Syst. Theol. durch die religionsgesch. Forschung gestellten Probleme entwirft der aus der Ritschlschule stammende W. eine religionspsychologische Theorie (Psychologie: VII.) der Theol., die er als zeitgemäße Fortsetzung ref…

Schönheit

(2,461 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit | Oeming, Manfred | Pfleiderer, Georg
[English Version] I. Begriffsgeschichtlich-philosophisch Sch. – griech. το` καλο´n̆/tó kalón, lat. pulchritudo/pulcher, engl. beauty, franz. la beauté – ist die positive ästhetische Anmutung eines Gegenstandes der Wahrnehmung aufgrund seiner gelungenen Gestalt. Sch. wird in der kontemplativen, auf die sinnliche Erscheinung eingehenden, ästhetischen wie in der erotischen Erfahrung als harmonisch, anregend, begeisternd und erhebend und so als Motiv gesteigerter Aufmerksamkeit und Zuneigung erlebt. Seit d…