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Concursus Dei

(370 words)

Author(s): Plathow, Michael
[German Version] This expression denotes God's creative cooperation (or “concurrence”) in the relative acts of creatures (Free will) against the background of the noetic distinction between being and action. With the emergence of Aristotelianism in the 13th century, the term, which originated in Roman civil law (“coincidence of multiple claims”), was applied to the philosophical/theological problem of cooperation between causa prima and causae secundae (Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae 1, q. 105, a. 5); it was an important issue in the complex differences …

Permission

(298 words)

Author(s): Plathow, Michael
[German Version] ( permissio) in the doctrine of providence emphasizes God’s effective role, especially in gov-¶ ernment ( gubernatio) – as distinct from the modes of hindrance and restriction ( impeditio and determinatio), and direction ( directio) – in recognizing the independence of his creatures, even when this is a possible basis for evil, sin, and suffering, including the risk of claims to independence of God (Ps 81:13; Rom 1:24, 28). Permission is linked to the problem of theodicy. God does not will evil, sin, and suffering…

Conservatio

(205 words)

Author(s): Plathow, Michael
[German Version] is the theological term for the way God sustains the being of creation through time (Creatio continua). Despite human sin, God sustains his creation faithfully and patiently until redemption comes with the advent of Christ. Conservatio includes an aspect of innovation in the pneumatological context of an eschatological perspective. In the “classical” doctrine of providence, conservatio has its place before concursus Dei and gubernatio, as also in the work of such theologians as K. Barth and E. Schlink. In the coherence framework of …

Zulassung

(251 words)

Author(s): Plathow, Michael
[English Version] (permissio) thematisiert in der Vorsehungslehre, speziell der Regierung (gubernatio) – im Unterschied zu den Modi der Hinderung und Begrenzung (impeditio und determinatio) und Leitung (directio) –, Gottes Wirken, das die Selbständigkeit der Geschöpfe auch als Ermöglichungsgrund des Bösen, der Sünde und des Leids (Leiden) anerkennt, was das Risiko der Verselbständigung gegen Gott einschließt (Ps 81,13; Röm 1,24.28). Die Z. ist mit dem Theodizeeproblem verbunden. – Gott will das Bö…

Church Membership

(2,015 words)

Author(s): Plathow, Michael | Thon, Nikolaus | Geldbach, Erich | Grosse, Heinrich | Engelhardt, Hanns
1. Protestant and Roman Cathlic Church membership and adherence are related to the theological and institutional understanding of the church. Church membership has both spiritual and legal dimensions. 1.1. ¶ On the Protestant view, the church is the communion of saints instituted by the Holy Spirit. Church membership, then, is essentially being part of the communion of saints. It begins with the work of the Holy Spirit, who brings one into this fellowship through the preaching of the gospel. Baptism is incorporation into the…

Vorsehung

(3,889 words)

Author(s): Friedli, Richard | Cancik-Lindemaier, Hildegard | Bosman, Hendrik | Söding, Thomas | Plathow, Michael | Et al.
[English Version] I. ReligionswissenschaftlichSicherheit gehört zu den Grundbedürfnissen des Menschen. Die Antworten, welche die Rel. auf verunsichernde Erfahrungen anbieten, sind kulturell vielfältig. Es geht dabei darum, das Schicksal (1.) möglichst vorherzusehen, es (2.) in eine Kosmologie einzuordnen und (3.) dadurch zu meistern. Generalisierend lassen sich vier Formen beobachten, mit denen Unvorhersehbares eingedämmt werden soll: 1.Naturereignissen ausgeliefert sein. Ohnmächtig fühlen sich Menschen einer bedrohlichen Schicksalsmacht ausgelie…

Providence

(4,529 words)

Author(s): Friedli, Richard | Cancik-Lindemaier, Hildegard | Bosman, Hendrik | Söding, Thomas | Plathow, Michael | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Certainty is a fundamental human need. The answers given by religions to unsettling experiences cover a broad cultural spectrum. The issue is (1) to foresee fate as much as possible, (2) to integrate it into a cosmology, and (3) thus to master it. In general terms, we can identify four ways of containing the unforeseeable. 1. Being at the mercy of natural events. When they are powerless, people feel at the mercy of a powerful, threatening fate. Archaic forms of religion and shamanistic experiences (Shamanism) document how t…