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Carmen adversus Marcionitas

(124 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[German version] (previously: Marcionem). Hexametrical Christian didactic poem ( didactic poetry) in 5 bks. (summary 5,1-18), which is aimed at the heretical positions of the Marcionites ( Marcion) (1,141-144). It is not written by   Tertullian, but rather by an anonymous author, whose origins are difficult to ascertain [2. 15-22, 29f.]. The poem was written sometime between AD 420-450 [2. 28-33]. Bk. 3 takes up the concept of the ecclesia ab Abel from Aug. Civ. 15. In order to prove the unity of OT and NT, the author employs numerous, and at times complex,  ty…

Aponius

(133 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[German version] After the Council of Chalcedon (AD 451) [3.72-75], he wrote an extensive commentary on the Song of Solomon in 12 bks. Inspired by  Origenes [2], in a triple  allegoresis A. interprets the Song of Solomon as a dialogue between Christ and the church, or between the Word of God and the soul of man, or -- and t…

Miltiades

(1,099 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
(Μιλτιάδης; Miltiádēs). From the 7th (Paus. 4,23,10; 8,39,3) to the 4th cent. BC, a name belonging to the family of the Philaïdae in Athens. [German version] [1] M. the Elder Victor in the four-horse chariot race at Olympia, probably in 548 BC. Son of Cypselus (archon 597/6 BC), grandson (?) of the tyrant Cypselus [2] of Corinth, relative ([7. 7]: adoptive son) of Hippocleides (archon 566/5); from the same mother as the three-time Olympian victor Cimon [1]. M. was victor in the four-horse chariot race at Olympia (548?). ‘Dynast’ alongsi…

Carmen ad quendam senatorem

(95 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[German version] In the C. (end of 4th cent. AD [3. 124-130]), a Christian anonymous author speaks out -- in 85 hexameters -- against the absurdity of the pagan cults of  Mater Magna (6-20) and  Isis (21-34), triggered by the apostasy (1-5; 35-50) of a formerly Christian legate (27). The pamphlet copies some satirical elements from  Horace and especially  Juvenal [2. 156f.]. Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) Bibliography Edition: 1 R. Peiper, CSEL 23, 1891, 227-230. Secondary literature: 2 R. B. Begley, The C., diss. Ann Arbor 1984 3 L. Cracco Ruggini, Il paganesimo romano tra re…

Donatus

(1,803 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns (Erlangen/Nürnberg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[1] D. of Carthage, Donatists [German version] A. Definition Donatism is a derogatory term for an ethically radical Christian movement that attached itself to traditional elements in the African Church in Roman North Africa in the 4th-7th cents. AD. It led to a schism in the African Church during disputes over the consequences of the Diocletian persecutions of Christians, i.e. the ques…

Carmen ad Flavium Felicem

(94 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[German version] In c. AD 500, a Christian anonymous author, probably in Africa, wrote the C., a poem of 406 hexameters with epyllic qualities; its topic was the proof of the resurrection of the dead (102-136) and the divine last judgement of good (186-268) and evil (269-355) people. Its style frequently imitates that of  Virgil, but also that of Christian poets [1; 2. 118ff.]; furthermore, verses frequently end in pseudo-rhymes. Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) Bibliography 1 J. H. Waszink, Florilegium Patristicum Suppl. 1, 1937, 47-116 2 S. Isetta, C., in: Vetera Christianorum…

Fulgentius

(787 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
[German version] [1] F. Mythographus Christian, about AD 500, author of several prose works (also F. Afer, Fabius Planciades F., Fabius Claudius Gordianus). Several prose works are extant by the Christian F. who lived around AD 500 and whose identification with  Fulgentius [2] is a matter of discussion [3]: De aetatibus mundi et hominis is an episodic outline of world history in which a particular letter of the alphabet is meant to be avoided (lipogram) in each of the planned 23 lemmata (of which only 14 were written). Lemmata 10, 11 and 14 deal w…

Palladius

(1,607 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Ruffing, Kai (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Παλλάδιος; Palládios). [German version] [I 1] Greek rhetor, 4th cent. Greek rhetor of the first half of the 4th cent. AD (Suda s.v. P. gives his prime as under Constantinus [1] I) from Methone (probably the Messenian one). According to the Suda, in addition to declamations he wrote in all three rhetorical genres ( genera dicendi ) and also an antiquarian work on the festivals of the Romans (FGrH F 837). Whether P. is identical with one of the numerous Palladii mentioned in the letters of Libanius and if …

Augustinus, Aurelius (Augustine)

(3,640 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
[German version] A. Life In addition to self-testimonials cf. especially the biography by  Possidius. On 13.11.354 birth of A. in Thagaste (northern Africa), the son of a simple non-Christian Roman civil servant, Patricius, and a Christian, Monnica. In 370 commenced rhetoric training in Carthage. 372: reading of Cicero's Hortensius. From 373-382 follower of Manichaeism, in 374 return to Thagaste; teacher of grammar and rhetoric. 376: teaching in Carthage. 380/1: (lost) first work De pulchro et de apto. 383: teaching in Rome; interest in the New  Academy. From 383 onwar…

Tyconius

(258 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[German version] c. AD 330-390 in Africa (Gennadius Vir. ill. 18). His Latin Liber Regularum ('Book of Rules') from c. 383, which surviving almost complete, represents the first extant Christian hermeneutics. In biblical exegesis, according to T., attention must be paid to seven core issues: 1) the Lord and his body, i.e. the Church; 2) the body of the Lord, dichotomized into Good and Evil; 3) the Prophecies and the Law; 4) the particular subitem and the textual genre in general; 5) symbolic time information; 6) r…

Pomerius, Iulianus

(123 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[German version] From Mauretania; Christian priest, settled as a teacher of rhetoric towards the end of the 5th cent. AD in Arelate/Arles, where he taught i.a. Caesarius [4] of Arelate (Gennadius Vir. ill. 99; Isid. Vir. ill. 25). Of De natura animae et qualitate eius there are only a few traces;  De vita contemplativa survives in full in 3 bks. and develops a theory of virtue and vice. Though imitative of  Augustinus and Hieronymus [8] the work is independent and was still influential in the Middle Ages. Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) Bibliography Edition: PL 59, 415-520. Bibliography: M. S…

Prudentius

(667 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[German version] Christian Latin poet (348/349- after 405); born to a wealthy Christian family in Spain, he underwent the obligatory rhetorical education before commencing work as a lawyer. Twice he was provincial governor, and lastly a high official in the central imperial civil service. With hindsight, however, he came to regard this worldly career as squandered time, and, in his 57th year, he decided to devote the remainder of his life, hitherto lacking in Christian service, to praise God with …

Gaudentius

(730 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam) | Et al.
(Γαυδέντιος; Gaudéntios). [German version] [1] G. Philosophus Musician and philosopher Author of an introduction to harmony, Ἁρμονικὴ εἰσαγωγή ( Harmonikḕ eisagōgḗ) ─ probably written in line with Claudius Ptolemy's ─ translated into Latin by Cassiodorus' friend Mutianus (Cassiod. Inst. 2,5,142 Mynors). The incompletely preserved work (in 23 chapters) contains traditional teachings in a slightly modified form, especially from Aristoxenus and the Pythagoreans: voice, sound, interval, modes, composition (1-7), unison…

Allegorical poetry

(472 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[German version] [I] Greek see  Orphic poetry Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) [German version] [II] Latin The basis of allegorical presentation is to communicate a conceptual meaning through a series of fictional, constructed connotations of images and narrative sequences. In poetry, we find for example allegories of navigation since Alcaeus fr. 326 Lobel/Page (cf. Hor. Carm. 1,14). In the comedy of Aristophanes, allegory veils obscene references. In Christian literature, allegory's function is not only that of…

Typology

(397 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[German version] The term typology only dates back to the 18th cent., referring specifically to the mainly Jewish-Christian interpretation method of a salvific history which was seen as both coherent and purposeful (to be distinguished from typology in the sense of assigning individuals to particular types or, respectively, as a method of relative dating used in the study of prehistory). Typology has its etymological roots in τύπος/ týpos ('image', type) respectively τυπικός/ typikós (Rom 5,14; 1 Cor 10,6; 11) and ἀντίτυπον/ antítypon ('counter-image', antitype; 1 Petr 3,21)…

Literature

(23,376 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Hazenbos, Joost (Leipzig) | Hose, Martin (Munich) | Et al.
[German version] I. General Literary communication is communication by means of texts - stabilized, coherent and substantial statements. These may be written or eventually put down in writing, but they may also remain oral ( Literacy). Since for earlier societies as a rule only written texts can be studied, the term ‘literature’ focusses on such sedimented media of literary communication. Nevertheless, particularly for ancient societies the mainly oral character of literary communication must be emp…

Allegorische Dichtung

(449 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[English version] [I] griechisch s. Orphische Dichtung Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) [English version] [II] lateinisch Die Grundbedingung allegorischer Darstellung (a. D.) ist, daß mit einer erfundenen, konstruierten Konnotationskette von Bildbereichen und Erzählfolgen eine geistige Bedeutung vermittelt wird. In der Dichtung findet sich z. B. die Schiffahrts-A. ab Alkaios fr. 326 Lobel/Page (vgl. Hor. carm. 1,14). In der Komödie des Aristophanes verhüllt die A. obszöne Sinngehalte. In der christl. Lit. wird n…

Palladius

(750 words)

Author(s): Ruffing, Kai (Münster) | Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) | Smolak, Kurt (Wien)
[English version] [1] P. Rutilius Taurus Aemilianus Agrarschriftsteller Über das Leben des Agrarschriftstellers P. ist wenig bekannt. Da er in den Hss. als vir illustris bezeichnet wird, war P. wahrscheinlich höherer Beamter gewesen; nach eigener Aussage besaß er in Italien und auf Sardinien Ländereien (Pall. agric. 3,10,24; 3,25,20; 4,10,16). Seine Lebens- und Schaffenszeit wird allgemein in das E. des 4. oder in das 5. Jh.n.Chr. gesetzt. Sein Werk besteht aus dem Opus agriculturae, das 13 B. umfaßt, einem B. über Veterinärmedizin, das jetzt als das 14. B. des ers…

Tyconius

(239 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[English version] Lebte etwa 330-390 n. Chr. in Afrika (Gennadius vir. ill. 18). Sein um 383 entstandener, fast vollständig erh. lat. Liber Regularum (‘Regelbuch) stellt die erste erh. christl. Hermeneutik dar. Nach T. müssen bei der Bibelauslegung sieben Kernsachverhalte beachtet werden: 1) der Herr und sein Leib, d. h. die Kirche; 2) der in Gut und Böse zweigeteilte Leib des Herrn; 3) die Verheißungen und das Gesetz; 4) der spezielle Unterpunkt und allg. die Textgattung; 5) symbolische Zeitangaben; 6) Wiederholung…

Literatur

(20,291 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Hazenbos, Joost (Leipzig) | Hose, Martin (München) | Et al.
[English version] I. Allgemein Lit. Kommunikation ist Kommunikation mit Hilfe von Texten, stabilisierten, kohärenten und umfangreicheren Äußerungen. Diese können schriftlich sein oder verschriftlicht werden, können aber auch im Bereich des Mündlichen verbleiben (Schriftlichkeit-Mündlichkeit). Da für frühere Ges. im Regelfall nur schriftliche Texte untersucht werden können, konzentriert sich der L.-Begriff auf solcherart sedimentierte Medien der lit. Kommunikation. Gerade für ant. Ges. muß gleichwohl…

Typologie

(354 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[English version] Erst im 18. Jh. geprägter t.t., der die vornehmlich jüd.-christl. Interpretationsmethode einer als kohärent und zielgerichtet verstandenen Heils-Gesch. bezeichnet (davon zu trennen ist T. im Sinne von Einteilung von Individuen in Typen bzw. T. als Methode der relativen Altersbestimmung in der Urgesch.-Forsch.). T. ist zurückführbar auf die Begriffe τύπος/ týpos (“Bild”) bzw. τυπικός/ typikós (Röm 5,14; 1 Kor 10,6; 11) und ἀντίτυπον/ antítypon (Ebenbild; 1 Petr 3,21). In der T. werden Ereignisse, Einrichtungen oder Personen der Vergangenhei…

Carmen ad quendam senatorem

(89 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[English version] Im C. (Ende 4.Jh. n. Chr. [3. 124-130]) wendet sich ein christl. Anonymus in 85 Hexametern gegen die Widersinnigkeit der paganen Kulte der Mater Magna (6-20) und der Isis (21-34). Als Anlaß dient die Apostasie (1-5; 35-50) des vormals christl. Konsulars (27). Das Pamphlet übernimmt z.T. satirische Elemente aus Horaz und bes. Iuvenal [2. 156f.]. Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) Bibliography Ed.: 1 R. Peiper, CSEL 23, 1891, 227-230. Lit.: 2 R.B. Begley, The C., Diss. Ann Arbor 1984 3 L.Cracco Ruggini, Il paganesimo romano tra religione e politica, 1979.

Fulgentius

(710 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) | Markschies, Christoph (Heidelberg)
[English version] [1] F. Mythographus christl. Verf. mehrerer Prosawerke, um 500 (auch F. Afer, Fabius Planciades F., Fabius Claudius Gordianus). Von dem um 500 n.Chr. lebenden Christen F., dessen Identität mit Fulgentius [2] diskutiert wird [3], sind mehrere Prosawerke erhalten: De aetatibus mundi et hominis ist ein episodenartiger Abriß der Weltgesch., wobei in jedem der geplanten 23 Lemmata (wovon nur 14 geschrieben wurden) ein best. Buchstabe des Alphabets vermieden werden soll (Leipogramm). Lemmata 10, 11 und 14 behandeln griech. und…

Prudentius

(613 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[English version] Lat. christl. Dichter (348/349 bis nach 405); stammte aus einer wohlhabenden christl. Familie in Spanien und unterzog sich dem obligatorischen Rhet.-Studium, um danach als Anwalt tätig zu werden. Er war zweimal Provinzstatthalter und zuletzt ein hoher Beamter in der kaiserlichen Zentralverwaltung. Im nachhinein betrachtete er diese weltliche Karriere jedoch als vertane Zeit und beschloß in seinem 57. Lebensjahr, den verbleibenden Teil seines an christl. Verdiensten armen Lebens d…

Gaudentios/-us

(700 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam) | Et al.
(Γαυδέντιος). [English version] [1] G. Philosophos Musiker und Philosoph Autor einer Einführung in die Harmonik Ἁρμονικὴ εἰσαγωγή ( Harmonikḗ eisagōgḗ), die - wohl nach Klaudios Ptolemaios verfaßt - Cassiodorus' Freund Mutianus ins Lat. übersetzt hat (Cassiod. inst. 2,5,142 Mynors). Das unvollständig (in 23 Kap.) erh. Werk bietet traditionelles Lehrgut in z.T. leicht veränderter Form, bes. des Aristoxenos und der Pythagoreer: Stimme, Ton, Intervall, Tongeschlecht, System (1-7), Zusammenklänge, Konsonanzen, Zahlenv…

Donatus

(1,673 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns (Erlangen/Nürnberg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Gatti, Paolo (Trient) | Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[1] D. von Karthago, Donatisten [English version] A. Definition Donatismus ist die polemisch abwertende Bezeichnung für eine ethisch radikale, an traditionelle Elemente der afrikanischen Kirche anknüpfende christl. Bewegung im röm. Nordafrika im 4.-7. Jh.n.Chr. Sie führte in den Auseinandersetzungen über die Konsequenzen aus der diokletianischen Christenverfolgung, d.h. um die Frage, wie mit Laien und Klerikern zu verfahren sei, die den staatlichen Behörden nachgegeben hatten und in irgendeiner Weise zu lapsi (“Abgefallenen”) geworden waren, z.B. Heilige Schrifte…

Aponius

(122 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[English version] Verfaßte nach dem Konzil von Chalcedon (451 n. Chr.) [3.72-75] einen umfangreichen Komm. zum Hohen Lied in 12 B. In dreifacher Allegorese legt A., angeregt durch Origenes [2], das Hohe Lied als Gespräch zwischen Christus und der Kirche oder dem Wort Gottes und der Seele des Menschen oder, in eigenständiger Leistung [3. 58, 174], als Liebe der Seele Christi zum Logos aus. Der Komm. wurde im MA stark rezipiert, zuerst von Beda [2]. Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) Bibliography Ed.: 1 B. de Vrégille /L. Neyrand, CCL 19, 1986. Lit.: 2 M. Didone, L'Explanatio di Apponio ..., …

Augustinus, Aurelius

(3,185 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
[English version] A. Leben Neben Selbstzeugnissen vgl. bes. die Biographie des Possidius. 13.11.354 Geburt A.' in Thagaste (Nordafrika) als Sohn eines einfachen, nichtchristl. röm. Beamten, Patricius, und einer Christin, Monnica. 370 Beginn der Rhet.-Ausbildung in Karthago. 372 Lektüre von Ciceros Hortensius. 373-382 Anhänger des Manichäismus 374 Rückkehr nach Thagaste; Gramm.- u. Rhet.-Lehrer. 376 Lehrtätigkeit in Karthago. 380/1 (Verlorene) Erstschrift De pulchro et de apto. 383 Lehrtätigkeit in Rom; Interesse an der Neuen Akademie. Ab 383 Auseinanderset…

Carmen ad Flavium Felicem

(81 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[English version] Um 500 n.Chr. schrieb ein christl. Anonymus, wahrscheinlich in Afrika, das 406 Hexameter lange, epyllienartige C., das den Beweis der Auferstehung der Toten (102-136) und das göttl. Endgericht über gute (186-268) und schlechte (269-355) Menschen zum Thema hat. Stilistisch häufig sind Imitationen Vergils, aber auch von christl. Dichtern [1; 2. 118ff.] sowie reimartige Versschlüsse. Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) Bibliography 1 J.H. Waszink, Florilegium Patristicum Suppl. 1, 1937, 47-116 2 S. Isetta, C., in: Vetera Christianorum 20, 1983, 111-140.

Miltiades

(1,126 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
(Μιλτιάδης). Vom 7. (Paus. 4,23,10; 8,39,3) bis 4. Jh.v.Chr. Name im Athener Philaïdenhaus. [English version] [1] M. d.Ä. Sieger im Viergespann in Olympia, wohl 548 v.Chr. Sohn des Kypselos (Archon 597/6 v.Chr.), Enkel (?) des Tyrannen Kypselos [2] von Korinth, Verwandter ([7. 7]: Adoptivsohn) des Hippokleides (Archon 566/5), von derselben Mutter wie der dreimalige olympische Sieger Kimon [1]. M. war Sieger im Viergespann in Olympia (548?). “Dynast” neben Peisistratos. Anders als Kimon 546 nicht im Exil, übernahm M. auf…

Pomerius, Iulianus

(117 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[English version] Aus Mauretanien, christl. Priester, ließ sich gegen E. des 5. Jh. n. Chr. in Arelate/Arles als Rhet.-Lehrer nieder, wo er u. a. Caesarius [4] von Arelate unterrichtete (Gennadius vir. ill. 99; Isid. vir. ill. 25). Von De natura animae et qualitate eius sind nur wenige Spuren vorhanden; vollständig erh. ist De vita contemplativa in 3 B., worin er eine Tugend- und Lasterlehre entwickelt. Trotz Anlehnung an Augustinus und Hieronymus ist das Werk eigenständig und hat in das MA hinein gewirkt. Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) Bibliography Ed.: PL 59, 415-520. Lit.: M. Spinel…

Carmen adversus Marcionitas

(107 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[English version] (früher Marcionem). Hexametrisches christl. Lehrgedicht in 5 B. (Zusammenfassung 5,1-18), richtet sich gegen häretische Positionen der Marcioniten (Marcion) (1,141-144). Der Verf. ist nicht Tertullian, sondern ein Anonymus, dessen Heimat sich schwer lokalisieren läßt [2. 15-22, 29f.]. Die Abfassungszeit des Gedichtes ist auf 420-450 einzugrenzen [2. 28-33]. B. 3 greift die Vorstellung der ecclesia ab Abel aus Aug. civ. 15 auf. Für den Nachweis der Einheit von AT und NT bedient der Autor sich zahlreicher, z.T. komplexer Typologien,…

Fortunatus, Venantius (Saint)

(194 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] (c. 530, Treviso, northern Italy – before 610, Poitiers), Christian Latin poet who studied in Ravenna and in 565, in gratitude for liberation from an eye ailment, undertook a pilgrimage to the grave of St. Martin of Tours. In 567 he went to Poitiers, where he became bishop c. 600. Fortunatus wrote occasional poems in the classical style for rich and well-placed patrons, e.g. the Thuringian princess Radegunde. In addition he wrote the epic poem “Vita Martini,” lives of saints in pr…

Poetry

(9,931 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Bekkum, Wout J. van | Brucker, Ralph | Rösler, Wolfgang | Pollmann, Karla | Et al.
[German Version] I. Bible and Ancient Judaism 1. Old Testament a. General. In biblical studies, poetry (Gk ποίησις/ poíēsis) in contrast to prose generally comprises stanzaic texts in language employing patterns of rhythm and sound, whose structure and style are determined by both linguistic (sound patters, rhyme, clause sequences, etc.) and nonlinguistic factors (so-called constraints: music, ¶ extent, parallel structure, setting, etc.). We do not know the ancient Hebrew poetic terminology, although poetry constitutes a significant portion of Old …

Gennadius of Marseille

(201 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] was presbyter in Marseille (492–496). His most important preserved work, De viris illustribus (c. 475), a Christian history of literature (continued by Isidore of Seville and Ildefons of Toledo), includes 103 Greek and Roman authors and continues the catalogue of authors of the same name by Jerome. Also often attributed to Gennadius are: (1) Liber (or: Definitio) ecclesiasticorum dogmatum, a compilation of orthodox and heretical doctrinal statements (abridgment c. 470), (2) Statuta ecclesiae antiqua, a collection of canons with significance for liturgy…

Arnobius the Younger

(178 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] (died after 455), a monk who probably fled from the Vandals invading Africa, lived in Rome after c. 432; he was an opponent of Augustine's doctrine of grace (Augustine). He has been little studied. Two manuscripts are attributed to him: Commentarii in Psalmos (possibly written in Africa before 428), which uses typological interpretation to relate the text, especially messianic prophecies, to NT events, and Conflictus Arnobii et Serapionis, an anti-Monophysite disputation written between 449 and 451 (Monophysites). Other works attributed to Arnobius include Liber…

Sedulius

(85 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] (5th cent.), secularly educated Christian, whose Paschale carmen (“Easter Song”) was written to edify educated Christians. It and two other hymns by him were commented on by Remigius of Auxerre. Later Sedulius wrote a prose paraphrase of the Paschale Carmen, the Paschale opus (“Easter Work”), likewise in five books. The two versions became a model for the medieval opus geminatum. Karla Pollmann Bibliography CPL 1447–1449 Ed.: J. Huemer, CSEL 10, 1885 On Sedulius: M. Mazzega, Carmen paschale. Buch III, 1996 (text; comm.).

Marius Claudius Victor

(182 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] (better: Victorius; died between 425 and 450 ce), rhetor in Marseille; not to be confused with the philosopher and theologian Marius Victorinus. He composed a hexametric biblical epic Alethia [Truth] in three books, freely paraphrasing Genesis from creation to Sodom and Gomorrah. Since Gennadius of Marseille ( Vir. ill. 61, Richardson) speaks of four books, a fourth book may have been lost. Besides didactic elements intended for the instruction of youth (see the introductory prayer), Platonic influence is noticeable. The paraph…

Prudentius

(176 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] (Aurelius P. Clemens; 348/349 Spain – after 405), often called the Christian Virgil or Horace, since he was among the first to use classical meter to articulate Christian theological doctrines, often very complex, making him probably the greatest and most innovative Christian poets of Late Antiquity. His works include the lyric cycles Cathemerinon liber [Book of hours] and Peristephanon liber [Book of the martyrs’ crowns], the two didactic poems in hexameters “Apotheosis” [Deification] and “Hamartigenia” [The Origin of sin], and the Psychomachia [The Struggle …

Dialogue

(3,471 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla | D'Costa, Gavin | Vroom, Hendrik M. | Lange, Dietz | Neuner, Peter | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Literature (Early Church) – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Fundamental Theology – IV. Dogmatics – V. Ethics – VI. Ecumenism – VII. Dialogue and Mission I. History of Literature (Early Church) Dialogue, as a philosophical disputation with the objective of vanquishing the opponent at all costs, originated with the Sophists (Sophistic School); as a literary form, Plato's …

Lactantius, Lucius Caecilius Firmianus

(447 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] (c. 250–325), Christian Latin writer. Lactantius pursued extensive literary and philosophical studies; one of his teachers was Arnobius the Elder. At some time prior to 300, he was summoned to Nicomedia by Diocletian to teach rhetoric. At the outset of persecutions of Christians under Diocletian (303), he resigned from his teaching position and began to write as an apologist for the Christian religion. Because of his polished Latin, he has been called a “Christian Cicero.” Circa 314/315, Constantine brought him to Trier to tutor Crispus. In the treatise De opificio D…

Sidonius Apollinaris

(174 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] Sidonius Apollinaris, Gaius Sollius (429/431, Lyon – 486(?), Clermont-Ferrand), bishop in Clermont-Ferrand. The son-in-law of the emperor Avitus, he is considered the most important Latin writer of both poetry and prose in 5th-century Gaul. Contrary to the increasing Germanic influence in Gaul, he modeled his works – very popular in the Middle Ages – on classical Latin authors, including pagans. His three verse-panegyrics ( Carmina 1–8) on the emperors Avitus, Majorian, and Anthemius are based on Claudius Claudianus, his occasional poems ( Carmina 9–24) on the Silv…

Commodianus

(91 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] (3rd [probably not 5th] cent. North Africa?) was the earliest Christian Latin poet. Works: 1. Instructiones: conversion of Jews and pagans, instructions for the Christian way of life; 2. Carmen apologeticum: a portrayal of Christianity as the true faith in 1060 hexameters containing chiliastic-eschatological motifs. The works are characterized by the programmatic rejection of classical (because untrue) diction and meter. Karla Pollmann Bibliography CPL, 1470f. CChr.SL 128, 1960 A. Salvatore, ed., Instructiones, 1965–1968 idem, Carme apologetico, 1977 E. He…

Arnobius the Elder

(269 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] (of Sicca, Numidia Proconsularis), a teacher of rhetoric (one of whose students was Lactantius), converted to Christianity late in life. Between c. 303 and 310, in defense of Christianity he wrote the apology Adversus nationes in seven books, the last left incomplete. In it he attacks a variety of opponents of the Christians, especially the adherents of pagan religion; the work is dominated by elaborate rhetorical polemic designed to “fling back” ( retorsio) the charge of impiety leveled by the enemies of Christianity, but …

Isidore of Pelusium (Saint)

(171 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] (c. 360 – after 433), a classically educated teacher of rhetoric (?) and later priest in Pelusium (eastern Nile Delta), withdrew to the nearby wilderness as an ascetic monk, nonetheless remaining active in church politics. Approximately 2,000 of his letters as well as apophthegmata have been preserved. The deacon Rusticus (6th cent.) translated 49 letters into Latin. The letters are addressed, in some cases, to high-ranking personalities (e.g. Emperor Theodosius II; Cyril of Alexa…

Augustine

(4,295 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
( Aurelius Augustinus) A. Historical dimension A. (AD 354–430), Augustine, was Bishop of Hippo from AD 395/96 to 430 (Annaba in present-day Algeria), and is regarded as the most influential early Christian thinker of the Latin West. Born at Thagaste (North Africa, then a Roman province), son of a Christian mother, Mon(n)ica, and a pagan father Patricius, he embodied the transitional phase of Late Antiquity, in which Christianity was becoming increasingly established as the Roman Empire underwent a slow political disintegration. In his spiritual autobiography, the  Confessiones ( c…
Date: 2016-02-22

Venantius Fortunatus

(182 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[English Version] (um 530 Treviso, Oberitalien – vor 610 Poitiers), christl.-lat. Dichter. V. studierte in Ravenna und unternahm 565 zum Dank für die Befreiung von einem Augenleiden eine Wallfahrt zum Grab des hl. Martin von Tours; 567 kam er nach Poitiers, wo er um 600 Bischof wurde. V. vf. Gelegenheitsgedichte in klassischem Stil für reiche und hochgestellte Gönner, z.B. für die thüringische Prinzessin Radegunde. Ferner schrieb er u.a. die epische Dichtung »Vita Martini«, Heiligenleben in Prosa …

Poesie

(9,205 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Bekkum, Wout J. van | Brucker, Ralph | Rösler, Wolfgang | Pollmann, Karla | Et al.
[English Version] I. Bibel und antikes Judentum 1.Altes Testament a) AllgemeinP. (griech. ποι´ησις/poi´ēsis) bez. in den bibl. Wiss., im Unterschied zur Prosa, i. allg. Texte in vers-, rhythmus- und klanggebundener Sprache, deren Struktur und Stil von sprachlichen (Klangformen; Reime; Satzfolgen u.a.) wie auch außersprachlichen Faktoren (Musik; Umfang; Gleichbau; Szenerie u.a. Modifikationen, sog. constraints) bestimmt sind. Althebr. Begriffe sind nicht überliefert, obwohl die P. einen beträchtlichen An…

Sedulius

(81 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[English Version] (5.Jh.), weltl. gebildeter Christ, dessen »Paschale carmen« (Ostergedicht) zum rechten Glauben führen will. Es wurde, zus. mit zwei Hymnen des S., von Remigius von Auxerre kommentiert. Später vf. S. auch eine verbessernde Prosaversion, ebenfalls in fünf Büchern, das »Paschale opus« (Osterwerk). Die beiden Fassungen wurden Vorbild für das ma. »opus geminatum«. Karla Pollmann Bibliography CPL 1447–1449 Ausg.: J. Huemer (CSEL 10, 1885) Über S.: M. Mazzega, Carmen paschale, Buch III, 1996 (Text, Komm.).

Prudentius Clemens

(159 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[English Version] Prudentius Clemens, Aurelius (348/349 Spanien – nach 405), wird gerne als christl. Vergil und Horaz bez., da er als einer der ersten klassische Versmaße zur Artikulation z.T. sehr komplexer christl. Theol. benutzte, was ihn zum wohl größten und innovativsten spätantiken christl. Dichter macht. Sein Werk umfaßt die lyrischen Zyklen »Cathemerinon Liber« (»Buch der Tagelieder«) und »Peristephanon Liber« (»Buch über die Märtyrerkronen«), die beiden hexametrischen Lehrdichtungen »Apothe…

Sidonius Apollinaris

(140 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[English Version] Sidonius Apollinaris, Gaius Sollius Modestus (430/31 Lyon – 480/490 Clermont-Ferrand), Bf. in Clermont-Ferrand. Der Schwiegersohn des Kaisers Avitus gilt als der bedeutendste lat. Dichter und Prosaschriftsteller seiner Zeit in Gallien. Entgegen der zunehmenden Germanisierung seiner Umwelt gestaltete er seine Werke, die im MA sehr beliebt waren, nach klassisch-lat., auch paganen, Vorbildern. Seine drei Verspanegyriken (carmina 1–8) auf die Kaiser Avitus, Majorian und Anthemius folgen …
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