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Arintheus

(138 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Flavius Arintheus, possibly a Goth, was a high-ranking soldier of the Christian faith. He distinguished himself in AD 355 as vice-commander of a Palatine schola in the Alemanni War of Constantius II (Amm. Marc. 15,4,10). In the Persian War of 363 he led the left wing of the cavalry as comes rei militaris (Amm. Marc. 24,1,2). After the death of Julian he supported the election of a Christian emperor (Amm. Marc. 25,5,2). He spoke for the election of Valentinian I (Philostorg. Hist. eccl. 8,8). As magister peditum praesentalis (366-378) he played a significant role in …

Romanus

(117 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Comes Africae from AD 364 to 373; he was supposed to protect the city of Leptis Magna from attacks by the Austoriani (Amm. Marc. 28,6,1-6). His administration led to frequent complaints from the population, but R. was supported at court by his relative, the magister officiorum Remigius (Amm. Marc. 27,9,1 f.). In 372 the Moor Firmus [3] was driven to usurpation  by R.' behaviour. Shortly afterwards R., having lost his position, was impeached (cf. Zos. 4,16,3), but with the help of Flavius Merobaudes [1] he w…

Valentinianus

(2,009 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Flavius Valentinianus I Roman emperor 364-375. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] I. Origins and rise V. was born in Cibalae in Pannonia in AD 321 (Zos. 3,36,2; Amm. Marc. 30,6,6) as the son of the comes rei militaris Gratianus [1]. In 357, he was tribunus in Gaul (Amm. Marc. 16,11,6 f.); beginning in 360/1, he held high military office in Mesopotamia; in 362, he was comes et tribunus cornutorum there (Philostorgius, Historia ecclesiae 7,7). According to some Christian traditions, Iulianus [11] exiled him to Egyptian Thebes [1] in 362…

Honoratus

(167 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Official under Constantinus [2] II. Consularis Syriae, comes Orientis, praefectus praetorio Galliarum Official under Constantius [2] II. consularis Syriae (before AD 353; Lib. Ep. 251), comes Orientis (353-354; Amm. Marc. 14,1,3; 7,2; Lib. Ep. 386), praefectus praetorio Galliarum (355/357; Lib. Ep. 386 Foerster). From 359 to 361 he was the first praefectus urbis Constantinopolitanae (Chron. min. 1,239 Mommsen) and in this office he passed judgement on the heresy of Aetius (Sozom. Hist. eccl. 4,23,3). PLRE 1, 438f. (H. 2). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) …

Mavia

(101 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Arabic princess who undertook raids in Palestine and Phoenicia c. AD 372. In 378 she made peace with Valens and requested the hermit Moses as bishop for her people (Socr. 4,36,1-12; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 6,38,1-9; Theod. Hist. eccl. 4,23). After the battle of Hadrianopolis [3] she supported the Romans with troops (Amm. Marc. 31,16,5; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 7,1,1). She married her daughter to the magister equitum Victor (Socr. 4,36,12). According to Theophanes (annus mundi 5869 = 1,64,12 deBoor) she was a Roman by birth who had been captured by the Saracens. PLRE 1, 569. Portmann,…

Iovianus

(269 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Flavius I. (Jovian), Roman emperor AD 363-364, born in Singidunum in 331, the son of the Comes Domesticorum Varronianus. His father-in-law was the Magister Militum Lucillianus, his wife was possibly called Charito (cf. Zon. 13,14). He served as Protector Domesticus under Constantius [2] II (Amm. Marc. 21,16,20), and under Julian [11] as Primicerius Domesticorum (Amm. Marc. 25,5,4). The day after Julian's death in battle against the Persians, I. was proclaimed emperor on 27 June 363, while still on Persian territory. He ended the P…

Fortunatianus

(74 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] In AD 370-377 comes rerum privatarum in the East (Cod. Theod. 7,13,2; 10,16,3 and passim). In 371 he had subordinates who were accused of magic tortured (Amm. Marc. 29,1,5-7; Zos. 4,14,1). He may be identical with the pagan poet, rhetor, and philosopher of the same name (cf. Lib. Ep. 694,9; 1157; 1425), a correspondent of Libanius (Ep. 565; 644; 650 et passim). PLRE 1, 369 (F. 1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin)

Miccalus

(47 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] (Μίκκαλος; Míkkalos). Antiochene, brother of the provincial governors Evagrius and Olympius. He was himself administrator of Thrace in AD 362. Libanius describes his dispute with his brother Olympius (Lib. Or. 63,30-35; cf. also Lib. Epist. 97-99, 149). PLRE 1, 602. Portmann, Werner (Berlin)

Clematius

(214 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] From Alexandria, consularis Palaestinae c. 352/3 AD C. of Alexandria was the consularis Palaestinae (Lib. Ep. 693) in c. AD 352/3. In the winter of 353/4 he became the victim of an intrigue in Antioch [1] and was executed without trial (Amm. Marc. 14,1,3). PLRE 1,213 (Clematius 1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Consularis Palaestinae 357-358 AD C. held a high office in Antioch [1] at the time of the caesar Gallus ( Constantius [5]), probably as an agens in rebus (Lib. Ep. 405, 435); in AD 357-358 consularis Palaestinae (Lib. Ep. 317). He was in clo…

Ursicinus

(128 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] High-ranking military officer under Constantius [2] II. He was magister equitum in the East from AD 349-359. On orders from Constantius [5] Gallus, he conducted trials for high treason in Antioch [1] in 354 (Amm. Marc. 14,9,1 and 3) and in 355 deposed the usurper Silvanus [3] in Gaul (Amm. Marc. 15,5,18-31). From 357 on the Persian front again, he lost his command owing to court intrigues (Amm. Marc. 18,5,4), but in 359/60 was again appointed magister peditum (Amm. Marc. 18,6) and relieved of his position once more because the loss of Amida (in 360) was im…

Artemius

(134 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Last Vicarius urbi Romae in 359 AD Was the last vic. urbi Romae, deputy praef. urbi Romae in the year AD 359 (Amm. Marc. 17.11.5; after 25 August: CIL VI 32004). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Flavius A. Dux Aegypti 360 AD Was an officer of the Arian religion under Constantine II. As dux Aegypti, he proceeded against the pagan cults in AD 360. In 362, he was condemned and sentenced to death by Julian due to his complicity in the murder of Gallus (Amm. Marc. 22,11,2ff.; Theod. Hist. eccl. 3,18,1). He was later honour…

Decentius

(188 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Magnus D. Caesar 350-353 AD Caesar during AD 350-353. A relative (possibly brother) of the usurper Magnus Magnentius ([Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 42,2; Zon. 13,8,2) who made him Caesar in Milan at the end of 350 when the German tribes, encouraged by Constantius [2] II, had invaded Gaul. Commanding an insufficient force, he suffered a defeat against the Alamannic king Chnodomar (Julian Or. 1,35A; Amm. Marc. 16,12,4f.). When he heard of Magnentius' death, he committed suicide in Sens on 18 August 353 (Eutr. 10…

Dagalaifus

(63 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Was appointed comes domesticorum by Julian in AD 361 (Amm. Marc. 21,8,1) and magister equitum by Jovian; in 364 he was influential in the elections of Jovian and Valentinian I (Amm. Marc. 25,5,2; Philostorgius 8,8). In 364-366 as magister peditum( equitum?) he fought against the Alemanni (Amm. Marc. 26,5,9), in 366 he was consul. PLRE 1, 239. Portmann, Werner (Berlin)

Andragathius

(68 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] From AD 383-388 A. was mag. equitum of the usurper Maximus. He murdered the emperor Gratian in 383 (Ambr. Commentarius in psalmis 61,23-25; Zos. 4,35,6). In 388 he prepared the defence of Maximus against Theodosius I and placed himself at the head of the fleet in the Adriatic. After Theodosius' victory he plunged himself into the sea (Oros. 7,35; Zos. 4,46 f.). Portmann, Werner (Berlin)

Datianus

(127 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Friend of Libanius (Lib. Ep. 409; 441 and passim). Initially, he was notarius (Lib. Or. 42,24f.), served under Constantine [1] the Great, was later an adviser of Constantius II (Lib. Ep. 114; 490). He became patricius and in AD 358 consul. As comes, in 346, he attempted to persuade Athanasius to return to Alexandria (Athan. Hist. Ar. 22). In 351, he was on the committee which had to decide on Photinus' heresy (Epiphany, adv. haer. 71). In 364, he was part of emperor Jovian's entourage (Philostorgius Hist. eccl. 8,8). He r…

Ursulus

(91 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Comes sacrarum largitionum 355-361, an important aide to the emperor Julianus [11] in his financial distress (Amm. 22,3,7). With Constantius [2] II he visited the ruins of  Amida in 360 AD and levelled criticism at the soldiers' lack of courage (Amm. 20,11,5). Perhaps because of that he was condemned to death by military officers in the court of Chalcedon which Julianus had commissioned after the death of Constantius. Julianus later distanced himself from the verdict (Amm. 22,3,8;  cf.  Lib. Or. 18,152; PLRE 1,988 no. 1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin)

Marcellianus

(73 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Son of the praefectus praetorio Galliarum Maximinus [3], through whose influence he was appointed dux Valeriae c. AD 373. He promoted the construction of a fortification ordered by Valentinianus I on the territory of the Quadi. He had their king Gabinius [II 5] treacherously murdered in 374 AD (Amm. Marc. 29,6,3-5; in Zos. 4,16,4 he is called Celestius). PLRE 1, 543f. no. 2 and 190 (Celestius). Portmann, Werner (Berlin)

Bauto

(132 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Flavius B. was a Frank (Zos. 4,33,2) and a professed pagan (Ambr. Epist. 57). Under  Gratianus, he rose to the position of mag. mil. in c. AD 380 (Zos. 4,33,1) and aided  Theodosius I against the Goths. In 383, he became mag. peditum praesentalis and the authoritative advisor at the court of  Valentinianus II (Ambr. Epist. 24,4,8; 18,1,57). Although he was  Ambrosius' adversary in the dispute about the altar of Victory in 384, he seems to have aligned himself in the end with the bishop's arguments (Ambr. Epist. 17,18 and …

Eusebia

(141 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Wife of Constantius II from Thessalonica; perhaps the daughter of Eusebius [1]. From about AD 352 she was the second wife of Constantius II (Julian Or. 3,109a-b, 110d). She was held to be unusually beautiful (Amm. Marc. 18,3,2), and is supposed to have exercised a strong influence on the emperor (cf. Amm. Marc. 21,16,16), to such an extent as to arouse the suspicion of her contemporaries ([Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 42,20). On her advice Julian, of whom she was very fond (cf. Julian O…

Hortarius

(61 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] King of the Alamanni, who, together with other Alamannic kings, was defeated by Julian's army at Strasbourg in AD 357 (Amm. Marc. 16,12,1). He surrendered in 358 (Amm. Marc. 17,10,5-9) and strove after a peaceful agreement both with the Romans and with the neighbouring Germanic tribes (Amm. Marc. 18,2,2; 13f.). PLRE 1, 444 (H.1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin)

Bacurius

(124 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Prince (according to Rufin. Hist. 1,10: King) of the Iberi to the north of Armenia. He entered into office in the service of the Romans as a protector possibly as early as 378-369 and fought as the tribunus of one of the two scholae palatinae at Adrianopolis (Amm. Marc. 31,12,16). B. became dux Palaestinae and later (around 391/2) comes domesticorum to  Theodosius I. He took part in the battle on the Frigidus (as magister utriusque militiae? Rufin. Hist. 2,33; according to Zos. 4,57,3; 58,3, he fell in the battle). B. was a Christian (Rufin. Hist. 1,10)…

Viventius

(84 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] From Siscia, as quaestor sacri palatii ( Quaestor III.), in AD 364 he helped supporters of Iulianus [11] who were accused of practicing magic (Amm. Marc. 26,4,4). Between 365 and 367 as praefectus urbis Romae, he tried, in vain, to end the unrest occasioned by the election of a bishop disputed between Damasus and Ursinus (Amm. Marc. 27,3,11 f.). 368-371 he was praefectus praetorio Galliarum. Numerous laws are in his name (e.g Cod. Theod. 7,13,5; 13,10,4). PLRE 1,972. Portmann, Werner (Berlin)

Agilo

(161 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version]  Alemannic (Amm. Marc. 14,10,8), tribunus stabuli AD 354 (Amm. Marc. loc. cit). His extraordinary promotion from tribunus of a schola palatina in 360 to magister peditum praesentalis (Amm. Marc. 14,10,8; 20,2,5) was due to the high regard in which he was held by Constantius II. After he was deployed in 360/361 on the Tigris against the Persians, he accompanied Constantius on the march against the emperor  Julianus in 361. After Constantius' death, A. made himself available to Julian. He was one of the memb…

Ecdicius

(201 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
(Ĕκδίκιος; Ekdíkios) [German version] [2] Son of the Emperor Avitus, 5th cent. AD Arvernian from a senator's family, son of the emperor  Avitus [1], brother-in-law of Sidonius Apollinaris, received an excellent education (in Clermont). Around AD 469, he was probably at the court of  Anthemius [2]; probably in 471 he organized the defence of Clermont against the Visigoths using his own means. During a famine in Burgundy in 473, he supplied the (suffering) population with food. In 474, Iulius Nepos awarded the patricius title to him for his achievements and probably made him a magister utr…

Anastasia

(140 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Half-sister of Constantine the Great Half-sister of Constantine the Great and wife of  Bassianus. She must have still been alive during the founding of Constantinople; the Thermae Anastasianae are named after her (Amm. Marc. 26,6,14). From time to time, her name, which refers to belief in the Resurrection, was regarded as circumstantial evidence of the fundamentally Christian convictions of her father  Constantius (PLRE 1, 58, A.1). Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) [German version] [2] Daughter of the emperor Valens Daughter of the emperor Valens. She and…

Korynephoroi

(157 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
(κορυνηφόροι; korynēphóroi, ‘mace-bearers’). [German version] [1] Bodyguards of Peistratus Bodyguards who were to protect Peisistratus against an alleged threat from his opponents. They were granted to him by the Athenian people. He used them to occupy the acropolis (Hdt. 1,59). Solon supposedly recognized this striving for tyranny and he was the only one to declare himself against the bodyguards ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 14,2; Plut. Solon 30). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] Bodyguards of the tyrant of Sicyon According to a later tradition, bodyguards of the…

Eutropius

(731 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Author of a Lat. historical work Author of a Latin historical work, which according to its dedication was written at the instruction of Emperor Valens. The text indicates that the author had taken part in Julian's Persian campaign (10,16,1). In the intitulatio of a MS, he is referred to as a magister memoriae. It is still questionable whether he is identical with another Eutropius of the 2nd half of the 4th cent., whose name appears in other sources: possibly he was proconsul Asiae in 371/2, praef. praet. Illyrici in 380-1, and consul posterior in 387. The historical …

Arborius

(309 words)

Author(s): Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Aemilius Magnus, professor of rhetoric and lawyer in Tolosa Aemilius Magnus, son of Caecilius Argicius Arborius and Aemilia Corinthia Maura, and maternal uncle of the poet D. Magnus  Ausonius, whose education and career he influenced substantially (Auson. 162, p. 30 f.; 206, p. 63 f.). He worked as a respected professor of rhetoric and advocate in Tolosa and its neighbouring provinces, and, through this, must have become friends with the half-brothers of Constantine I. It is disputed whether he also held the office of praeses of Gallia Narbonensis (but cf. …

Gaiso

(110 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] AD 350 possibly magister militum of the usurper Magnentius In AD 350, possibly as magister militum of the usurper Magnentius, he pursued the fleeing emperor Constans, and killed him during his arrest in the Pyrenean town of Helena ([Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 41,23; Zos. 2,42,5). In 351, he was consul together with Magnentius (Chron. min. 1, 69 Mommsen). PLRE 1, 380. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Official under Honorius AD 409 Comes sacrarum largitionum under Honorius probably in AD 409, and comes et magister officiorum in 410 (Cod. lust. 4,61,12…

Titianus

(300 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela (Vienna) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Iulius T. Tutor of princes, teacher of rhetoric, late 2nd cent. Active probably in the late 2nd cent. AD as a tutor of princes and later in Vesontio (modern Besançon) and Lugdunum (modern Lyon) as a teacher of rhetoric, T. was the author of numerous (non-surviving) works. He was famous for his prose ' Letters of Famous Women' written on the model of Ovidius' Heroides (on the choice of the letters of Cicero as a stylistic model: Sid. Apoll. Epist. 1,1,2). Furthermore, there is evidence of a collection of themata from Vergil for teaching rhetoric, a prose paraphrase …

Limenius

(167 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Choral lyric poet from Athens, 2nd cent. BC (Λιμήνιος; Limḗnios) from Athens. Choral lyric poet, composer of a paean to Apollo (127 BC), which is preserved in an inscription on the treasury of the Athenians at Delphi. Besides the text itself, the notes of the tune for the kithara accompaniment are also provided: Paeonic-Cretan rhythm, the word accent taken up by the melody, highest variability in the use of keys. Metre; Athenaeus [7] Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography E. Pöhlmann, Denkmäler altgriech. Musik, 1970, 68-76 M. L. West, Ancient Greek Music, 1992, 293-301 L. …

Bonosus

(199 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Appointed emperor in AD 280 Appointed emperor in Cologne, together with Proculus, in AD 280, soon thereafter defeated by  Probus (Eutr. 9,17,1; Aur. Vict. Caes. 37,3; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 37,2). His vita in the  Historia Augusta (Probus), is largely fictitious; no genuine coins of his are known. PIR2 B 146; PLRE 1, 163 no.1. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [2] Consul in AD 344 Flavius B. was consul in AD 344 but was acknowledged only in the West and even there he is attested only until April/May. According to [1], however, he …

Dracontius

(636 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] [1] Christian, murdered in 361 AD by the heathen mob Praepositus monetae in Alexandria. On 24 December AD 361 he was murdered as a Christian by the heathen mob because he had knocked over an altar (Amm. Marc. 22,11,9f.; Historia acephala 8). PLRE 1, 271 D. (1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Antonius D. Vicarius Africae 364-367 AD Attested only epigraphically (ILS 758; 763 et al.) and as a recipient of laws (Cod. Theod. 11,7,9; 11,30,33), vicarius Africae from AD 364 to 367 PLRE 1, 271f. D (3). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [3] Blossius Aemiliu…

Alypius

(331 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
(Ἀλύπιος; Alýpios). [German version] [1] Vicarius of Britain under Iulianus Possibly from Cilicia, absolved a study programme in Antiochia (Lib. Ep. 324). Under emperor  Julian he administered Britain as vicarius (Lib. loc.cit; n. 23,1,2). AD 363 Julian passed on the rebuilding of the temple of Jerusalem to the educated pagan (cf. Julian Ep. 29 and 30), this failed in the end (Philostorgius Hist. eccl. 7,9; Rufin. hist. 10,38; note 23,1,2). 371 A. was embroiled in a lawsuit concerning murder by poison and was exiled (n. 29,1,44). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Faltoniu…

Constantianus

(133 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Brother-in-law of Valentinian I, died c. 370 AD Brother-in-law of  Valentinian I. He led the fleet of the Euphrates in 363 in Julian’s Persian campaign (Amm. Marc. 23,3,9; Zos. 3,13,3). In 370 when tribunus stabuli in Valentinian’s Gaulish campaigns he was killed in an ambush (Amm. Marc. 28,2,10). PLRE 1,221. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Byzantine general under Justinian I Comes sacri stabuli (‘supervisor of the imperial stables’), Byzantine general in the war of  Justinian I against the Goths; from 536 in Dalmatia; after…

Nemesianus

(583 words)

Author(s): Küppers, Jochem (Düsseldorf) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] M. Aurelius N. Author of bucolic writings, before AD 284? As the name Carthagin(i)ensis appended in some MSS indicates, N. came from Africa. He wrote four bucolic poems ( Bucolica, Buc.) and a didactic poem about hunting ( Cynegetica, Cyn.), of which verses 1-325 are extant. The dedication of the Cyn. to the emperors Carinus and Numerianus [2] enables dating to shortly before AD 284. Whether N. also wrote Halieutica and Nautica, as maintained by SHA Car. 11,2, is doubtful, as is the authenticity of two fragments of a didactic poem on catching birds ( De aucipio) [11. 313f…

Aradius Rufinus

(196 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Praef. urbi 304-5, 312-13 AD Q. (?). Member of the African family of the Aradii Rufini, which had arisen to Senate membership early in the 3rd cent. AD. Presumably praef. urbi. already from 4.1.304 - 12.2.305 A. R. held this office again under Maxentius (9.2. - 27.10.312), after he had been consul together with  Ceionius in the last months of 311. After the victory of Constantine over Maxentius, A. was again praefectus urbi from 29.11.312 to 8.12.313. His proving himself under the various emperors was praised by Avianius Symmachus (Symmachus, Ep. 1; 2; 3). Bleckmann, Br…

Equitius

(272 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
Relatively rare Roman family name (for derivation: Varro, Rust. 2,1,10). [German version] [1] E., L. Represented himself as son of Ti. Sempronius Gracchus Adventurer of uncertain origins, who in 102 BC represented himself as the son of the people's tribune Ti.  Sempronius Gracchus, killed in 133. He was acknowledged neither by the censor, Q. Caecilius [I 30] Metellus Numidicus, nor by the sister of Gracchus. As a follower of L. Ap(p)uleius [I 11] Saturninus, in 100 he stood for the post of people's tribune for 99, but was himself killed during the unrest that led to the death of Appuleius. E…

Eutychianus

(141 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Rom. officer from Cappadocia, eyewitness of the Persian campaign of AD 363 According to Malalas (p. 332,9ff.) a Roman officer from Cappadocia, who recorded his eyewitness account of Julian's Persian campaign of AD 363 in an annalistic history (FHG 4,6). Both the character and his work may well be fictitious (cf. FGrH II B 226, p. 638f.). PLRE 1, 319 E. (39). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Praef. praet. AD 396/7 Praef. praet. ( Illyrici?) in AD 396/7.; praef. praet. Orientis between 397 and 399; II in 404/5; cos. in 398. His identification with Typhu…

Florentius

(359 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Flavius F. Praefectus praetorio Galliarum AD 357-360 Was praefectus praetorio Galliarum from AD 357 to 360. At his instigation, Constantius [2] II had his auxiliary troops withdrawn from Gaul, which resulted in Julian's elevation (Julian. Ep. 282c; Amm. Marc. 20,4,2). In 360 Constantius appointed him praefectus praetorio Illyrici and in 361 honoured him with the consulate (Amm. Marc. 21,6,5). After Julian's victory he was sentenced to death in absentia by the Commission of Calchedon (Amm. Marc. 22,3,6). He is probably identical to the homonymous comes of Const…

Aedesius

(208 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Neoplatonist from Cappadocia Neoplatonist from Cappadocia († before AD 355), pupil of  Iamblichus. Only source: Eunapius, Vitae philosophorum et sophistarum. After the death of Iamblichus, he apparently took over Iamblichus' pupils and then retired back to Cappadocia, and finally ended up teaching in Pergamum together with the philosopher Sosipatra. As he considered himself too old, after a short time he transferred the responsibility of the philosophical education of Julian, the future emperor, …

Lucillianus

(230 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Father-in-law and military commander of the emperor Iovianus, 4th cent. AD Father-in-law of the emperor Iovianus (Amm. Marc. 25,8,9). In AD 350 L., probably as comes rei militaris, was successful against the Persians in the third siege of Nisibis (Zos. 2,45,2; 3,8,2). In 354 he was comes domesticorum of Constantius [5] Gallus (Amm. Marc. 14,11,14). In 361, as magister equitum, he unsuccessfully fought back Iulianus' advance [11] to Constantinople in Illyria (Amm. Marc. 21,9,5-10). Iovianus elevated him to the rank of magister equitum et peditum in 363 (Amm. Ma…

Gabinius

(906 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
Roman family name, probably related to Gabii (Schulze 532f.), widespread in Latium, and documented from the 3rd cent. BC; during the 2nd cent. BC, the family gained senatorial rank. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] G., A. People's tribune 139 BC Allegedly the grandson of a slave (Liv. Per. Oxyrhynch. 54; cf. Cic. Leg. 3,35), in 146 BC envoy to the Achaeans; as people's tribune he introduced the secret ballot with voting tablets ( tabellae) for the election of officials in 139 (1. lex tabellaria, Cic. loc. cit.; Lael. 41). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography M. Jehne, Ge…

Traianus

(1,946 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Trajan, Roman Emperor, AD 98-117 Roman emperor, AD 98-117. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] I. Career up to accession T. was probably born in 53, the son of the consular (of the same name), M. Ulpius [12] Traianus, and probably a certain Marcia, perhaps a daughter of Marcius [II 3] Barea. The family came from Italica in Hispania Baetica. Little is known of T.' senatorial career. He served as a tribunus [4] militum under his father in Syria (but certainly not for ten stipendia ('campaigns'), as alleged in Plin. Pan. 15,3). After his praetorship (before 84…

Sabinianus

(321 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Proclaimed emperor in AD 240 by the Carthaginians Was proclaimed emperor in AD 240 by the inhabitants of Carthage, but was shortly after defeated by the governor of Mauretania and delivered to Gordianus [3] III by his own followers (Zos. 1,17,1; SHA Gord. 23,4). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 1, 197. [German version] [2] see Vettius Sabinianus See Vettius Sabinianus. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [3] Magister equitum per Orientem, 359-360 AD At a great age m agister equitum per Orientem in AD 359-360 under Constantius [2] II. Ac…

Eucherius

(333 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] Uncle of emperor Theodosius I Flavius E. was an uncle of emperor Theodosius I (Them. Or. 16,203d). He is possibly identical with the comes sacrarum largitionum of AD 377-379 (Cod. Theod. 1,32,3; 10,20,9). In 381 he was consul (Them. ibid.). He was still alive in 395 (Zos. 5,2,3). PLRE 1, 288 E. (2). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Son of Stilicho, about AD 390 Flavius E., the son of  Stilicho and Serena, born AD 389 in Rome. He first lived in Constantinople, then at the court of  Honorius, where he became tribunus et notarius. In 400 he became engaged wi…

Pherenicus

(207 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
(Φερένικος; Pherénikos). [German version] [1] Theban politician Theban, son of Cephisodotus, who had taken in Athenians who had fled from the Thirty Tyrants ( Triákonta ) into Thebes (Lys. fr. 78). After the occupation of the Cadmeia in 382 BC P., a follower of Ismenias' [1] faction, had to escape to Athens (Plut. Pelopidas 5,3). During the emigrant's attack on Thebes in December 379 P. waited with his people in the Thriasian Plain until a group led by Pelopidas had eliminated the polemarchs in Thebes (Plut. Pelopidas 8,1; see also Plut. Mor. 576c; 577a). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography R.…

Galla

(598 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] First wife of Julius Constantinus [4] 1st half 4th cent. AD First wife of Julius Constantius [4], a son of emperor Constantius [5] I. She was mother of Constantius Gallus, Caesar from AD 351-354 (Amm. Marc. 14,11,27). PLRE 1, 382 (G. 1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Youngest daughter of Valentinianus I Youngest daughter of  Valentinianus I, sister of Valentinianus II. In AD 387 she fled, together with him and her mother Iustina, from the usurper Maximus to Constantinople, where she married Theodosius I (their da…

Bassianus

(184 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Originally the cognomen of  Caracalla Originally the cognomen of  Caracalla. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [2] Originally the cognomen of the future emperor M. Aurelius  Severus Alexander Originally the cognomen of the future emperor M. Aurelius  Severus Alexander. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [3] Caesar for Italy around 316 AD Married to  Anastasia [1], named Caesar for Italy by  Constantinus the Great shortly before the war against Licinus (AD 316), but was then spurred on by his brother Senecio to…

Flavianus

(513 words)

Author(s): Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Praefectus praetorio AD 222 or 223 Praefectus praetorio with (Geminius) Chrestus in AD 222 or 223. When upon the insistence of Julia Mamaea, Domitius  Ulpianus was put in charge by Severus Alexander as praetorian prefect, the guard mutinied, so Ulpianus had F. and Chrestus killed (Cass. Dio 80,2,2; Zos. 1,11,2). PIR2 F 180. Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich) [German version] [2] Virius Nicomachus F. Pagan, aristorcrat in Rome; friend of Symmachus Dominant figure of the non-Christian aristocracy in Rome in the last quarter of the 4th cent. AD. He had a clo…

Censorinus

(469 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[German version] [1] One of the 30 tyrants Character invented by the author of   Historia Augusta ; one of the so-called 30 tyrants, supposedly usurper under Claudius Gothicus, he was killed after seven days. For vita, SHA Tyr. Trig. 31,12; 32,8-33,6. PIR2 C 656. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) Bibliography K.-P. Johne, Kaiserbiographie und Senatsaristokratie, 1976, 122-28. [German version] [2] Caelius C., C. High official, 4th cent. AD High official of the time of  Constantinus the Great. He is known only from an inscription from Campania (ILS 1216), where the offi…

Anatolius

(262 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Praefectus praetorio for Illyria, AD 356-360 Lawyer from Berytus. The recipient of many letters from  Libanius. From AD 356/7 until his death (360) he was praefectus praetorio for Illyria. Prior to that he was consularis Syriae (possibly 349), vicarius Asiae (352) and procos. urbis Constantinopolitanae (354). 355 he declined appointment to the position of praefectus urbi Romae (Lib. Ep. 391). He is perhaps identical with the agrarian writer Vindonius Anatolius. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Mag. utriusque mil. praesentalis, after AD 447 AD 433…

Evagrius

(598 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
(Εὐάγριος; Euágrios) [German version] [1] Ponticus Christian writer and monastic leader Religious writer and monastic spiritual leader (AD 345-399). Born in the Pontic Ibora, he was a pupil of  Gregorius of Nazianzus; after periods spent in Constantinople (ordination to deacon) and Jerusalem, he stayed in the Egyptian anchorite community of Kellia (Nitrian desert) from 383 as a much sought-after spiritual advisor. Posthumously condemned as an Origenist (553 Council of Constantinople), his few extant works …

Optatus

(565 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen (“child desired by parents”), very widespread in the Imperial period; equally commonly a slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 75; 77; 296 2 H. Solin, Die stadtrömische Sklavennamen, vol. 1, 1994, 110-111. [German version] [2] Flavius O. Imperial grammar teacher, 4th cent. AD Grammar teacher of the son of the emperor Licinius [II 4]. Allegedly, because of his wife's beauty he had great influence under Constantine [1] the Great and was appointed consul b…

Caesarius

(708 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam)
[German version] [1] Official, 4th cent. AD Hailing from Cilicia, C. was educated in Antioch (Lib. Ep. 1399). He was a brother of  Alypius (Jul. Ep. 9-10). In AD 362-363, he was possibly vicarius Asiae (Lib. Ep. 764; 1384). After the death of  Iulianus, he became comes rerum privatarum (Cod. Theod. 10,1,8) and gained great influence at the court of Valens (Lib. Ep. 1449; 1456). As praef. urbis Constantinopolitanae, C. was taken prisoner by the usurper Procopius in 365 (Amm. Marc. 26,7,4; Zos. 4,6,2) and possibly executed (Them. Or.7,92c). He was the recipient of…

Sebastianus

(317 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Senior officer, 2nd half of the 4th cent. A senior officer during the 2nd half of the 4th cent. AD. From 356 to 358 as dux Aegypti he was ordered to proceed against the followers of Athanasius (Athan. Hist. Ar. 59-63; 72; cf. Lib. Ep. 318; 520). On 24 December358 he drove them from the churches (Historia acephala 2,4). From 363 to 378 he was comes rei militaris, in 363 took part in the Persian campaign of Iulianus [11] Apostata (Amm. Marc. 23,3,5), and in 368 in the operation of Valentinianus I against the Alamanni (Amm. Marc. 27,10,6). After …

Procopius

(2,667 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Προκόπιος/ Prokópios). [German version] [1] Usurper, AD 365-366 Usurper, AD 365-366 Usurper in AD 365-366. He was born in 326 in Corycus (Them. Or. 7,86c; cf. Amm. Marc. 26,9,11) and was a relative of the emperor Iulianus [11] (Amm. Marc. 23,3,2). In 358 he was a delegate to Persia with the rank of a tribunus (Amm. Marc. 17,14,3), later he held a high position at the schola notariorum (Amm. Marc. 26,6,1). During Julian’s Persian campaign, he commanded a division as a comes (Amm. Marc. 23,3,5). After Julian's death (363) he retired to private life (Zos.…

Musonius

(364 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] [1] C. M. Rufus Stoic philosopher, c. AD 30-100 Stoic philosopher, who influenced Epictetus [2]. Born into the equestrian class in Etruria before AD 30. He taught in Greek. Exiled by Nero for his links to Stoic senators, he was recalled after Nero's death, but exiled and recalled again under the Flavians. By his death (c. AD 100), he had become a symbol of the philosophical life. He wrote nothing, but accounts of his lectures were published after his death, probably by Lucius [2]; Twenty-one extracts of these are preserved by Stobaeus and one on papyrus. His works focuses on…

Ablabius

(329 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Schwarcz, Andreas (Vienna)
(Ἀβλάβιος; Ablábios). [German version] [1] Flavius A., 4th cent. AD Flavius A. was one of the most influential officials under  Constantinus the Great. He came from Crete (Lib. Or. 42,23); the child of poor non-Christians (Eun. Vit. Soph. 6,3,1-7); later converted to Christianity (Athan. Epist. Fest. 5). In AD 324/326 he was vicarius of Asia (CIL III 352), 329-337 praef. praet. Orientis, 331 cos. ord. It is said to have been on his instigation that the pagan philosopher  Sopater was executed by Constantine (Eun. Vit. Soph. 6,2,12; 3,7,13; Zos. 2,40,3). He was possibly still in office as pra…

Firmus

(304 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Senator in the time of Vespasian Senator attested in a fragmentary inscription from Arretium, CIL XI 1834 = ILS 1000. According to [1] based on AE 1967, 355, the name should be C. Petillius Q. f. Pom. Firmus. As tribunus of legio IV Flavia he took part in a campaign and then received dona militaria. He was quaestor Vespasiani and was honoured by the Senate with ornamenta praetoria. Perhaps a son of  Petillius Cerialis [2. 81ff.]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 Bosworth, in: ZPE 39, 1980, 267ff. 2 T. Franke, Die Legionslegaten der röm. Armee ..., 1991. PIR2 F 159. …

Ceionius

(1,308 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] C. Commodus, L. Cos. ord. 78 AD A native of Etruria; senator from the time of Nero; cos. ord. 78; governor of Syria from AD 78/79; married to Appia Severa (PIR2 C 603) [1. I 308; 2. 45 A. 22]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. Commodus, L. Cos. ord. 106 AD Son of [1]. Cos. ord. AD 106 (PIR2 C 604). Married to one Plautia, their son being C. [3]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] C. Commodus, L. = Aelius Caesar, L. Cos. ord. 136 AD Son of [2]. His maternal half-brother was M. Vettulenus Civica Barbarus [3. 845]. Born on 13 January in about AD 1…

Saturninus

(490 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1-2] See Ap(p)uleius [I 10-11]. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) [German version] [3] Emperor for a short time, 3rd cent. Was elevated to emperor by the army at the time of Gallienus, but killed by the soldiers a short time afterwards because of his severity (SHA Tyr. Trig. 23; cf. SHA Firmus 11,1; SHA Gall. 9,1). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 2, 230  PLRE 1, 805 no. 1. [German version] [4] Imperator Caesar C. Iulius S. Augustus of Moorish extraction, followed a military career (Zos. 1,66,1; SHA Quatt. tyr. 9,5; Zon. 12,29), until Aurelianus [3] appointed him dux l…

Festus

(1,041 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Eigler, Ulrich (Zürich) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] [1] see Marcius Festus see  Marcius Festus Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Iulius F. Hymetius Rom. official, proconsul Africae AD 366-368 served around AD 350 as corrector Tusciae et Umbriae, later as praetor urbanus and consularis Campaniae cum Samnio (before 355). In 362, he became vicarius urbis Romae (Cod. Theod. 11,30,29), and from 366 to 368 proconsul Africae (Cod. Theod. 9,19,3; his entire career: ILS 1256). As proconsul, he helped to alleviate a famine in Carthage, and in this context was sentenced to a fine as a result of b…

Olympiodorus

(850 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Brisson, Luc (Paris)
(Ὀλυμπιόδωρος; Olympiódōros). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (end of the 4th cent. BC) Athenian, managed between 307 and 301 BC to induce Aetolia to enter into an alliance against Cassander and to relieve Elatea (Paus. 1,26,3; 10,18,7; 34,3). Although Demetrius [2] Poliorketes twice illegally appointed him (in 294/3 and 293/2) as eponymous árchōn (Dion. Hal. De Dinarcho 9; IG II2 378 = [1. D 70]; IG II2 389 and SEG 21,354; IG II2 649 = [2. 7f.]; Agora 16, 167; [3. 124 No. 9]; cf. in general Plut. Demetrius 34), O., when Athens seceded from Demetrius in 2…

Thalassius

(456 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Θαλάσσιος; Thalássios). [German version] [1] Follower of Constantius [2] II, 4th cent. AD (Thalassius). Praefectus praetorio Orientis 351-353, from a family of curiales [2] of the East. Little is known about his career, but T. was obviously a loyal follower of Constantius [2] II: in 345, he acted as the emperor's comes in Aquileia; in 351, he held a high office at his court in Cibalae (Zos. 2,48,5); still in the same year, T. - probably a Christian - entered into the office of praetorian prefect of the East (Artemii Passio…

Taurus

(850 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Southern Anatolian coastal mountain range Southern Anatolian coastal mountain range, today the Toros Dağları; it extends from Caria and Lycia in the west (Western T. with the Bey Dağları, 3086 m), through Cilicia (Middle T. with the Kalı Dağ, 3734 m), from where the Amanus branches off to the south-east and the Anti-T. to the north, while the main range stretches north-east to the Ararat highlands (Inner and Central Eastern T. with Ararat, 5165 m), beyond which a further Anti-T. (Ou…

Cerialis

(149 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Bloch, René (Berne)
Roman cognomen (also Caerialis, Caerealis) of Latin origin, derived from the adjectival Cerealis (‘belonging to Ceres’); current from the Julian-Claudian era onwards (Schulze, 486f.; ThlL, Onom. 2,344f.).   Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [1] Brother-in-law of Valentinianus I, 4th cent. AD Brother of  Iustina, the wife of  Valentinianus I (Amm. Marc. 28,2,10). Tribunus stabuli (Amm. Marc. 30,5,19). In AD 375 he helped his nephew  Valentinianus II to the throne (Amm. Marc. 30,10,5). PLRE 1,197. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Dux Libyarum 405 AD In AD 4…

Eugenius

(682 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
(Εὐγένιος; Eugénios). [German version] [1] Flavius Eugenius Roman usurper, rhetor and emperor, about AD 400 Roman usurper in AD 392-394. He was a Christian, a teacher of grammar and rhetoric in Rome and he became magister scrinii for Valentinian II around 392 (Zos. 4,54,1). On 22 August 392 he was elevated to the position of emperor by Arbogast (Socr. 5,25; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 7,22,4). Constantly controlled by Arbogast, he first sought an agreement with Ambrosius and Theodosius I (Ambr. Epist. 57; Zos. 4,54f.; ILS 790). He was not …

Sallustius

(3,055 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
Italian nomen gentile, see also Salustius. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] S., Cn. Friend and correspondent of Cicero Close friend of Cicero, with whom he demonstrably exchanged letters between 67 and 45 BC (Cic. Att. 11,11,2; Cic. Fam. 14,11). In 58, he accompanied Cicero on the first leg of his journey into exile, in 47, he lent him money, and they were together pardoned by Caesar (Cic. Fam. 14,4,6; Cic. Div. 1,59). S. read the draft of Cicero's De re publica and urged him - in vain - to state his views clearly and unambiguously (Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 3,5,1), a request…

Hypatius

(397 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Student of Libanius, consularis Palaestinae primae 360/1 AD Student of  Libanius, from whom he received letters (Lib. Ep. 137; 157; 158). In AD 360/361 he was consularis Palaestinae primae (Lib. Ep. 156; 159). PLRE 1, 447 (H.us 1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Flavius H. Brother of empress Eusebia, consul 359 AD Brother of empress  Eusebia. Together with his brother Fl. Eusebius he was consul in AD 359 (Amm. Marc. 18,1,1). In 363 he was possibly vicarius urbis Romae (Cod. Theod. 3,5,8). He was sentenced along with his brother in a trial …

Domitianus

(2,341 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Roman emperor, born AD 51 Roman emperor; original name T. Flavius Domitianus = Imperator Caesar Domitianus Augustus. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] A. Up to the death of Titus Born on 24 Oct. AD 51 in Rome; his parents were T. Flavius  Vespasianus and Flavia Domitilla. D. spent his childhood in Rome; he did not accompany his father Vespasian to Judaea. His life was first threatened in the 2nd half of 69 during the reign of Vitellius, when D.'s father had already been proclaimed emperor, and fightin…

Maximinus

(1,433 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] [1] M. Daia Roman emperor, AD 305-313 Roman emperor, AD 305-313. The son of Galerius' [5] sister and like Galerius born in Dacia ripensis, possibly in Šarkamen (modern Serbia), he rose from protector to tribunus (Lactant. De mort. pers. 19,6); as Galerius' adoptive son he became Caesar in the change of rulers of 305 (thereafter: Galerius Valerius Maximinus). As co-ruler over the diocese Oriens he continued the persecutions of Christians (Euseb. Hist. eccl. 8,14,9). Like Constantinus [1] not content with the title …

Severus

(1,402 words)

Author(s): Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg) | Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Σευῆρος; Seuêros). [German version] [1] Platonist, 2nd cent.? Platonist, probably 2nd cent. AD. He wrote a monograph On the soul [1. 80, 299; 2. 409-13, 428 f., 435 f.] and a commentary on Plato’s Timaeus [1. 52, 217 f.; 2. 407-9]. He appears in these works to be an original-minded, somewhat stoicizing interpreter of Aristotle’s doctrine of categories [1. 259; 2. 413 f.; 3. 66, 288 f.], and of Plato’s theories of the soul [1. 299; 3. 56, 278 f.] and of the origin of the world [4. 116-18, 417-21]. His works …

Eusebius

(2,172 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich) | Et al.
(Εὐσέβιος; Eusébios). [German version] [1] Flavius Eusebius Consul AD 347 Mention is made in the statute Cod. Theod. 11,1,1 of AD 360 of the former cos. et mag. equitum et peditum Eusebius. This probably refers to cos. E. of 347, who may perhaps be identified as the father of the empress Eusebia [1] (cf. Julian Or. 3,107d-110d). PLRE 1, 307f. Eusebius (39). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Eusebius Roman official about AD 355 Son of E. [1]. Like his brother Hypatius, he enjoyed the patronage of his sister  Eusebia [1] (cf. Julian Or. 3,116a). In AD 355 he was consularis Hellespon…

Felix

(619 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Fröhlich, Roland (Tübingen) | Et al.
Roman cognomen (‘The Fortunate One’), in the Republican period initially an epithet of the dictator L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla and his descendants (Cornelius [II 59-61]); in the Imperial period, as a name invoking luck, one of the most common cognomina and the most common slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Gem-cutter of the Roman Republican period Gem-cutter of the Roman Republican period, probably a contemporary of  Dioscurides [8], named together with  Anteros in an inscription as a gemari de sacra via [1. 44 and note 40]. He signed the famous sard…

Basilius

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Et al.
(Βασιλεῖος; Basileîos). [German version] [1] Basil the Great Theologian and bishop of Caesarea/Cappadocia. Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) [German version] A. Biography B. (born around 329/330 as the son of a Christian senatorial family who owned large estates) together with his younger brother  Gregorius of Nyssa and his friend  Gregorius of Nazianze were called the three great Cappadocians. His grandmother gave him his first introduction to the Bible and theology along the lines of Origenism. His education contin…

Andronicus

(836 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Et al.
(Ἀνδρόνικος; Andrónikos). [German version] [1] from Olynthus Macedonian officer (2nd half of the 4th cent. BC) Participated in all campaigns of  Alexander [II 4]. 315 BC officer of  Antigonus [1] at Tyre, then advisor of  Demetrius [2], whom he advised 312 to decline the battle at Gaza. In the battle he commanded the cavalry at the right flank and escaped after the defeat to Tyre, where he took over command and was able to hold the city for a time. At the end, delivered by the garrison to  Ptolemaeus [1], by whom he was honoured as a friend. Diod. Sic. 19. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliograph…

Clearchus

(1,254 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Κλέαρχος; Kléarchos). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Rhegion Bronze sculptor from Rhegion. Because of his statue of Zeus Hypatus in Sparta, a   sphyrelaton according to the description, C. was wrongly considered the inventor of bronze statues by Pausanias. According to tradition he was a student of  Dipoenus and Scyllis or of  Daedalus as well as the teacher of  Pythagoras and, therefore, was active in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck No. 332f., 491 P. Romanelli, in: EAA 4, 365f. J. Papadopoulos, Xoana e sphyrelata, 1980, 82 F…

Victor

(1,595 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Habermehl, Peter (Berlin) | Brändle, Rudolf (Basle) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Et al.
('winner, victor(ious)'). [German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen, only attested from the mid-1st cent. BC (Cic. Att. 14,14,2), but from then one of the commonest bynames, and a name of choice. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 57; 72; 89; 96; 98; 278 H. Solin, Die stadtrömische Sklavennamen, 1996, 100 f. [German version] [2] Roman epithet for gods (Roman epithet for gods), see Hercules; Iuppiter; Mars; Tibur. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [3] Imperial title Roman Imperial title from the early 4th c…

Rufinus

(1,669 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Ῥουφῖνος/ Rhouphînos). [German version] [I 1] Epigrammatist Greek epigrammatist; dating uncertain (Neronian/Flavian era? [2; 4]; 2nd cent. AD? [3]; late 4th cent. AD? [1]); origin unknown (Anth. Pal. 5,9: residence in Ephesus). 37 erotic poems are extant, all in Anth. Pal. 5,2-103 (on this so-called Sylloge Rufiniana, perhaps also from the 4th cent. AD, cf. [5]). With the exception of the paederastic poem 28 (cf. also 19), R.' epigrams, in which 13 women's names are mentioned (two further fictitious ones in 44,1), tr…

Gaudentius

(730 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam) | Et al.
(Γαυδέντιος; Gaudéntios). [German version] [1] G. Philosophus Musician and philosopher Author of an introduction to harmony, Ἁρμονικὴ εἰσαγωγή ( Harmonikḕ eisagōgḗ) ─ probably written in line with Claudius Ptolemy's ─ translated into Latin by Cassiodorus' friend Mutianus (Cassiod. Inst. 2,5,142 Mynors). The incompletely preserved work (in 23 chapters) contains traditional teachings in a slightly modified form, especially from Aristoxenus and the Pythagoreans: voice, sound, interval, modes, composition (1-7), unison…

Magnus

(1,025 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Et al.
Roman cognomen, which originally designated bodily size or birth order (‘the Elder’), as in the Republican period in the case of Sp. Postumius Albinus M. ( cos. 148 BC) and T. Roscius M. (Cic. Rosc. Am. 17) [1. 275; 3. 47]. As an assumption of the epithet of Alexander [4] ‘the Great’ (ὁ μέγας/ ho mégas, in the sense of great historical importance), first taken by Cn. Pompeius ( cos. 70 and 55) in the 1st cent. BC, then inherited by his sons Cn. and Sex. Pompeius and their descendants. Sex. Pompeius used M. also as a praenomen resp. nomen gentile [4. 364f.]. In the Imperial period, more frequen…

Marcellus

(1,746 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκέλλος; Markéllos). [German version] [I 1] From Pergamum, orator, 2nd cent. AD, [1] Rhetor from Pergamum known solely from a brief reference in the Suda; he is said to have written a book (or several books) entitled Ἀδριανὸς ἢ περὶ βασιλείας/ Adrianòs ḕ perì basileías (‘Hadrian, or On Monarchy’). He would thus have lived in the first half of the 2nd cent.; whether Dio's [I 3] speeches perì basileías, addressed to Trajan, served as a model is uncertain. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [German version] [I 2] From Side, physician and poet, 2nd cent. AD M. from …

Iulianus

(4,648 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
Epithet of many gentilicia [1]. Famous persons: the jurist Salvius I. [1]; the doctor I. [2]; the emperor I. [11], called ‘Apostata’; the bishops I. [16] of Aeclanum and I. [21] of Toledo. [German version] [1] L. Octavius Cornelius P. Salvius I. Aemilianus Roman jurist, 2nd cent. AD Jurist, born about AD 100 in North Africa, died about AD 170; he was a student of  Iavolenus [2] Priscus (Dig. 40,2,5) and the last head of the Sabinian law school (Dig. 1,2,2,53). I., whose succession of offices is preserved in the inscription from Pupput, provi…

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Demetrius

(7,578 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος; Dēmḗtrios). Well-known personalities: the Macedonian King D. [2] Poliorketes; the politician and writer D. [4] of Phalerum; the Jewish-Hellenistic chronographer D. [29]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Officer under Alexander the Great Officer under Alexander [4], fought at Gaugamela as commander of a troop ( ile) of  Hetairoi and in India he commanded a hipparchy. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 256. [German version] [2] D. Poliorketes Son of  Antigonus [1], born 337/6 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,96,1). In 320 he m…
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