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Panama Congress

(636 words)

Author(s): Prien, Hans-Jürgen
[German Version] (1916). The American missions that had been working in Latin America for barely 50 years were disappointed by the refusal of the Edinburgh Conference (1910) to recognize the nominally Catholic subcontinent as a Protestant missionary field. At the 1913 Foreign Missions Conference in New ¶ York, the theological and political legitimacy of missionary work in Latin America was reinforced by the theological and moral deficiencies of the Roman Catholic Church. In the midst of World War I, the Committee on Cooperation in Latin Amer…

Brazilian Missions

(369 words)

Author(s): Prien, Hans-Jürgen
[German Version] A republic was established in Brazil in 1889; the next year saw the separation of church and state. Since the elimination of China as a missionary field in 1949, Brazil has been a focus of North American missionary efforts and is a favorite experimental setting for the Institute for Church Growth in Pasadena. In 1970 more than 90% of Brazilians claimed to be Catholic; in 1998, when the population had grown to approx. 164 million, the figure was still 88%. Since ¶ the 1960s, the Roman Catholic Church has been trying to activate its me…

Consejo de Indias,

(250 words)

Author(s): Prien, Hans-Jürgen
[German Version] Indian Council ( Consejo Real y Supremo de las Indias). Initially, the Casa de la Contratación (CC) had been founded in 1504 in Seville as the sole executive organ for American affairs. Gaspar de Gricio (died 1507) and Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca (died 1524), the bishops of Palencia, acted simultaneously as royal advisers for Indian affairs. In 1508, Lope de Conchillos was appointed secretary to Fonseca, whereupon a state bureaucratic authority responsible for all ¶ administrative matters gradually took shape. Functioning as a kind of office for Indian …

Mackay, John Alexander

(317 words)

Author(s): Prien, Hans-Jürgen
[German Version] (May 7, 1889, Inverness, Scotland – Jun 9, 1983, Hightstown, NJ), missionary to Latin America. Mackay studied philosophy and theology at Aberdeen and Princeton (1913–1915). His interest in missionary work brought him into contact with the Student Volunteer Movement and its leaders R. Speer, J. Mott, and S. Zwemer. Seeking ongoing dialogue between theology and culture, Mackay became acquainted with such figures as Miguel de Unamuno, who became his intellectual mentor and on whom he wrote his doctoral thesis. In 1916 the Free Church of Scotland sent him to Per…

Bolivar, Simon

(222 words)

Author(s): Prien, Hans-Jürgen
[German Version] (Jul 24, 1783, Caracas – Dec 17, 1830, near Santa Marta, Columbia) was the most important champion of the liberation of Spanish America from Spanish colonial rule. From 1810 to 1824, he effected the liberation of the territories of the modern states of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia and there…

Oaxtepec Congress

(570 words)

Author(s): Prien, Hans-Jürgen
[German Version] (1978), an assembly of churches of Latin America. Oaxtepec is an important step in the process of cooperation in Latin American Protestantism that began with the Congresses on Christian Work in Latin America (CCWLA), in 1916 in Panama (Panama Congress), in1925 in Montevideo, and in 1929 in Havana, and the foundation of National Councils of Churches. After World War II, when German immigrant churches had also joined the councils and a call arose for continental representation of th…

Trent, Council of

(3,646 words)

Author(s): Wohlmuth, Josef | Prien, Hans-Jürgen
[German Version] I. History, Process, Results After a long chain of preceding events (Jedin, Geschichte, vol. I, 135ff.), the Council of Trent was inaugurated on Dec 13, 1545 in the cathedral of Trent – at the time a city of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nations – in the presence of 31 bishops. Pope Paul III, who had convoked the council on Nov 19, 1544, was represented by the three legates Giovanni Maria del Monte (Julius III), Marcellus Cervini, and R. Pole. The preparations proved highly inadequate. On J…

Enlightenment, The

(11,495 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht | Prien, Hans-Jürgen | Hardy, Daniel
[German Version] I. Intellectual History – II. Theology and Church History – III. Latin America, Asia, Africa – IV. Missiology I. Intellectual History 1. The Term Equivalents to the term “Enlightenment” are found in all European languages (Dutch verlichting, Fr. les lumières, Germ. Aufklärung, Ital. illuminismo, Span. ilustración). The term is ambiguous almost to the point of equivocation. The history of the German word is especially illuminating. The verb aufklären appears for the first time in Kaspar Stieler's Teutscher Sprachschatz (1691), where it is used in the se…