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Baḥs̲h̲al

(279 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, aslam b. sahl al-wāsi̊ṭi̊ al-razzāz , author of a History of Wāsiṭ. Nothing is known of his life except the names of some of his authorities, among them Wahb b. Baḳiyya (155-239/772-853), supposedly his maternal grandfather (but cf. al-Ḵh̲aṭīb al-Bag̲h̲dādī, Taʾrīk̲h̲ Bag̲h̲dād , xiii, 4883-4), and the approximate date of his death, between 288/901 and 292/904-05. The History of Wāsiṭ has come down to us in an incomplete manuscript in Cairo (Taymūr, taʾrīk̲h̲ no. 1483) which had an interesting history and possesses considerable association val…

al-Tallaʿfarī

(496 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Yūsuf b. Masʿūd b. Sālim, a well-regarded minor poet of Ayyūbid times, born in Mawṣil on 25 D̲j̲umādā II 593/15 May 1197 and died in Ḥamāt on Wednesday, 10 S̲h̲awwāl 675/17 March 1277. He claimed Arab descent from the Banū S̲h̲aybān [ q.v.]. His father, known as Ibn ʿUrrād̲j̲, who was born in Tallaʿfar (Tallyaʿfar) near Mawṣil in 560/1165 and died in Naṣībīn on Tuesday, 3 Muḥarram 615/(Sunday!) 1 April 1218, was well educated, a poet and expert in ancient Arabian and Persian history, with strong S̲h̲īʿī sympathi…

al-D̲j̲annābī

(136 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abū Muḥammad Muṣṭafā b. Ḥasan b. Sinan al-Ḥusaynī al-Hās̲h̲imi , 10th/16th-century author of an Arabic historical work dealing with eighty-two Muslim dynasties in as many chapters, entitled al-ʿAylam al-zāk̲h̲ir fī aḥwāl al-awāʾil wa’l-awāk̲h̲ir , usually called Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-D̲j̲annābī . A Turkish translation and abridgment were prepared by the author himself. Whether the accepted form of the mak̲h̲laṣ is correct or should be rather D̲j̲anābī cannot be decided in the absence of information as to whence it was derived. Al-D̲j̲an…

Ibn Manda

(1,291 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, a famous Iṣfahānī family of ḥadīt̲h̲ scholars and historians which was active for nearly three centuries. Descended from a Sassanian official, D̲j̲ahārbuk̲h̲t, said to have become a Muslim at the time of the Conquest, the man after whom the family was named was Ibrāhīm (Manda) b. al-Walīd b. Sanda b. Buṭṭa b. ustandār al-Fērōzān b. D̲j̲ahārbuk̲h̲t. His death is placed during the caliphate of al-Muʿtaṣim (Abū Nuʿaym, History ofIṣfahan , ed. S. Dedering, i, 178; al-D̲h̲ahabī, Tad̲h̲kirat al-ḥuffāẓ , Ḥaydarābād 1333-4, iii, 221). His son, Abū Zakariyy…

Intiḥār

(2,136 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, “suicide”, expressed more technically in Arabic by ḳatl nafs - with pronominal suffix (as against ḳatl nafs or al-nafs “homicide”). Intiḥār designated originally, and does so in its occurrence in the ḥadīt̲h̲ , suicide by piercing or cutting one’s throat. At an undetermined but possibly quite early date, the word was singled out to mean suicide in general. It is thus used in modern Arabic and in Turkish, also in Persian. The Ḳurʾān contains several passages (II, 54/51, IV, 66/69, XVIII, 6/5) that might possibly be interpreted (but, in fact, are not) as indicating …

Nard

(981 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
(p.), a word of Persian origin designating the game of backgammon (trictrac). The form attested in Pehlevi treatises, nēv-artak̲h̲s̲h̲ēr “brave Ardas̲h̲īr’’, was contracted to nardas̲h̲īr (widely attested in Arabic) and the latter abridged to nard . This development is quite probable (cf., for instance, the place name Nēw Hormizd Ardas̲h̲īr > Narmas(h)īn, see R.N. Frye, in JSAI, xiii [1990], 40); nevertheless the doubts raised by T. Nöldeke ( Persische Studien . II, in SBWAW, Philos.-hist. CI. cxxvi [1892], 25-6) remain valid, especially in view of the fact that the …

Dawla

(1,398 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, 1) an Arabic word signifying the period of an individual’s rule or power but also often employed in the meaning of “dynasty”. The root d-w-l may occur in Akkadian dālu “to wander around aimlessly” ( The Assyrian Dictionary , iii, 59) and Syriac dāl “to move, to stir” (Brockelmann, Lex . Syr .2, 144 b). However, the basic meaning of Arabic d-w-l is clearly “to turn, to alternate” (relating it to d-w-r?). The Ḳurʾān has nudāwiluhā “We cause (days) to alternate” (III, 140/134) and dūlatan “something whose ownership is passed around” (LIX, 7/7). In addition, the ḥadīt̲h̲ uses adāla

As̲h̲ʿab

(243 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, nicknamed “the Greedy”, a Medinese comedian who moved in the circles of the grandchildren of the first four caliphs and flourished in his profession in the early years of the 8th century. He is said to have survived until 154/771. The historical information about him is rather plentiful; though contaminated by much legendary material, it permits us to get a glimpse at the life of a professional entertainer in the Umayyad period. The jokes and stories connected with his name concern politics, r…

Ibn S̲h̲arya

(762 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, ʿAbīd/ʿUbayd al-D̲j̲urhumī , sage and antiquary, frequently cited as a relater of quasi-historical traditions. The form of his name is not certain. The manuscripts appear to vacillate between ʿAbīd and ʿUbayd. ʿUmayr occurs by mistake (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Usd al-g̲h̲āba , Būlāḳ 1286, iii, 351; Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Iṣāba , Calcutta 1856-73, iii, 201). The form S̲h̲arya is confirmed by the metre (cf. O. Löfgren, Ein Hamdānī-Fund , Uppsala Universitets Årsskrift , vii (1935), 24; al-Hamdānī, Iklīl , ed. O. Löfgren, Uppsala 1954, 6). However, Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar advoc…

Ibn Ḳuṭlūbug̲h̲ā

(715 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Ḳāsim b. Ḳuṭlūbug̲h̲ā al-Ḥanafī , Egyptian scholar in ḥadīt̲h̲ and religious law. He was born in Muḥarram 802/September 1399. His father, Ḳuṭlūbug̲h̲ā, a freedman of Sūdūn al-S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ūnī (d. 798/1396), died while he was still young. He supported himself in his youth as an accomplished tailor (needleworker) but embarked early upon his religious studies, which he pursued all his life. An early teacher of his was ʿIzz al-Dīn Ibn D̲j̲amāʿa (d. 819/1416). His principal s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ was Ibn al-Humām (d. 861/1457). Like all the aspiring young scholars…

Sīfawayh al-Ḳāṣṣ

(272 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, a humorist of the 2nd/8th century. Ḳāṣṣ [ q.v.] “storyteller” is employed here, as was quite common, in the same sense as other less ambiguous terms for jester; he was also described as the prototypical mug̲h̲affal “irresponsible wit”. No decision is possible as to whether his nickname should be vocalised Sīfawayh or Sayfawayh, and the identification with another ḳāṣṣ called ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, suggested on the basis of one shared remark by the recent editor of Ibn al-D̲j̲awzī, Ḳuṣṣāṣ , is probably unwarranted. Sīfawayh was credited with jokes and social…

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī

(242 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Muḥyī al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Naṣr Allāh b. Sālim b. Abi ’l-Wafāʾ , Egyptian professor of Ḥanafite jurisprudence and biographer, born S̲h̲aʿbān 696/May-June 1297, died 7 Rabīʿ I 1775/27 August 1373. He is best known for his collection of alphabetically arranged brief biographies of Ḥanafites, al-Ḏjawāhir al-Muḍiyya fī Ṭabaḳāt al-Ḥanafiyya (Ḥaydarābād 1332/1913-4), a valuable reference work, generally considered to be the first to deal with its particular subject. Written in a country in which the Ḥana…

Ras̲h̲wa

(993 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
(a.) or, apparently preferred by purists, ris̲h̲wa/rus̲h̲wa , pl. rus̲h̲ā , Persian ris̲h̲wat , ris̲h̲we , rus̲h̲wa , Turkish rüşvet , the legal term for “bribe.” Like English “bribe”, its connotation is absolutely negative and whatever is called ras̲h̲wa is strictly forbidden by law. The word itself does not occur in the Ḳurʾān. More general passages like II, 188, and V, 42, 62-3 ( suḥt ) were interpreted to include the prohibition of bribe-taking. The ḥadīt̲h̲ , however, makes the matter perfectly clear. One of the most explicit statements invoke…

Ibn al-ʿImād

(145 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, ʿAbd al-Ḥayy b. Aḥmad , a Syrian teacher of the Ḥanbalī school (1032-1089/1623-1679), completed, in 1080/1670, a large biographical history, entitled S̲h̲ad̲h̲arāt al-d̲h̲ahab fī ak̲h̲bār man d̲h̲ahab , which is annalistically arranged and covers the Hid̲j̲ra years one to 1000. Although historical events are occasionally mentioned, the work concentrates on obituary notices, often rather detailed. The author intended it to be a help for impecunious scholars like himself who were unable to acquire a l…

Awāʾil

(1,481 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
Plural of awwal "first", technically used to denote various ideas such as the "primary data" of philosophical or physical phenomena; the "ancients" of either pre-Islamic or early Islamic times; and the "first inventors" of things (or the things invented or done first). In the last mentioned connotation, the term characterises a minor branch of Muslim literature with affinities to adab , historical, and theological literature. Among the Muslims themselves, only the 10th/17th-century Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa (Flügel), i, 490; Istanbul 1941-3, col. 1996, defines the awāʾil

al-Mubas̲h̲s̲h̲ir b. Fātik

(690 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abu ’l-Wafāʾ , 5th/11th century Egyptian historian and savant. Said to have been of Syrian origin, he apparently spent all of his long life in Egypt. He possibly lived and worked as a private scholar, and he may have had ties with the ruling circles of the country. In addition to history, his many interests included philosophy and medicine. He supposedly studied with such leaders in their fields as Ibn al-Hayt̲h̲am and Ibn Riḍwān; a certain Jewish physician named Ibn Raḥmūn …

Laʿib

(1,974 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
( Liʿb , Laʿb ), the Arabic word for “play” (also used variously in Persian, against Turkish oyun ), in the Muslim world as fundamental a concept of vast sociological and psychological implications as in other civilisations. Only a few of its aspects can be briefly discussed here. The “play” character of many important human activities (dance, theatre, music, etc.) does not come under our purview, nor do ritual games as survivals of pre-Islamic religiously-motivated customs. We find them occasionally mentioned, as, for instance, in references to New Year practices, cf. al-Bīrūnī, Āt̲h̲…

S̲h̲aʿbad̲h̲a

(389 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, S̲h̲aʿwad̲h̲a (also with final d for d̲h̲ ) (a.), prestidigitation, sleight of hand, and from it, mus̲h̲aʿb/wid̲h̲ , magician, trickster. The word is paraphrased by the lexicographers, following al-Layt̲h̲ (b. al-Muẓaffar) [ q.v.], by k̲h̲iffat al-yad and uk̲h̲ad̲h̲ (pl. of uk̲h̲d̲h̲d ), see al-Azharī, Tahd̲h̲īb , i, 405. Fihrist , 312, mentions as “the first to perform s̲h̲aʿbad̲h̲a in Islam” a certain ʿAbīd/ʿUbayd al-Kayyis who also wrote a Kitāb al-S̲h̲aʿbad̲h̲a , and another mus̲h̲aʿbid̲h̲ nicknamed “Mill Shaft” (Ḳuṭb al-raḥā), about both o…

Ibn Sayyid al-Nās

(588 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Fatḥ al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-Yaʿmurī al-Is̲h̲bīlī , biographer of the Prophet. The home of the distinguished scholarly family of the Ibn Sayyid al-Nās was in Seville, which they were forced to leave because of the unsettled political situation leading to the city’s conquest by the Christians in 646/1248. The grandfather, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Aḥmad, who was born in 597/1200-1, settled in Tūnis, where he died in Rad̲j̲ab 659/June 1261 (cf. al-D̲h̲ahabi, ʿIbar , v, 255). His son, Muḥammad, was born in D̲j̲umādā II 645/October 1247. He studie…

Taṣḥīf

(919 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
(a.), mistake in writing, synonymous, in spite of sporadic artificial attempts to make a distinction, with taḥrīf (without, however, the specialised use of the latter, [ q.v.]). While its meaning is unambiguous, the derivation of the word is less so. Its connection with ṣ-ḥ-f in the (originally South Semitic) meaning of “to write” [see muṣḥaf ] can be considered certain; the negative connotation may reflect a negative attitude toward all writing as against orality, rather than a privative use of the second form of the verb. It is not excluded that taḥrīf may have influenced the format…

Ibn al-Sāʿī

(544 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, ʿAlī b. And̲j̲ab , Abū Ṭālib Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn , ʿIrāḳi historian (14 S̲h̲aʿbān 593/2 July 1197-20 Ramaḍān 674/8 March 1276). Born in Bag̲h̲dād, he appears to have spent all of his life there. He was a librarian, in succession, it seems, of both the Niẓāmiyya and the Mustanṣiriyya libraries. Being inclined to Ṣūfism, he was inducted into it by (ʿUmar b. Muḥammad) al-Suhrawardī in 608/1211-12. He had a son, ʿUbayd Allāh, who was born on 7 S̲h̲aʿbān 632/27 April 1235. These are about al…

al-S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Yūnānī

(365 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, the disguise of one of the participants in the transmission of authoritative Neoplatonic thought to Islam based upon a translation of large portions of books IV-VT of the Enneads of Plotinus. Fragments with this designation have been recovered without, however, allowing a reconstruction of the form and extent of his work. It is also debatable whether al-S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Yūnānī was substituting for the name of a given philosopher and even might have belonged to the entire lost Arabic Plotinus source. The wide range of meaning of s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ [ q.v.] permits a choice between “Greek Teac…

Ibn Ḥamdūn

(330 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abu ’l-Maʿālī Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan , the author of a vast and highly informative collection dealing with a great variety of adab subjects and entitled al-Tad̲h̲kira , which enjoyed much popularity during the Mamlūk period. Born in Rad̲j̲ab 495/April-May 1102 as one of the sons of an official well versed in financial and administrative matters, of a family which claimed to be related to the Ḥamdānids’ ancestor Ḥamdūn, he entered government service, attaining the offices of ʿāriḍ al-ʿaskar (Inspector of the Army) under al-Muḳtafī and ṣāḥib dīwān al-zimām (Dire…

Ibn Abī Ṭāhir Ṭayfūr

(769 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad , Bag̲h̲dādī littérateur and historian. Born in 204/819-20 into a family of Persian origin, he started out as a teacher and eventually took up residence in the bookmen’s bazaar in the Eastern quarter of Bag̲h̲dād, embarking upon a literary career which brought him into contact with many of the outstanding littérateurs and high government officials of his time and resulted in the composition of about fifty works. He was also a poet whose verses provoked criticism—deserved or undeserved—in some quarters. Among other things, he wrote works in the fürstenspiegel

Asāṭīr al-Awwalīn

(591 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
“stories of the ancients,” a phrase occurring nine times in the Ḳurʾān (VI, 25/25, VIII, 31/31, XVI, 24/26, XXIII, 83/85, XXV, 5/6, XXVII, 68/70, XLVI, 17/16, LXVIII, 15/15, and LXXXIII, 13/13; see also EI 2, ¶ IV, 980b, s.v. k̲h̲alḳ ) and there “put exclusively in the mouth of unbelievers ... expressing themselves against the Ḳurʾānic revelation or, more specifically, against the doctrine of the Resurrection, by referring to the asāṭīr of the former (generations) when similar, and in their opinion silly, things could already be found without being accepted” (R. Paret, Der Koran , Komment…

Ibn ʿĀʾid̲h̲

(380 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, the author of a work on the Raids ( mag̲h̲āzī [ q.v.]), used by such later authors as Ibn Sayyid al-Nās and al-D̲h̲ahabī. His given name was Muḥammad. His kunya is variously given as Abū ʿAbd Allāh or Abū Aḥmad, and his grandfather’s name as Saʿīd or ʿAbd al-Raḥmān. Born in Damascus in 150/767, he died there on Thursday, 25 Rabīʿ II 233/8 December 847 (or in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 232/July-August 847, or in 234/848), having been the tax collector for the G̲h̲ūṭa under al-Maʾmūn. As a historian, he stand…

Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar al-ʿAsḳalānī

(3,172 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad b. Nūr al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Muḥammad , Egyptian ḥadīt̲h̲ scholar, judge, and historian (773-852/1372-1449), whose life work constitutes the final summation of the science of ḥadīt̲h̲ and makes him one of the greatest and, at the same time, most typical representatives of Muslim religious scholarship. He himself did not know the origin of his family name Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar. The nisba ʿAsḳalānī was considered by family tradition to go back to 587/1191, when Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn ordered ʿAsḳalān [ q.v.] to be destroyed and its Muslim inhabitants resettled elsewher…

Ibn al-At̲h̲īr

(1,870 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, a family name (borne by a number of apparently unrelated families) which was given great and deserved lustre by three brothers, Mad̲j̲d al-Dīn, ʿIzz al-Dīn, and Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn, who achieved literary fame in the fields of, respectively, philology and religious studies, historiography, and literary criticism. Their father, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Karīm (often but apparently incorrectly: Muḥ. b. Muḥ. b. ʿAbd al-Karīm), whose life spanned the largest part of the 6th/12th century, was a high official of the Zangids of Mosul, stationed in Ḏj̲azīrat Ibn ʿUmar (hence the nisba al-D̲j̲azarī). H…

Ḥās̲h̲iya

(541 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, pl. ḥawās̲h̲ī , meaning (1) the margin (of pages in[ , ʿalā , bi-] which notes could be written), then (2) the marginal note itself (or “note” in general), and, finally, (3) gloss , used in the sing., undoubtedly as a profession of modesty, in titles of independent works, at times of some length, dealing with comments on subjects treated by earlier authors. This last usage is comparatively late; none of the ca. 150 titles listed in Brockelmann, S III, 892-4, antedates the 8th/14th century. Although it was used as a book title all over the Muslim world, ḥās̲h̲iya enjo…

al-Farg̲h̲ānī

(259 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, the name of two tenth-century historians, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad b. Ḏj̲aʿfar (b. 282/895-6, d. 362/972-3) and his son, Abū Manṣūr Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh (327/939-398/1007). ʿAbd Allāh’s great-grandfather had been brought to the ʿIrāḳ from Farg̲h̲āna and had become a Muslim under al-Muʿtaṣim. ʿAbd Allāh himself was a student of the great Ṭabarī, whose works he transmitted, and he achieved high rank in the army. ¶ He went to Egypt where his son, it seems, was born, and he and his family remained there. He wrote a continuation of al-Ṭabarī’s historical work, entitled al-Ṣila or al-Mud̲h…

Ibn al-Dubayt̲h̲ī

(380 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, D̲j̲amāl al-Dīn abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Saʿīd b. Yaḥyā . an ʿIrāḳī historian, was born in Wāsiṭ on Monday, 26 Rad̲j̲ab 558/Sunday, 30 June 1163, and died in Bag̲h̲dād on Monday, 8 Rabīʿ II 637/7 November 1239. His History of Wāsiṭ is not preserved. His History of Bag̲h̲dād, variously called d̲h̲ayl or mud̲h̲ayyal and extant in individual manuscripts, continues the work of al-Samʿānī, which in turn was a continuation of the Taʾrīk̲h̲ Bag̲h̲dād of the K̲h̲aṭīb al-Bag̲h̲dādī. It is strictly biographical, containing biographies of those who died…

Ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakam

(958 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
refers to the son and the four grandsons of ʿAbd al-Ḥakam (said to have died in 171/787-88), a wealthy and influential family of legal scholars and historians in 3rd/9th century Egypt. The Banū ʿAbd al-Ḥakam were among those who introduced Mālikism into Egypt. They were also intimately connected with al-S̲h̲afiʿī [ q.v.], providing the initial financing of his stay in Egypt. Al-S̲h̲āfiʿī is said to have died in their house (Ibn Farḥūn, 134), and he was buried in their family plot. Later, they dissociated themselves from his teaching. Their promi…

al-Fāsī

(975 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Taḳī al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-Makkī al-Ḥasanī al-Mālikī (775-832/ 1373-1429), historian of Mecca, was, through family connexions and upbringing, eminently qualified for his lifework as the outstanding historian of his native city. His father Aḥmad (754-819/1353-1416) had received an excellent scholarly education and was married to a daughter of the Meccan chief judge Abu ’l-Faḍl Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. ʿAbd-al-ʿAzīz al-Nuwayrī; a daughter of his, and half-sister of the hist…

Mandīl

(1,294 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, normalised mindīl , from Latin/Greek mantēl ( e, -um, ium ), entered Arabic speech in pre-Islamic times, presumably through Aramaic, and has remained in use to this day. Its principal meanings were those of handkerchief, napkin, and towel. Mandīl was, however, understood generally as “piece of cloth” and used for many other purposes, such as covering or carrying something or serving, attached to the body, as an untailored part of dress. Numerous other words were available in Islamic languages as synonyms of mandīl in both its specific and its generalised meanings. Arabic thus had ¶ mas̲h…

al-Kutubī

(645 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. S̲h̲ākir al-Dārānī al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī (686[?]-764/1287-1363), Syrian historian. The date of his birth is uncertain, since only one ms. of Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar’s Durar fills the blank that was to contain it. It is plausible, however, and neither confirmed nor contradicted by the fact that a highly personal obituary notice in the ʿUyūn (Ms. Cambridge 699, fols. 7b-8a, anno 735) speaks of a young scholar born in 706/1306 as “our friend” ( ṣāḥibunā ). Born apparently in Dārayyā in the G̲h̲ūṭa, he spent all his later life in Damascus. He possibly went there to study with famous ḥadī…

al-Azdī

(182 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, abū zakariyyāʾ yazīd b. muḥ. b. iyās b. al-ḳāsim , historian of Mosul, who died in 334/945-6. While the work on Mosul by Ibrāhīm b. Muḥ. b. Yazīd al-Mawṣilī, who lived a generation before Al-Azdī, appears to have been concerned only with the biographies of religious scholars, al-Azdī wrote both on the "Classes of Mosul ḥadīt̲h̲ Scholars" and on the political history of Mosul, either in one combined or in two separate works. His treatment of ḥadīt̲h̲ scholars is known only from quotations and seems to have been restricted to the limited information usually found in rid̲j̲āl

Ibn al-Fuwaṭī

(944 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Kamāl al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ b. Aḥmad , historian and librarian, born in Bag̲h̲dād on 17 Muḥarram 642/25 June 1244. At the age of fourteen, he was imprisoned by the conquering Mongols and remained in this situation for, it seems, less than two years. In 660/1261-62, he joined the great scholar and wazīr , Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī [ q.v.], in Marāg̲h̲a where he became the librarian of the Observatory Library. In 679/1280-81, he returned to his native Bag̲h̲dād and was soon appointed director of the Mustanṣiriyya Library. Apart from occasional trips within …

al-Maḳrīzī

(1,235 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Taḳī al-Dīn Abū ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir (766-845/1364-1442), Egyptian historian. His father (d. 779/1378 at the age of fifty), married a daughter of the wealthy philologist and jurist Ibn al-Ṣāʾig̲h̲ (d. 776/1375). He was born in Cairo, apparently in 765/1363-4. The nisba Maḳrīzī refers to a quarter in Baʿlabakk where his paternal family came from. His paternal grandfather, ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. Muḥammad ( ca. 677-733/1278-1332, see Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Durar , ii, 391 f.) was a Ḥanbalī, his maternal grandfather, who influenced his early …

Abū ʿArūba

(231 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, al-Ḥusayn b. Abī Maʿs̲h̲ar Muḥammad b. Mawdūd al-Sulamī al-Ḥarrānī , ḥadīth scholar of Ḥarrān (b. ca. 222/837, d. 318/930-1). Practically nothing is known about his life, except the names of his authorities and his students, some of them very famous personalities. He is said to have been judge or muftī of Ḥarrān. One source (Ibn ʿAsākir apud al-Ḏh̲ahabī) states that he was a partisan of the Umayyads. According to the Fihrist , 230, Abū ʿArūba wrote only one work, a collection of traditions which were transmitted by his authorities. This work seems to be identical with the Ṭabaḳāt

Ibn Fahd

(1,293 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, an important Meccan family whose activities during a period of two hundred years in the 8th-10th/14th-16th centuries are known in quite considerable detail. The family claimed ʿAlid descent through Muḥammad b. al-Ḥanafiyya. Its members were all well trained in the traditional subjects and learned mainly in S̲h̲āfiʿī but also in Ḥanafī law. Through four successive generations, they boasted of productive historians whose chief interest lay in local history and biography. Through marriage, the Ba…

Ibn al-Tiḳṭaḳā

(387 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Ṣafī al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAlī , ʿIrāḳī historian. A descendant of al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī through Ibrāhīm al-Ṭabāṭabā, he was born, it seems, shortly after the conquest of Bag̲h̲dād by the Mongols, which he does not mention as having witnessed personally. His father, Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Ramaḍān, chief naḳīb of the ʿAlids, had gained great wealth and influence, but in a game of political intrigue against the brothers ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn and S̲h̲ams al-Dīn al-D̲j̲uwaynī [ qq.v.], he lost his life and property (Ibn ʿInaba, ʿUmdat al-ṭālib , al-Nad̲j̲af 1381/1961, 180 f.). His son too, was a naḳ…

S̲h̲ahdānad̲j̲

(158 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
(also s̲h̲ahdānaḳ , s̲h̲āhdānad̲j̲ s̲h̲ādānaḳ , s̲h̲arānaḳ ) hempseed. In Greek pharmacology and throughout its Arabic counterpart, it was known as a rather minor simple, useful for drying out fluid in the ear by dripping its oil into it, harmful in that it caused headache and sexual dysfunction when eaten in large quantities, and the like. The word was commonly accepted as the Persian equivalent of Greek cannabis , Ar. ḳinnab , and hence served as another ¶ term for ḥas̲h̲īs̲h̲ [ q.v.]; this may explain why so many different forms were in use. (F. Rosenthal) Bibliography A. Dietrich, Dioscur…

al-D̲j̲awwānī

(605 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abū ʿAlī Muḥammad b. Asʿad , Arab genealogist and historian, b. 525/1131, d. 588/1192. The Ḏj̲awwānī family claimed ʿAlid descent through a son of ʿUbayd Allāh b. al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib. This pedigree was well established at least as early as the first half of the 4th/10th century when Abu ’l-Farad̲j̲ al-Iṣfahānī ( Maḳātil al-Ṭālibiyyīn , Cairo 1368/1949, 193, 435, 438) reported historical information received by him personally from ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm al-D̲j̲awwānī, himself a genealogist and the eighth line…

Fīt̲hāg̲hūras

(1,600 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, or Fūt̲h̲āg̲h̲ūras (rarely Būt̲h̲āg̲h̲ūras or other individual transliterations), Pythagoras, the Greek philosopher of the sixth century B.C., as celebrated and as elusive a figure in Islam as in the West. The distinction between the man and the school, or schools, bearing his name was occasionally sensed but, of course, not really understood, and no true distinction was made between the two. The partly historical and mostly legendary circumstances of his life were known in considerable detail through a lengthy summary of his biography from Porphyry’s Philosophos Historia

Taʿlīḳ

(443 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Taʿlīḳa (a., pls. taʿlīḳāt , taʿālīḳ ) in scholarly activity refers to the “appending upon ( ʿala )” a text or the “deriving from ( ʿan )” an author and then to the resulting notes, glosses, comments, excerpts and appendices. Similar in a way to ḥās̲h̲iya [ q.v.], it is, however, much less firmly anchored in manuscripts than ḥās̲h̲iya was originally. ¶ In later centuries, it came to be used quite frequently in titles of essays. Earlier, its supposed use as a title was more descriptive than formal and was often the choice of convenience by someone other than the author. Among titles listed in the Fi…

Yūnān

(1,437 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
refers to the ancient Greeks, reflecting the name “Ionians”. Yūnānī means Greek (noun and adjective) and al-yūnāniyya or, less commonly, al-yūnānī (with or without lug̲h̲a or lisān ), the ancient Greek language. The vocalisation yūnānī , instead of yawnānī favoured by some (cf. al-Tawḥīdī, Baṣāʾir , ed. W. al-Ḳādī, Beirut 1408/1988, iii, 11), is stated to be the generally accepted form by al-Samʿānī, Ansāb , ed. Ḥaydarābād, xiii, 536, and may have been favoured by the Arabic word formation fuʿlān . The ancient Near Eastern designation of the “Greeks” a…

al-Fākihī

(426 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Isḥāḳ b. al-ʿAbbās , 3rd/9th-century historian of Mecca. No information on him was available to later Muslim scholars, or is to us, except what can be learned from his History of Mecca , of which the second half is preserved in a single manuscript in Leiden (cod. or. 463). A small portion of the work has been edited by F. Wüstenfeld, Die Chroniken der Stadt Mekka , Leipzig 1857-61, ii, 3-51. Al-Fākihī was alive and, it seems, quite young during the judgeship of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd b. Muḥammad b. Hanzala b. Muḥam…

al-Kindī, Abū ʿUmar Muḥammad

(649 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
b. Yūsuf al-Tud̲j̲ībī , historian of Egypt, was born on yawm al-naḥr (10 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a) 283/18 January 897 and died on Tuesday, 3 Ramaḍān 350/Wednesday, 16 October 961. He heard al-Nasāʾī, the author of the Sunan , when the latter lectured in Egypt, and appears to have lectured on ḥadīt̲h̲ himself. Among his teachers and historical informants, Ibn Ḳudayd (d. 312/924-5) seems to have been the most important one. His principal transmitters (cf. his Judges ) was Ibn al-Naḥḥās (323-416/935-1025). This is about all that is known of his life. The…

Ibn Yūnus

(118 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abū Saʿīd ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Aḥmad al-Ṣadafī (b. 281/894, d. Monday 26 D̲j̲umādā II 347/14 September 958, which, however, was a Tuesday), a grandson of the famous early Egyptian supporter of al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, Yūnus b. ʿAbd al-Aʿlā, and the father of the astronomer (below). He wrote on Egyptian scholars and, in a separate work, on the foreigners who came to visit or settle in Egypt. Both works were much used sources of information for later authors, but they seem not to have been pres…

S̲h̲aṭrand̲j̲

(2,074 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, the game of chess. The derivation of the word from Sanskrit catur añga “having four ranks” (Nyberg, 54a) is generally accepted. Arab philologists often argued in favour of a vocalisation s̲h̲iṭrand̲j̲ and offered more or less ill-advised attempts at etymology (Lane 1551c, and see R. Ermers, in JAOS, cxiv [1994], 294b). While the form of the word supports the game’s Indian provenience as a war game, chess reached the Near East via Persia, as shown by the many Persian terms employed in it. The Muslim Near East, in turn, transmitted it to Euro…

al-Kāfiyad̲j̲ī

(507 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, muḥyī al-dīn muḥammad b. sulaymān al-ḥanafī , 9th-15th century scholar and prolific writer on many subjects. Born in, or rather, after, 788/1386-87 in Ṣarūk̲h̲ān [ q.v.] in a place called Kökd̲j̲ekī, apparently situated near Bergama as indicated by the additional nisba al-Barg̲h̲amī, he came to Egypt after 830/1427 and was soon welcomed into the leading scholarly circles there. Čaḳmaḳ appointed him a professor in the Zāwiyat al-As̲h̲raf S̲h̲aʿbān and later promoted him to the academic deanship ( mas̲h̲yak̲h̲at al-tadrīs ) of S̲h̲aʿbān’s Turba. The id…

Ibn al-Dāya

(761 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Aḥmad b. Yūsuf b. Ibrāhīm , Ṭūlūnid historian. His father Yūsuf was a fosterbrother of the caliph al-Muʿtaṣim and an administrative assistant to Ibrāhīm b. al-Mahdī. As such, Yūsuf moved in the centre of intellectual life in Bag̲h̲dād and Sāmarrā and counted among his acquaintances many littérateurs and physicians. After the death of Ibn al-Mahdī in 224/839 (and, presumably, in consequence of it), he left Sāmarrā for Damascus and, it seems, moved from there to Egypt where he th…

Ḳimār

(1,892 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
is the most common Islamic term for gambling, which is strictly forbidden according to Muslim law. The prohibition goes back to the references to maysir [ q.v.] in Ḳurʾān, II, 219/216, and V, 90 f ./92 f. Maysir was expressly equated with ḳimār in general, supposedly already by ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUmar (cf. al-Buk̲h̲ārī, al-Adab al-mufrad , Cairo 1375, 325). Voices querying this assumption, and the assumption that the Ḳurʾān had the legal classification of “forbidden” in mind, were rarely raised, and then only for the sake of argumen…

Ibn Lahīʿa

(521 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, ʿAbd Allāh b. Lahīʿa b. ʿUḳba , Egyptian traditionist and judge ( b. ca . 96/688-69, d. Sunday, 15 Rabīʿ I 174/1 August 790, or 23 D̲j̲umādā II 174/6 November 790). The few known facts about his life are that he was appointed judge in 155/772 with a monthly salary of thirty dīnārs , the appointment being the first direct appointment of a chief judge of Egypt by a caliph instead of the provincial governor; that he held the judgeship for over nine years; and that his “books”—that is, primarily, his scholarly notebooks and mate…

al-Birzālī

(945 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, ʿalam al-dīn al-ḳāsim b. muḥammad b. yūsuf , also called Ibn al-Birzālī, Syrian historian and ḥadīt̲h̲ scholar. He was born in Damascus in D̲j̲umada I or II, 665/February-April, 1267. A case could be made for the earlier date, sometimes mentioned, of 663/1265, but al-Birzālī himself evidently maintained that he was born in 665. His ancestors belonged to the Birzāl [ q.v.] Berbers. His great-grandfather, Zaki al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Yūsuf (b. ca. 577/1181-82, d. in Ḥamā in 636/1239), ¶ had settled in Syria at the beginning of the 7th/13th century. Zakī nl-Dīn’s additional nisba

al-Bakrī

(396 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, abū ’l-ḥasan aḥmad b. ʿabd allāh b. muḥammad , appears to be the most acceptable form of the name of the alleged author, or final rāwī , of historical novels dealing with the early years of Islam, who also is credited with a mawlid and a fictional life of Muḥammad. The ¶ earliest biography devoted to him is to be found in al-D̲h̲ahabī, Mīzān , Cairo 1325, i, 53. Al-D̲h̲ahabī indignantly describes al-Bakrī as a liar and inventor of untrue stories, whose books were available at the booksellers (and, presumably, enjoyed good sales). Consi…

al-Isʿirdī

(547 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Nūr al-Dīn Ibn Rustum , Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, 7th/13th century ¶ Syrian poet. Born in 619/1222 in Isʿird or Siʿird [ q.v.] in Southeastern Anatolia, which he sentimentally remembers in his Dīwān , he lived in Bag̲h̲dād and visited Egypt, but most of his adult life was, it seems, spent in Damascus (and al-Ṣāliḥiyya). There the ḳaḍī Ṣadr al-Dīn Ibn Sanī al-Dawla (590-658/1194-1260), for whom al-Isʿirdī expressed biting contempt, appointed him one of the official witnesses (attorneys) doing busi…

al-Diyārbakrī

(297 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan , 10th/16th century author of a once popular history of Muḥammad, entitled Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-k̲h̲amīs fī aḥwāl nafs nafīs and preserved in numerous MSS and printed twice (Cairo 1283, 1302). The work is furnished in addition with a brief sketch of subsequent Muslim history. The brief enumeration of Ottoman rulers at the end stops in some MSS with Süleymān Ḳānūnī but usually ends with Murād III (982/1574). The author is also credited with a detailed description of the sa…

al-Sarak̲h̲sī

(980 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. al-Ṭayyib b. Marwān, the most prominent disciple of al-Kindī and, like his master, a dedicated advocate of Greek learning at the unsure early stage of its Muslim integration, but with a more pronounced inclination toward adab . He was born around 220/835 and died early in 286/899. A fact attested for his obscure early life is his participation as the delegate of al-Kindī in a multireligious philosophical-theological debate about Christianity and the Trinity (see Moosa and Holmberg). He began his career as an educ…

al-Ṣafadī

(2,000 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn K̲h̲alīl b. Aybak , Abu ’l-Ṣafāʾ al-Albakī (696-764/1297-1363), philologist, literary critic and littérateur, biographer, and all-round humanist. Ṣafad was his family’s home, and he was born there. His father, al-Amīr ʿIzz al-Dīn Aybak (b. ʿAbd Allāh!) was of Turkic origin; the nisba al-Albakī, after some mamlūk amīr named Albakī, seems to have belonged to him. From the apparent absence of any mention of him by his son, we may conclude that al-Ṣafadī considered him undistinguished. Relations with his father…

G̲h̲und̲j̲ār

(336 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, a nickname given, allegedly because of his ruddy cheeks, to an early Persian ḥadīt̲h̲ scholar, Abū Aḥmad ʿĪsā b. Mūsā al-Taymī al-Buk̲h̲ārī , who died at the end of the year 186/802. The Arabo-Persian word does mean “rouged”, but it is, of course, highly doubtful whether this is the origin of the name. The nickname was transferred to a later scholar who spent much effort upon collecting ʿĪsā’s traditions and who is known as the author of a History of Buk̲h̲ārā . His name was Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Sulaymān al-Buk̲h̲ārī, known as (al-)G̲h̲und̲j̲ār. He flourished in ¶ the…

Abū Nuʿaym al-Faḍl b. Dukayn al-Mulāʾī

(384 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, ḥadīt̲h̲ scholar and historical informant (b. 130/748, d. 29 S̲h̲aʿbān 219/8 Sept. 834). He was a client of the family of Muḥammad’s Companion Ṭalḥa. He lived in al-Kūfa and made occasional visits to Bag̲h̲dād, where he was once received by al-Maʾmūn. Dukayn’s actual name is said to have been ʿAmr. A son of Abū Nuʿaym, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (perhaps the author of the Ḳurʾān commentary, referred to in Fihrist , 34), and a grandson, Aḥmad b. Mīt̲h̲am, are mentioned. Abū Nuʿaym is considered a very reliable transmitter of traditions. He is also highly praised…

Ḥamza al-Iṣfahānī

(801 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, ( Ḥamza b. al-Ḥasan , [ Ibn ] al-Muʾaddib ), philologist and historian of the 4th/10th century. Born about 280/893, he died after 350/961 (the year in which his Chronology was completed; note also that ʿAḍud al-Dawla, for whom he is supposed to have written one of his works, was so named only in 351) and, it is said, before 360/970-71. Most of his life was spent in his native Iṣfahān. He mentions three visits to Bag̲h̲dād, one dated in 308/920-1, and another, his third, in 323/935. He had contact with…

Ibn Abi ’l-Dam

(398 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Ibrāhīm b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥamawī , historian and S̲h̲āfiʿī jurist. Born in Ḥamāt on 21 Ḏj̲umādā I 583/29 July 1187, he studied in Bag̲h̲dād, taught in Ḥamāt, Aleppo, and Cairo, and finally was appointed judge in his native city. He went to Bag̲h̲dād in 641 on an embassy for the ruler of Ḥamāt, al-Malik al-Muẓaffar, and, in the following year, when he was again on his way to Bag̲h̲dād to announce there the death of al-Malik al-Muẓaffar, he was stricken with dysenter…

Nasab

(1,745 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
(a.) “connection, pedigree, genealogy” designates the most fundamental organising principle of Arab society. It would seem to be an inheritance from the earliest times. Since no convincing cognate has as yet been determined in other Semitic languages, it is not entirely implausible to suggest a prehistoric relationship between the roots s-b-b and n-s-b, unconsciously reflected in the parallelism of nasab and sabab “rope, connection” in the ḥadīt̲h̲ ( Concordance , ii, 388). Genealogy provides the historical validation of kinship and all that it involves. Kinship alw…

Ibn Ḥamdūn

(343 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abū l-Maʿālī Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan, auteur d’un vaste recueil, hautement instructif, traitant d’une grande variété de sujets d’ adab et ayant pour titre al-Tad̲h̲kira; il bénéficia d’une grande popularité au cours de la période mamlūke. Né en rad̲j̲ab 495/avril-mai 1102 d’un père fonctionnaire rompu aux affaires financières et administratives et issu d’une famille qui se vantait de descendre de Ḥamdūn, ancêtre des Ḥamdānides, il entra au service du gouvernement et arriva aux fonctions de ʿāriḍ al-ʿaskar (inspecteur de l’armée) sous al-Muḳtafī et de ṣāḥib dīwān al-zimām (directeu…

al-Ḏj̲annābī

(129 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
Abū Muḥammad Muṣṭafā b. Ḥasan b. Sinān al-Ḥusaynī al-Hās̲h̲imī, auteur (Xe/XVIe s.) d’un ouvrage historique en arabe traitant en quatre-vingt deux chapitres d’autant de dynasties musulmanes et intitulé al- ʿAylam al-zāk̲h̲ir fī aḥwāl al- awāʾil wa- l- awāk̲h̲ir (titre usuel: Taʾrīk̲h̲ al- Ḏj̲annābī). Une traduction et un abrégé en turc ont été préparés par l’auteur lui-même. En l’absence d’informations sur l’origine de son mak̲h̲laṣ, on ne peut décider si la forme correcte est Ḏj̲annābī ou Ḏj̲annābī. Al-Ḏj̲an(n)ābī était issu d’une famille distinguée d’Amas…

S̲h̲aʿbad̲h̲a

(373 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, S̲h̲aʿwad̲h̲a (également avec d final) (a.), prestidigitation, manipulation; mus̲h̲aʿbid̲h̲/mus̲h̲aʿwid̲h̲ désignant le prestidigitateur, le magicien. Les lexicographes, à la suite d’al-Layt̲h̲ b. al-Muẓaffar [ q.v.], l’expliquent par k̲h̲iffat al-yad, uk̲h̲ad̲h̲ (pl. de uk̲h̲d̲h̲a); voir al-As̲h̲ʿarī, Tahd̲h̲īb, I, 405. Fihrist, 312, désigne comme «le premier à avoir pratiqué la s̲h̲aʿbad̲h̲a en Islam» un certain ʿAbīd/ʿUbayd al-Kayyis, auteur d’un Kitāb al-S̲h̲aʿbad̲h̲a, et cite un autre mus̲h̲aʿbid̲j̲i surnommé «Axe de meule» ( ḳuṭb al-raḥā) sur lequel on ne …

al-Bakrī

(402 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abū l-Ḥasan Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad, semble être la forme la plus acceptable du nom de l’auteur présumé, ou dernier rāwī, de romans historiques relatifs aux premières années de l’Islam, qui passe aussi pour avoir écrit un mawlid et une vie imaginaire de Muḥammad. La plus lointaine biographie qui lui est consacrée se trouve chez al-Ḏh̲ahabī, Mīzān, Caire 1325, I, 53. Al-Ḏh̲ahabī, plein d’indignation, décrit al-Bakrī comme un menteur et un forgeur d’histoires, dont les ouvrages se trouvaient chez les libraires (et, probablement, se vendaient bie…

al-Azdī

(185 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abū Zakariyyāʾ Yazīd b. Muḥ. b. Iyās b. al-Ḳāsim, historien de Mossoul, qui mourut en 334/945-6. Alors que l’ouvrage sur Mossoul d’Ibrāhīm b. Muḥ. b. Yazīd al-Mawṣilī, qui vécut une génération avant al-Azdī, semble avoir seulement porté sur les biographies des savants religieux, al-Azdī écrivit à la fois sur les «Classes des savants en ḥadīt̲h̲ de Mossoul» et sur l’histoire politique de la ville, sujets soit combinés dans un même ouvrage, soit traités dans deux œuvres distinctes. Son ouvrage sur les savants en ḥadīt̲h̲ est connu seulement par des citations et paraît avoir été…

Ḥamza b. al-Ḥasan [Ibn] al-Muʾaddib al-Iṣfahānī

(773 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, philologue et historien du IVe/ Xe siècle. Né vers 280/893, il mourut après 350/961 (qui est l’année au cours de laquelle sa Chronologie fut achevée; à noter aussi que ʿAḍud al-dawla, pour lequel il aurait écrit un de ses ouvrages, ne fut ainsi dénommé qu’en 351) et, dit-on, avant 360/970-1. Il passa la majeure partie de son existence dans sa ville natale d’Iṣfahān. Il fait mention de trois visites à Bag̲h̲dād, l’une en 308/920-1, et une autre, la troisième, en 323/935. Il fut en rapport avec plusieurs savants impor…

al-Fākihī

(453 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Isḥāḳ b. al-ʿAbbās, historien de la Mekke au IIIe/IXe siècle. Les savants musulmans postérieurs ne possédaient pas plus que nous de renseignements sur lui, en dehors de ceux qu’on peut tirer de son Histoire de la Mekke, dont la seconde moitié nous a été conservée dans un manuscrit unique qui se trouve à Leyde (cod. or. 463). Une petite partie de l’ouvrage a été éditée par F. Wüstenfeld dans Die Chroniken der Stadt Mekka, Leipzig 1875-61, II, 3-51. Al-Fākihī était vivant et, semble-t-il, très jeune, à l’époque où ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd b. Muḥam…

al-Isʿirdī

(538 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Nūr al-dīn Ibn Rustum, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, poète syrien du VIIIe/XIIIe siècle. Né en 619/1222 à Is’ird ou Siʿird [ q.v.] en Anatolie sud-orientale qu’il rappelle avec émotion dans son Dīwān, il vécut à Bag̲h̲dād et fit un voyage en Égypte, mais il paraît avoir passé la majeure partie de sa vie d’adulte à Damas (et al-Ṣāliḥiyya). Le ḳāḍī Saḍr al-dīn Ibn Sanī al-dawla (590-658/1194-1260), pour lequel il exprime un mordant mépris, fit de lui un témoin instrumentaire officiant sous la fameuse horloge de la grande-mosquée de Damas. Il gagna…

Ibn Sayyid al-Nās

(599 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Fatḥ al-dīn Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-Yaʿmurī al-Is̲h̲bīlī, biographe du Prophète. Il appartenait à une famille de savants distingués qui, établie à Séville, avait été obligée d’en partir par suite de l’instabilité de la situation politique qui devait aboutir à la conquête de la ville par les Chrétiens en 646/1248. Le grandpère, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Aḥmad, né en 597/ 1200-1, s’était établi à Tunis, où il mourut en rad̲j̲ab 659/juin 1261 (cf. al-Ḏh̲ahabī, ʿIbar, V, 255). Son fils, Muḥammad, né en d̲j̲umādā II 645/octobre 1247, commença ses études avec son père à Tunis et à ¶ Bougie, et les …

Ibn S̲h̲arya

(754 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, ʿAbīd/ʿUbayd al-Ḏj̲urhumī, sage du passé et transmetteur présumé de légendes historiques. On n’est pas sûr de la forme de son nom: les manuscrits semblent hésiter entre ʿAbīd et ʿUbayd, et l’on trouve aussi, erronément, ʿUmayr (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Usd al-g̲h̲āba, Būlāḳ 1286, III, 351; Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Iṣāba, Calcutta 1856-73, III, 201). La forme S̲h̲arya est confirmée par le mètre d’un vers (cf. O. Löfgren, Ein Hamdānī-Fund, Uppsala Universitets Ȧrsskrift, VII (1935), 24; Hamdānī, Iklīl, éd. Löfgren, Uppsala 1954, 6), mais Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar penche pour S̲h̲ariyya; on trouve ég…

al-Tallaʿfarī

(533 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, S̲h̲ihāb al-dīn Muḥammad b. Yūsuf b. Masʿūd b. Sālim, poète mineur, mais apprécié, de l’époque ayyūbide, né à Mawṣil le 25 d̲j̲umādā II 593/15 mai 1197 et mort à Ḥamāt le mercredi, 10 s̲h̲awwāl 675/17 mars 1277. Il se disait d’origine arabe, ayant pour ancêtres les Banū S̲h̲aybān [ q.v.]. Son père, connu sous le nom ¶ d’Ibn ʿUrrād̲j̲, né à Tallaʿfar (Tallyaʿfar) près de Mawṣil en 560/1165, et mort à Naṣībīn le mardi 3 muḥarram 615/(dimanche!) 1er avril 1218, avait une bonne éducation, c’était un poète et un érudit en histoire ancienne d’Arabie et de Perse avec de fortes…

al-Birzālī

(942 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, ʿAlam al-dīn al-Ḳāsim b. Muḥammad b. Yūsuf, aussi appelé Ibn al-Birzālī, historien et muḥaddit̲h̲ syrien, né à Damas en d̲j̲umādā I ou II 665/février-mars 1267; on pourrait faire état de la date plus ancienne de 663/1265, parfois mentionnée, mais al-Birzālī lui-même soutint nettement qu’il était né en 665. Ses ancêtres étaient des Berbères des Banū Birzāl [ q.v.]; son arrière grand-père Zakī al-dīn Muḥammad b. Yūsuf (né vers 577/1181-82, m. à Ḥamāt en 636/1239), s’était établi en Syrie au début du VIIe/XIIIe siècle. La nisba d’al-Is̲h̲bīlī, qui fait suite au nom de Zakī al-dīn…

Ḥās̲h̲iya

(553 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, pl ḥawās̲h̲ī, désigne en arabe: (1) la marge (des pages dans [ , ʿalā, bi-] laquelle des notes pouvaient être écrites), puis (2) la note marginale elle-même (ou une «note» en général), et finalement (3) au singulier, certainement comme marque de modestie, la glose, dans les titres d’ouvrages indépendants — et parfois d’une certaine longueur — constituant des commentaires sur des sujets traités par des auteurs antérieurs. Cette dernière acception est relativement tardive: aucun des 150 titres environ enregistrés dans Brockelmann, S III, 892-4, n’est antérieur au VIIIe/XIVe siècl…

Asāṭīr al-Awwalīn

(631 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
«histoires des anciens», expression qui revient neuf fois dans le Ḳurʾān (VI, 25, VIII, 31, XVI, 24/26, XXIII, 83/85, XXV, 5/6, XXVII, 68/70, XLVI, 17/16, LXVIII, 15 et LXXXIII, 13 (voir aussi Ḵh̲alḳ) «et exclusivement mise dans la bouche des incroyants . . . qui s’expriment contre la révélation ḳurʾānique ou, plus précisément, contre la doctrine de la Résurrection en faisant allusion aux asāṭīr des (générations) passées où l’on peut trouver des choses semblables et, à leur avis, niaises, qui ne sont pas admises» (R. Paret, Der Koran, Kommentar, Stuttgart 1971, 137). Les commentate…

al-Kāfiyad̲j̲ī

(531 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Muḥyī l-Dīn Muḥammad b. Sulaymān al-Ḥanafī, savant du IXe/XVes. et auteur fécond en de nombreux domaines. Né en, ou plutôt après 788/1386-7 au Ṣarūk̲h̲ān [ q.v.] dans une localité appelée Kökd̲j̲ekī et située apparemment près de Bergame, ainsi que l’indique sa nisba additionnelle d’al-Barg̲h̲amī, il partit pour l’Égypte après 830/1427 où il fut rapidement admis dans les milieux savants les plus élevés. Čaḳmaḳ le nomma professeur à la Zāwiyat al-As̲h̲raf S̲h̲aʿbān et, par la suite, l’éleva au décanat académique ( mas̲h̲yak̲h̲at al-tadrīs) de la turba de S̲h̲aʿbān; un poste iden…

Fīt̲h̲āg̲h̲ūras

(1,550 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
ou Fūt̲h̲āg̲h̲ūras (rarement Būt̲h̲āg̲h̲ūras ou autres translittérations individuelles), Pythagore. le philosophe grec du VIe ¶ siècle avant J.-C, figure aussi célèbre et aussi insaisissable en Islam qu’en Occident. La distinction entre l’homme et l’école, ou les écoles portant son nom est parfois sentie, naturellement, mais jamais réellement comprise, et aucune véritable discrimination n’a été opérée. Les circonstances en partie historiques, mais pour la plupart légendaires, de sa vie ont été connues très en détail par un long sommaire de sa biogra…

Abū Nuʿaym al-Faḍl b. Dukayn al-Mulāʾī

(412 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, spécialiste de ḥadīth et informateur historique (né en 130/748, m, le 29 s̲h̲aʿbān 219/8 sept. 834). Client de la famille de Ṭalḥa, le compagnon de Muḥammad, il vivait à Kūfa et faisait à l’occasion des visites à Bag̲h̲dād où il fut un jour reçu par al-Maʾmūn. Le nom véritable de Dukayn, était, dit-on, ʿAmr. On trouve mentionnés un fils d’Abū Nuʿaym, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (peut-être l’auteur du commentaire du Ḳurʾān cité dans Fihrist, 34), et un petit-fils, Aḥmad b. Mīt̲h̲am. Abū Nuʿaym est considéré comme un transmetteur de traditions très digne de confiance. On loue beaucoup é…

Yūnān

(1,530 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
se réfère aux anciens Grecs, et transcrit le nom «Ioniens». Yūnānī signifie Grec/grec (nom et adjectif) et al-yūnāniyya ou, moins courant, al-yūnānī (avec ou sans lug̲h̲a ou lisān), la langue grecque ancienne. La vocalisation yūnānī, au lieu de yawnānī préférée par certains (cf. al-Tawḥīdī, Baṣāʾir, édit. W. al-Ḳāḍī, Beyrouth 1408/1988, VIII, 11), est la forme qu’al-Samʿānī dit être généralement acceptée ( Ansāb, édit. Ḥaydarābād, XIII, 536) et pourrait avoir été préférée parce qu’elle suit le schème arabe fuʿlān. L’ancienne désignation de Ioniens pour les «Grecs» au Pro…

al-Mubas̲h̲s̲h̲ir b. Fātik

(712 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abū l-Wafāʾ, historien et savant égyptien du Ve/XIe siècle. D’origine syrienne à ce qu’on dit, il passa apparemment toute sa longue vie en Égypte. Il vécut et travailla probablement à titre privé, et il peut avoir entretenu des liens avec les cercles dirigeants du pays. En plus de l’histoire, il s’intéressait aussi, entre autres, à la philosophie et à la médecine. Il est censé avoir travaillé dans ces domaines avec des maîtres tels qu’Ibn al-Hayt̲h̲am et Ibn Riḍwān; un médecin juif du nom d’Ibn Raḥmūn…

As̲h̲ʿab

(257 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, surnommé «le Cupide», comédien médinois qui évolua dans l’entourage des petitsenfants des quatre premiers califes, et réussit particulièrement dans sa profession au cours des premières années du IIe/VIIIe siècle. Il aurait vécu jusqu’en 154/771. Les renseignements historiques à son sujet sont assez abondants; quoique entachés de beaucoup de légendes, ils nous permettent d’avoir un aperçu de la vie d’un amuseur professionnel à l’époque umayyade. Les histoires et les plaisanteries attachées à son nom ont trait à la politiq…

al-S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Yūnānī

(370 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, surnom de l’un des protagonistes de la transmission à l’Islam de la pensée autoritative néoplatonicienne, basée sur la traduction de larges sections des livres IV à VI des Ennéades de Plotin. Des fragments sous cet intitulé ont été retrouvés, qui ne permettent pas toutefois la reconstitution de la forme et du contenu de cet ouvrage. On ne saurait décider davantage si le surnom d’al-S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Yūnānī cache un philosophe donné, ni même s’il a à voir avec la totalité de la source arabe plotinienne perdue. L’éventail de sens du mot s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ [ q.v.] donne le choix entre «le Maître gr…

al-Ḏj̲awwānī

(604 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abū ʿAlī Muḥammad b. Asʿad, généalogiste et historien arabe, né en 525/1131, m. en 588/1192. La famille Ḏj̲awwānī prétendait descendre de ʿAlī par un fils de ʿUbayd Allāh b. al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib. Cette généalogie était bien établie au moins dès la première moitié du IVe/Xe s., au moment où Abū l-Farad̲j̲ al-Iṣfaḥānī ( Maḳātil al-Ṭālibiyyīn, Caire 1368/1949, 193, 435, 438) rapporte des informations historiques reçues personnellement de ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm al-Ḏj̲awwānī. lui-même généalogiste et huitième ancêtre direct de no…

Taṣḥīf

(982 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
(a.), faute d’orthographe, synonyme de taḥrīf (moins l’usage spécifique de ce dernier, [ q.v.]), malgré de sporadiques tentatives pour établir artificiellement une distinction entre eux. Alors que sa signification est sans ambiguïté, la dérivation du mot l’est moins. Son rapport avec ṣ-ḥ-f dans le sens (sud-sémitique à l’origine) d’«écrire» [voir Muṣḥaf] peut être admis pour certain; la connotation négative pourrait refléter une position négative envers tout écrit comme envers l’oralité, plutôt qu’un sens privatif de la deuxième forme du verbe. Il n’est pas exclu que taḥrīf ait …

Sīfawayh al-Ḳāṣṣ

(286 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, humoriste du IIe VIIIe siècle. Ḳāṣṣ [ q.v.] «conteur», est employé ici comme il n’était pas rare au même sens que d’autres termes moins ambigus désignant un «plaisantin». Il est aussi dépeint comme le prototype du mug̲h̲affal «farceur irresponsable». Il est impossible de décider si son surnom doit être lu Sīfawayh ou Sayfawayh, et son identification à un autre ḳāṣṣ du nom de ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, suggérée par le récent éditeur des Ḳuṣṣāṣ d’Ibn al-Ḏj̲awzī, est sujette à caution. Sīfawayh est crédité de plaisanteries et de commentaires à connotation sociale, y compris de r…

Ibn al-At̲h̲īr

(1,878 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, nom de famille (porté par un certain nombre de familles sans lien, semble-t-il, entre elles) qui a acquis un lustre immense et mérité grâce à trois frères, Mad̲j̲d al-dīn, ʿIzz al-dīn et Ḍiyāʾ al-dīn, qui se firent respectivement une renommée littéraire dans la philologie et les études religieuses, l’historiographie et la critique littéraire. Leur père, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Karīm (souvent appelé, mais de façon apparemment incorrecte, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Karīm), qui vécut durant la plus grande partie du VIe/XIIe siècle, était un haut fonctionnaire des Zangides de…

Abū ʿArūba

(219 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
al-Ḥusayn b. Abī Maʿs̲h̲ar Muḥammad b. Mawdūd al-Sulamī al-Ḥarrānī, savant de Ḥarrān en matière de ḥadīt̲h̲ (né vers 222/837, m. en 318/930-1). On ne sait pratiquement rien sur sa vie à l’exception des noms de ses maîtres et de ses élèves, parmi lesquels figurent des personnages très connus. On dit qu’il fut juge ou muftī de Ḥarrān. Une source (Ibn ʿAsākir apud Ḏh̲ahabī) déclare qu’il était partisan des Umayyades: Selon le Fihrist, 230, Abū ʿArūba n’écrivit qu’un ouvrage, recueil de traditions transmises par ses maîtres. Ce livre semble être identique aux Ṭabaḳāt qui sont mentionnées …

al-Maḳrīzī

(1,217 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Taḳī l-dīn Abū l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir (766-845/1364-1442), historien égyptien. Son père (m. 779/1378) ayant, à l’âge de 50 ans, épousé une fille du riche philologue et juriste Ibn al-Ṣāʾig̲h̲ (m. 776/1375), il naquit au Caire, sans doute en 765/1363-4. Sa nisba provient d’un quartier de Baʿlabakk d’où la famille de son père était originaire. Son grand-père paternel, ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. Muḥammad (vers 677-733/1278-1322; voir Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Durar, II, 391-2) était ḥanbalite, son grand-père maternel, qui exerça une certaine influence sur sa première édu…

Ḳimār

(2,057 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
est le terme islamique le plus courant pour désigner les jeux d’argent et de hasard strictement interdits par le droit musulman. Cette prohibition a été entraînée par la mention, dans le Ḳurʾān (II, 219/216 et V, 90 sq./92 sq.), du maysir [ q.v.], que ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUmar (cf. al-Buk̲h̲ārī, al-Adab al-mufrad, Caire 1375, 325) est déjà supposé avoir expressément assimilé au ḳimār en général. C’est bien rarement, et pour le simple plaisir de discuter, que des voix s’élevèrent pour mettre en question la précédente supposition et celle qui consistait à considér…

Nard

(985 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
(a.), terme d’origine persane désignant le jeu de trictrac. La forme attestée dans des traités en pehlévi, nēv-artak̲h̲s̲h̲ēr «courageux Ardas̲h̲īr», a été contractée en nardas̲h̲īr (largement attesté en arabe) puis abrégée en nard. Cette évolution est tout à fait probable (cf. par ex. le toponyme Nēw Hormizd Ardas̲h̲īr > Narmas/s̲h̲īn; voir R. N. Frye, dans JSAI, XIII (1990), 40); néanmoins, les doutes soulevés par T. Nöldeke ( Persische Studien, dans SBAK Wien, Philos.-hist. Classe, CXXVI (1892), 25-6) restent valables, surtout du fait que l’occurrence probableme…

Ibn Ḳuṭlūbug̲h̲ā

(742 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Ḳāsim b. Ḳuṭlūbug̲h̲ā al-Ḥanafī, savant égyptien en ḥadīt̲h̲ et en droit. Il naquit en muḥarram 802/septembre 1399; il perdit son père, Ḳuṭlūbug̲h̲ā, affranchi de Sūdūn al-S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ūnī (m. 798/1396), alors qu’il était encore jeune. Dans sa jeunesse, il assura sa subsistance en exerçant le métier de tailleur, mais s’engagea de bonne heure dans ses études religieuses qu’il poursuivit sa vie durant. Un de ses premiers maîtres fut ʿIzz al-dīn Ibn Ḏj̲amāʿa (m. 819/1416) et son principal s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ fut Ibn al-Humām (m. 861/1457). Comme tous les futurs savants de l’époque, …

Nasab

(1,832 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
(a.) «relation, ascendance, généalogie», désigne le principe fondamental d’organisation sociale chez les Arabes, qui remonte aux temps les plus reculés. Comme aucun terme apparenté n’a encore été déterminé dans d’autres langues sémitiques, il n’est pas tout à fait invraisemblable de proposer une parenté préhistorique entre les racines s. b. b et n.s.b. qui se reflète inconsciemment dans le parallélisme de nasab et sabab «corde, relation» du ḥadīt̲h̲ (Concordance, II, 388). La généalogie fournit la validation historique de la parenté et de tout ce qu’elle implique.…

Ibn Abī Ṭāhir Ṭayfūr

(802 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abū l-Faḍl Aḥmad, littérateur et historien de Bag̲h̲dād. Né en 204/819-20, dans une famille d’origine persane, il débuta comme professeur et établit sa résidence définitive au marché des Libraires, dans le quartier oriental de Bag̲h̲dād, s’engageant ainsi dans une carrière littéraire qui le mit en contact avec nombre de littérateurs éminents et de hauts fonctionnaires et qui se traduisit par la composition d’une cinquantaine d’ouvrages. Il était également poète, et ses vers provoquèrent des criti…

Ibn al-ʿImād

(149 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, ʿAbd al-Ḥayy b. Aḥmad, professeur syrien de l’école ḥanbalite (1032-89/1623-79), acheva, en 1080/1670, une importante histoire biographique intitulée S̲h̲ad̲h̲arāt al-d̲h̲ahab fī ak̲h̲bar man d̲h̲ahab, qui suit un ordre annahstique et s’étend de l’an un à 1 000. Quoique des événements historiques y soient parfois mentionnés, l’ouvrage comporte surtout des notices nécrologiques souvent assez détaillées. L’intention de l’auteur était ainsi ¶ de venir en aide aux écoliers pauvres comme lui-même, et qui n’avaient pas la possibilité de se constituer une imp…

al-Fāsī

(977 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Taḳī al-dīn Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-Makkī al-Ḥasanī al-Mālikī (775-832/1373-1429), historien de la Mekke;par ses liens familiaux et son éducation, il était tout à fait qualifié pour composer son œuvre éminente d’historien de sa ville natale. Son père Aḥmad (754-819/1353-1416) avait reçu une excellente éducation de savant et avait épousé une fille du juge suprême de la Mekke, Abū l-Faḍl Muḥammad b. Aḥmaḍ b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Nuwayrī; une de ses filles, demi-sœur de l’historien, fut mariée en premières noces, pendant un court laps de temps, à l’ amīr de la Mekke, Ḥasan b. ʿAd̲j̲…

Ras̲h̲wa

(1,043 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
(a.) ou, apparemment préférés par les puristes, Ris̲h̲wa/Rus̲h̲wa. pl. rus̲h̲ā, p. ris̲h̲wat, ris̲h̲we, rus̲h̲wa, t. rüşvet, terme juridique pour «potde-vin». Comme le français «pot-de-vin» ou l’anglais «bribe», la connotation est absolument négative, et tout ce qui est qualifié de ras̲h̲wa est strictement interdit par la loi. Le mot lui-même n’apparaît pas dans le Ḳurʾān. Des passages de portée générale comme II, 188 et V, 42, 62-3 ( suḥt) ont été interprétés comme impliquant l’interdiction d’accepter les pots-de-vin. Cependant, le ḥadīt̲h̲ met les choses parfaitement au …
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