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(279 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, aslam b. sahl al-wāsi̊ṭi̊ al-razzāz , author of a History of Wāsiṭ. Nothing is known of his life except the names of some of his authorities, among them Wahb b. Baḳiyya (155-239/772-853), supposedly his maternal grandfather (but cf. al-Ḵh̲aṭīb al-Bag̲h̲dādī, Taʾrīk̲h̲ Bag̲h̲dād , xiii, 4883-4), and the approximate date of his death, between 288/901 and 292/904-05. The History of Wāsiṭ has come down to us in an incomplete manuscript in Cairo (Taymūr, taʾrīk̲h̲


(496 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Yūsuf b. Masʿūd b. Sālim, a well-regarded minor poet of Ayyūbid times, born in Mawṣil on 25 D̲j̲umādā II 593/15 May 1197 and died in Ḥamāt on Wednesday, 10 S̲h̲awwāl 675/17 March 1277. He claimed Arab descent from the Banū S̲h̲aybān [ q.v.]. His father, known as Ibn ʿUrrād̲j̲, who was born in Tallaʿfar (Tallyaʿfar) near Mawṣil in 560/1165 and died in Naṣībīn on Tuesday, 3 Muḥarram 615/(Sunday!) 1 April 1218, was well educated, a poet and expert in ancient Arabian and Persian …


(136 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abū Muḥammad Muṣṭafā b. Ḥasan b. Sinan al-Ḥusaynī al-Hās̲h̲imi , 10th/16th-century author of an Arabic historical work dealing with eighty-two Muslim dynasties in as many chapters, entitled al-ʿAylam al-zāk̲h̲ir fī aḥwāl al-awāʾil wa’l-awāk̲h̲ir , usually called Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-D̲j̲annābī . A Turkish translation and abridgment were prepared by the author himself. Whether the accepted form of the mak̲h̲laṣ is correct or should be rather D̲j̲anābī cannot be decided in the absence of information as to whence it was derived. A…

Ibn Manda

(1,291 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, a famous Iṣfahānī family of ḥadīt̲h̲ scholars and historians …


(2,136 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, “suicide”, expressed more technically in Arabic by ḳatl nafs - with pronominal suffix (as against ḳatl nafs or


(2,323 words)

Author(s): Hartner, W. | Rosenthal, F. | Heinrichs, W.P.
(a.), a technical term in a number of different disciplines. 1. In astronomy. Here it corresponds to Gr. διάμετρος, in the Almagest άχρόνυκτος, Lat. oppositio, the term for the opposition of a planet and the sun or of two planets with one another. In opposition, the difference in longitude between the two heavenly bodies is 180°; while the modern use is to take no note of the deviations of latitude from the ecliptic, al-Battānī expressly emphasises ( Opus astronomicum, ed. Nallino, iii, 196) that we can only have the true muḳābala when both bodies are either in …


(981 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.


(1,398 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, 1) an Arabic word signifying the period of an individual’s rule or power but also often employed in the meaning of “dynasty”. The root d-w-l may occur in Akkadian dālu “to wander around aimlessly” ( The Assyrian Dictionary , iii, 59) and Syriac dāl “to move, to stir” (Brockelmann, Lex . Syr .2, 144 b). However, the basic meaning of Arabic d-w-l is clearly “to turn, to alternate” (relating it to d-w-r?). The Ḳurʾān has nudāwiluhā “We cause (days) to alternate” (III, 140/134) and dūlatan “something whose ownership is passed around” (LIX, 7/7). In addition, the ḥadīt̲h̲ uses adāla “to cause someone to obtain his ‘turn’ (success, victory)”, and the famous report of the Sīra (Ibn His̲h̲ām, 1011) on Muḥammad’s death mentions that it took place when it was ʿĀʾis̲h̲a’s regular “turn” ( daw/ūlatī ) for Muḥamma…


(243 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, nicknamed “the Greedy”, a Medinese comedian who moved in the circles of the grandchildren of the first four caliphs and flourished in his profession in the early years of the 8th century. He is said to have survived until 154/771. The historical information about him is rather plentiful; though contaminated by much legendary material, it permits us to get a glimpse at the life of a professional entertainer in the Umayyad period. The jokes and stories connected wit…

Ibn S̲h̲arya

(762 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, ʿAbīd/ʿUbayd al-D̲j̲urhumī , sage and antiquary, frequently cited as a relater of quasi-historical traditions. The form of his name is not certain. The manuscripts appear to vacillate between ʿAbīd and ʿUbayd. ʿUmayr occurs by mistake (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Usd al-g̲h̲āba , Būlāḳ 1286, iii, 351; Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Iṣāba , Calcutta 1856-73, iii, 201). The form S̲h̲arya is confirmed by the metre (cf. O. Löfgren, Ein Hamdānī-Fund , Uppsala Universitets Årsskrift , vii (1935), 24; al-Hamdānī, Iklīl , ed. O. Löfgren, Uppsala 1954, 6). However, Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar advocates the pronunciat…

Ibn Ḳuṭlūbug̲h̲ā

(715 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Ḳāsim b. Ḳuṭlūbug̲h̲ā al-Ḥanafī , Egyptian scholar in ḥadīt̲h̲ and religious law. He was born in Muḥarram 802/September 1399. His father, Ḳuṭlūbug̲h̲ā, a freedman of Sūdūn al-S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ūnī (d. 798/1396), died while he was still young. He supported himself in his youth as an accomplished tailor (needleworker) but embarked early upon his religious studies, which he pursued all his life. An early teacher of his was ʿIzz al-Dīn Ibn D̲j̲amāʿa (d. 819/1416). His principal s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ was Ibn al-Humām (d. 861/1457). Like all the aspiring young scholars…

Sīfawayh al-Ḳāṣṣ

(272 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, a humorist of the 2nd/8th century. Ḳāṣṣ [ q.v.] “storyteller” is employed here, as was quite common, in the same sense as other less ambiguous terms for jester; he was also described as the prototypical mug̲h̲affal “irresponsible wit”. No decision is possible as to whether his nickname should be vocalised Sīfawayh or Sayfawayh, and the identification with another ḳāṣṣ called ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, suggested on the ba…

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī

(242 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Muḥyī al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Naṣr Allāh b. Sālim b. Abi ’l-Wafāʾ , Egyptian professor of Ḥanafite jurisprudence and biographer, born S̲h̲aʿbān 696/May-June 1297, died 7 Rabīʿ I 1775/27 August 1373. He is best known for his collection of alphabetically arranged brief biographies of Ḥanafites, al-Ḏjawāhir al-Muḍiyya fī Ṭabaḳāt al-Ḥanafiyya (Ḥaydarābād 1332/1913-4), a valuable reference work, generally considered to be the first to deal with its particular subject. Written in a country in which the Ḥana…


(993 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
(a.) or, apparently preferred by purists, ris̲h̲wa/rus̲h̲wa , pl. rus̲h̲ā , Persian ris̲h̲wat , ris̲h̲we , rus̲h̲wa , Turkish rüşvet , the legal term for “bribe.” Like English “bribe”, its connotation is absolutely negative and whatever is called ras̲h̲wa is strictly forbidden by law. The word itself does not occur in the Ḳurʾān. More general passages like II, 188, and V, 42, 62-3 ( suḥt ) were interpreted to include the prohibition of bribe-taking. The ḥadīt̲h̲ , however, makes the matter perfectly clear. One of the most explicit statements invokes the divine curse upon those who offer and who take bribes (

Ibn al-ʿImād

(145 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, ʿAbd al-Ḥayy b. Aḥmad , a Syrian teacher of the Ḥanbalī school (1032-1089/1623-1679), completed, in 1080/1670, a large biographical history, entitled S̲h̲ad̲h̲arāt al-d̲h̲ahab fī ak̲h̲bār man d̲h̲ahab , which is annalistically arranged and covers the Hid̲j̲ra years one to 1000. Although historical events are occasionally mentioned, the work concentrates …


(1,481 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
Plural of awwal "first", technically used to denote various ideas such as the "primary data" of philosophical or physical phenomena; the "ancients" of either pre-Islamic or early Islamic times; and the "first inventors" of things (or the things invented or done first). In the last mentioned connotation, the term characterises a minor branch of Muslim literature with affinities to adab , historical, and theological literature. Among the Muslims themselves, only the 10th/17th-century Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa (Flügel), i, 490; Istanbul 1941-3, col. 1996, defines the awāʾil

al-Mubas̲h̲s̲h̲ir b. Fātik

(690 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abu ’l-Wafāʾ , 5th/11th century Egyptian historian and savant. Said to have been of Syrian origin, he apparently spent all of his long life in Egypt. He possibly lived and worked as a private scholar, and he may have had ties with the ruling circles of the country. In addition to history, his many interests included philos…


(1,974 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
( Liʿb , Laʿb ), the Arabic word for “play” (also used variously in Persian, against Turkish oyun ), in the Muslim world as fundamental a concept of vast sociological and psychological implications as in other civilisations. Only a few of its aspects can be briefly discussed here. The “play” character of many important human activities (dance, theatre, music, etc.) does not come under our purview, nor do ritual games as survivals of pre-Islamic religiously-motivated customs. We find them occasionally mentioned, as, for instance, in references to New Year practices, cf. al-Bīrūnī, Āt̲h̲…


(389 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, S̲h̲aʿwad̲h̲a (also with final d for d̲h̲ ) (a.), prestidigitation, sleight of hand, and from it, mus̲h̲aʿb/wid̲h̲ , magician, trickster. The word is paraphrased by the lexicographers, following al-Layt̲h̲ (b. al-Muẓaffar) [ q.v.], by k̲h̲iffat al-yad and uk̲h̲ad̲h̲ (pl. of uk̲h̲d̲h̲d

Ibn Sayyid al-Nās

(588 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Fatḥ al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-Yaʿmurī al-Is̲h̲bīlī , biographer of the Prophet. The home of the distinguished scholarly family of the Ibn Sayyid al-Nās was in Seville, which they were forced to …


(919 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
(a.), mistake in writing, synonymous, in spite of sporadic artificial at…

Ibn al-Sāʿī

(544 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, ʿAlī b. And̲j̲ab , Abū Ṭālib Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn , ʿIrāḳi historian (14 S̲h̲aʿbān 593/2 July 1197-20 Ramaḍān 674/8 March 1276). Born in Bag̲h̲dād, he appears to have spent all of his life there. He was a librarian, in succession, it seems, of both the Niẓāmiyya and the Mustanṣiriyya libraries. Being inclined to Ṣūfism, he was inducted into it by (ʿUmar b. Muḥammad) al-…


(6,429 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F. | Lewis, B.
, “freedom,” an abstract formation derived from ḥurr “free” corresponding to Hebrew ḥōr , Aram. ḥēr ( ḥerūt̲ā ), widely used also in Muslim languages other than Arabic. Already in pre-Islamic times, “free” was known not only as a legal term denoting the opposite of “unfree, slave” ( ʿabd [ q.v.]) but also as an Ethical term denoting those “noble” of character and behavior. The legal concept of “freedom” continued to be used as a matter of course by Muslim jurists, who were inclined to give preference to the presumption of a free status for individuals in doubtful cases [see ʿabd …

al-S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Yūnānī

(365 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, the disguise of one of the participants in the transmission of authoritative Neoplatonic thought to Islam based upon a translation of large portions of books IV-VT of the Enneads of Plotinus. Fragments with this designation have been recovered without, however, allowing a reconstruction of the form and extent of his work. It is also debatable whether al-S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Yūnānī was substituting for the name of a given philosopher and …

Ibn Ḥamdūn

(330 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abu ’l-Maʿālī Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan , the author of a vast and highly informative collection dealing with a great variety of adab subjects and entitled al-Tad̲h̲kira , which enjoyed much popularity during the Mamlūk period. Born in Rad̲j̲ab 495/April-May 1102 as one of the sons of an official well versed in financial and administrative matters, of a family which claimed to be related to the Ḥamdānids’ ancestor Ḥamdūn, he entered government service, attaining the offices of

Ibn Abī Ṭāhir Ṭayfūr

(769 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad , Bag̲h̲dādī littérateur and historian. Born in 204/819-20 into a family of Persian origin, he started out as a teacher and eventually took up residence in the bookmen’s bazaar in the Eastern quarter of Bag̲h̲dād, embarking upon a literary career which brought him into contact with many of the outstanding littérateurs and high government officials of his time and resulted in the composition of about fifty works. He was also a poet whose verses provoked criticism—deserved or undeserved—in some quarters. Among other things, he wrote works in the fürstenspiegel


(8,430 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F. | Bosworth, C.E. | Wansbrough, J. | Colin, G.S. | Busse, H. | Et al.
, one of many Arabic words used to express the concept of “gift”, and the preferred legal term for it, see following article. The giving of gifts, that is, the voluntary transfer of property, serves material and psychological purposes. In the pre-history of man, it probably antedates the contractual payment for goods and services. In Islam, it has retained its inherited functions as an important component of the social fabric and has exercised a considerable influence on political life. Literature (in the narrow sense…

Ibn ʿĀʾid̲h̲

(380 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, the author of a work on the Raids ( mag̲h̲āzī

Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar al-ʿAsḳalānī

(3,172 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad b. Nūr al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Muḥammad , Egyptian ḥadīt̲h̲ scholar, judge, and historian (773-852/1372-1449), whose life work constitutes the final summation of the science of ḥadīt̲h̲ and makes him one of the greatest and, at the same time, most typical representatives of Muslim religious scholarship. He himself did not know the origin of his family name Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar. The nisba ʿAsḳalānī was considered by family tradition to go back to 587/1191, when Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn ordered ʿAsḳalān [ q.v.] to …

Ibn al-At̲h̲īr

(1,870 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, a family name (borne by a number of apparently unrelated families) which was given great and deserved lustre by three brothers, Mad̲j̲d al-Dīn, ʿIzz al-Dīn, and Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn, who achieved literary fame in the fields of, respectively, philology and religious studies, historiography, and literary criticism. Their father, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Karīm (often but apparently incorrectly: Muḥ.


(541 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, pl. ḥawās̲h̲ī , meaning (1) the margin (of pages in[ , ʿalā , bi-] which notes could be written), then (2) the marginal note itself (or “note” in general), and, finally, (3) gloss , used in the sing., undoubtedly as a profession of modesty, in titles of independent works, at times of some length, dealing with comments on subjects treated by earlier authors. This last usage is comparatively late; none of the ca. 150 titles listed in Brockelmann, S III, 892-4, antedates the 8th/14th century. Although it was used as a book title all over the Muslim world, ḥās̲h̲iya enjo…


(259 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, the name of two tenth-century historians, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad b. Ḏj̲aʿfar (b. 282/895-6, d. 362/972-3) and his son, Abū Manṣūr Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh (327/939-398/1007). ʿAbd Allāh’s great-grandfather had been brought to the ʿIrāḳ from Farg̲h̲āna and had become a Muslim under al-Muʿtaṣim. ʿAbd Allāh himself was a student of the great Ṭabarī, whose works he transmitted, and he achieved high rank in the army. …


(1,033 words)

Author(s): Becker, C.H. | Rosenthal, F.
, aḥmad b. yaḥyā b. ḏj̲ābir b. dāwūd , one of the greatest Arabic historians of the 3rd/9th century. Little is known of his life. Neither the year of his birth nor that of his death is directly attested. From the dates of his teachers, it is evident that he cannot have been born later than the beginning of the second decade of the 9th century A.D.; for the date of his death, Muslim authors suggest, as the latest and most likely date, ca. 892 A.D. As he is said to have been a transl…

Ibn al-Dubayt̲h̲ī

(380 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, D̲j̲amāl al-Dīn abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Saʿīd b. Yaḥyā . an ʿIrāḳī historian, was born in Wāsiṭ on Monday, 26 Rad̲j̲ab 558/Sunday, 30 June 1163, and died in Bag̲h̲dād on Monday, 8 Rabīʿ II 637/7 November 1239. His History of Wāsiṭ is not preserved. His History of Bag̲h̲dād, variously called d̲h̲ayl or mud̲h̲ayyal and extant in individual manuscripts, continues the work of al-Samʿānī, which in turn was a continuation of the Taʾrīk̲h̲ Bag̲h̲dād

Ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakam

(958 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
refers to the son and the four grandsons of ʿAbd al-Ḥakam (said to have died in 171/787-88), a wealthy and influential family of legal scholars and historians in 3rd/9th century Egypt. The Banū ʿAbd al-Ḥakam were among those who introduced Mālikism into Egypt. They were also intimately connected with al-S̲h̲afiʿī [ q.v.], providing the initia…


(975 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Taḳī al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-Makkī al-Ḥasanī al-Mālikī (775-832/ 1373-1429), historian of Mecca, was, through family connexions and upbringing, eminently qualified for his lifework as the outstanding historian of his native city. His father Aḥmad (754-819/1353-1416) had received an excellent scholarly education and was married to a daughter of the Meccan chief judge Abu ’l-Faḍl Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. ʿAbd-al-ʿAzīz al-Nuwayrī; a daughter of his, and half-sister of the hist…


(1,294 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.


(645 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. S̲h̲ākir al-Dārānī al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī (686[?]-764/1287-1363), Syrian historian. The date of his birth is uncertain, since only one ms. of Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar’s Durar fills the blank that was to contain it. It is plausible, however, and neither confirmed nor contradicted by the fact that a highly personal obituary notice in the ʿUyūn (Ms. Cambridge 699, fols. 7b-8a,


(182 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, abū zakariyyāʾ yazīd b. muḥ. b. iyās b. al-ḳāsim , historian of Mosul, who died in 334/945-6. While the work on Mosul by Ibrāhīm b. Muḥ. b. Yazīd al-Mawṣilī, who lived a generation before Al-Azdī, appears to have been concerned only with the biographies of religious scholars, al-Azdī wrote both on the "Classes of Mosul

Ibn al-Fuwaṭī

(944 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Kamāl al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ b. Aḥmad , historian and librarian, born in Bag̲h̲dād on 17 Muḥarram 642/25 June 1244. At the age of fourteen, he was imprisoned by the conquering Mongols and remained in this situation for, it seems, less than two years. In 660/1261-62, he joined the great scholar and wazīr , Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī [ q.v.], in Marāg̲h̲a where he became the librarian of the Observatory Library. In 679/1280-81, he returned to his native Bag̲h̲dād and was soon appointed director of the Mustanṣiriyya Library. Apart from occasional trips within …


(1,235 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Taḳī al-Dīn Abū ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir (766-845/1364-1442), Egyptian historian. His father (d. 779/1378 at the age of fifty), m…

Abū ʿArūba

(231 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, al-Ḥusayn b. Abī Maʿs̲h̲ar Muḥammad b. Mawdūd al-Sulamī al-Ḥarrānī , ḥadīth scholar of Ḥarrān …

Ibn Fahd

(1,293 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, an important Meccan family whose activities during a period of two hundred years in the 8th-10th/14th-16th centuries are known in quite considerable detail. The family claimed ʿAlid descent through Muḥammad b. al-Ḥanafiyya. Its members were all well trained in the traditional subjects and learned mainly in S̲h̲āfiʿī but also in Ḥanafī law. Through four successive generations, they boasted of productive historians whose chief interest lay in local history and biography. Through marriage, the Ba…

Ibn al-Tiḳṭaḳā

(387 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Ṣafī al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAlī , ʿIrāḳī historian. A descendant of al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī through Ibrāhīm al-Ṭabāṭabā, he was born, it seems, shortly after the conquest of Bag̲h̲dād by the Mongols, which he does not mention as having witnessed personally. His father, Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Ramaḍān, chief naḳīb of the ʿAlids, had gained great wealth and influence, but in…


(158 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
(also s̲h̲ahdānaḳ , s̲h̲āhdānad̲j̲ s̲h̲ādānaḳ , s̲h̲arānaḳ ) hempseed. In Greek pharmacology and throughout its Arabic counterpart, it was known as a rather minor simple, useful for drying out fluid in the ear by dripping its oil into it, harmful in that it caused headache and sexual dysfunction when eaten in large quantities, and the like. The word was commonly accepted as the Persian equivalent of Greek cannabis , Ar. ḳinnab , and hence served as another ¶ term for ḥas̲h̲īs̲h̲ [ q.v.]; this may explain why so many different forms were in use. (F. Rosenthal) Bibliography A. Dietrich, Dioscur…


(605 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abū ʿAlī Muḥammad b. Asʿad , Arab genealogist and historian, b. 525/1131, d. 588/1192. The Ḏj̲awwānī family claimed ʿAlid descent through a son of ʿUbayd Allāh b. al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib. This pedigree was well established at least as early as the first half of the 4th/10th century when Abu ’l-Farad̲j̲ al-Iṣfahānī ( Maḳātil al-Ṭālibiyyīn , Cairo 1368/1949, 193, 435, 438) reported historical information received by him personally from ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm al-D̲j̲awwānī, himself a genealogist and the eighth line…


(1,600 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, or Fūt̲h̲āg̲h̲ūras (rarely Būt̲h̲āg̲h̲ūras or other individual transliterations), Pythagoras, the Greek philosopher of the sixth century B.C., as celebrated and as elusive a figure in Islam as in the West. The distinction between the man and the school, or schools, bearing his name was occasionally sensed but, of course, not really understood, and no true distinction was made between the two. The partly historical and mostly legendary circumstances of his life were known in considerable detail through a lengthy summary of his biography from Porphyry’s Philosophos Historia


(443 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Taʿlīḳa (a., pls. taʿlīḳāt , taʿālīḳ ) in scholarly activity refers to the “appending upon ( ʿala )” a text or the “deriving from ( ʿan )” an author and then to the resulting notes, glosses, comments, excerpts and appendices. Similar in a way to ḥās̲h̲iya [ q.v.], it is, however, much less firmly anchored in manuscripts than ḥās̲h̲iya was originally. ¶ In later centuries, it came to be used quite frequently in titles of essays. Earlier, its supposed use as a title was more descriptive than formal and was often the choice of convenience by someone other than the author. Among titles listed in the Fihrist , Taʿlīḳāt appears only for two alchemical works ( Fihrist, 359, 11. 5, 16) and is of uncertain meaning. In later bibliographies, some titles of works by philosophers and scientists were expanded, obviously not by their authors, by the addition of “in the form of notes” (

Abū Maʿs̲h̲ar Nad̲j̲īḥ b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Sindī

(234 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J. | Rosenthal, F.
al-Madanī , a slave from the Yaman, possibly of Indian parentage, who purchased his freedom and lived in Medina. He was considered a rather "weak" ḥadīt̲h̲ scholar, but he is deservedly famous as the author of a Kitāb al-Mag̲h̲āzī. Numerous fragments of it have been preserved by al-Wāḳidī and Ibn Saʿd. Among his authorities he mentions Nāfiʿ, the mawlā of Ibn ʿUmar, Muḥammad b. Kaʿb al-Ḳurazī, and other s…


(1,437 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
refers to the ancient Greeks, reflecting the name “Ionians”. Yūnānī means Greek (noun and adjective) and al-yūnāniyya or, less commonly, al-yūnānī (with or without lug̲h̲a or


(426 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Isḥāḳ b. al-ʿAbbās , 3rd/9th-century historian of Mecca. No information on him was available to later Muslim scholars, or is to us, except what can be learned from his History of Mecca , of which the second half is preserved in a single manuscript in Leiden (cod. or. 463). A small portion of the work has been edited by F. Wüstenfeld, Die Chroniken der Stadt Mekka , Leipzig 1857-61, ii, 3-51. Al-Fākihī was alive and, it seems, quite young during the judgeship of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd b. Muḥammad b. Hanzala b. Muḥam…

al-Kindī, Abū ʿUmar Muḥammad

(649 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
b. Yūsuf al-Tud̲j̲ībī , historian of Egypt, was born on yawm al-naḥr

Ibn Yūnus

(118 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abū Saʿīd ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Aḥmad al-Ṣadafī (b. 281/894, d. Monday 26 D̲j̲umādā II 347/14 September 958, which, however, was a Tuesday), a grandson of …


(2,074 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, the game of chess. The derivation of the word from Sanskrit catur añga “having four ranks” (Nyberg, 54a) is generally accepted. Arab philologists often argued in favour of a vocalisation s̲h̲iṭrand̲j̲ and offered more or less ill-advised attempts at etymology (Lane 1551c, and see R. Ermers, in JAOS, cxiv [1994], 294b). While the form of the word supports the game’s Indian provenience as a war game, chess reached the Near East via Persia, as shown by the many Persian terms employed in it. The Muslim Near East, in turn, transmitted it to Euro…


(507 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, muḥyī al-dīn muḥammad b. sulaymān al-ḥanafī , 9th-15th century scholar and prolific writer on many subjects. Born in, or rather, after, 788/1386-87 in Ṣarūk̲h̲ān [ q.v.] in a place called Kökd̲j̲ekī, apparently situated near Bergama as indicated by the additional nisba al-Barg̲h̲amī, he came to Egypt after 830/1427 and was soon welcomed into the leading scholarly circles there. Čaḳmaḳ appointed him a professor in the Zāwiyat al-As̲h̲raf S̲h̲aʿbān and later promoted him to the academic deanship ( mas̲h̲yak̲h̲at al-tadrīs ) of S̲h̲aʿbān’s Turba. The id…

Ibn al-Dāya

(761 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Aḥmad b. Yūsuf b. Ibrāhīm , Ṭūlūnid historian. His father Yūsuf was a fosterbrother of the caliph al-Muʿtaṣim and an administrative assistant to Ibrāhīm b. al-Mahdī. As such, Yūsuf moved in the centre of intellectual life in Bag̲h̲dād and Sāmarrā and counted among his acquaintances many littérateurs and physicians. After the death of Ibn al-Mahdī in 224/839 (and, presumably, in consequence of it), he left Sāmarrā for D…


(1,892 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
is the most common Islamic term for gambling, which is strictly forbidden according to Muslim law. The prohibition goes back to the references to maysir [ q.v.] in Ḳurʾān, II, 219/216, and V, 90 f ./92 f. Maysir was expressly equated with ḳimār in general, supposedly already by ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUmar (cf. al-Buk̲h̲ārī, al-Adab al-mufrad , Cairo 1375, 325). Voices querying this assumption, and the assumption that the Ḳurʾān had the legal classification of “forbidden” in mind, were rarely raised, and then only for the sake of argument. For all we know, the Muslim ban on all gambling has existed since the time of the Prophet in the same form as later on, and has remained in force throughout. Gambling was conceived as a transaction in which property changed hands arbitrarily and unproductively, something falli…

Ibn Lahīʿa

(521 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, ʿAbd Allāh b. Lahīʿa b. ʿUḳba , Egyptian traditionist and judge ( b. ca . 96/688-69, d. Sunday, 15 Rabīʿ I 174/1 August 790, or 23 D̲j̲umādā II 174/6 November 790). The few known facts about his life are that he was appointed judge in 155/772 with a monthly salary of thirty


(945 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, ʿalam al-dīn al-ḳāsim b. muḥammad b. yūsuf , also called Ibn al-Birzālī, Syrian historian and ḥadīt̲h̲ scholar. He was born in Damascus in D̲j̲umada I or II, 665/February-April, 1267. A case could be made for the earlier date, sometimes mentioned, of 663/1265, but al-Birzālī himself evidently maintained that he was born in 665. His ancestors belonged to the Birzāl [ q.v.] Berbers. His great-grandfather, Zaki al-Dīn Muḥammad b. …


(396 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, abū ’l-ḥasan aḥmad b. ʿabd allāh b. muḥammad , appears to be the most acceptable form of the name of the alleged author, or final rāwī , of historical novels dealing with the early years of Islam, who also is credited with a mawlid and a fictional life of Muḥammad. The ¶ earliest biography devoted to him is to be found in al-D̲h̲ahabī, Mīzān , Cairo 1325, i, 53. Al-D̲h̲ahabī indignantly describes al-Bakrī as a liar and …


(547 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Nūr al-Dīn Ibn Rustum , Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, 7th/13th century ¶ Syrian poet. Born in 619/1222 in Isʿird or Siʿird [ q.v.] in Southeastern Anatolia, which he sentimentally remembers in his Dīwān , he lived in Bag̲h̲dād and visited Egypt, but most of his adult life was, it seems, spent in Damascus (and al-Ṣāliḥiyya). There the ḳaḍī Ṣadr al-Dīn Ibn Sanī al-Dawla (590-658/1194-1260), for whom al-Isʿirdī expressed biting contempt, appointed him one of the official witnesses (attorneys) doing business under the famous clock of the great mosque. He won the favour of al-Malik al-Nāṣir Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Yūsuf, ruler of Aleppo (…


(297 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan , 10th/16th century author of a once popular history of Muḥammad, entitled Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-k̲h̲amīs fī aḥwāl nafs nafīs and preserved in numerous MSS and printed twice (Cairo 1283, 1302). The work is furnishe…


(980 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. al-Ṭayyib b. Marwān, the most prominent disciple of al-Kindī and, like his master, a dedicated advocate of Greek learning at the unsure early stage of its Muslim integration, but with a more pronounced inclination toward


(2,000 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn K̲h̲a…

Abū Nuʿaym al-Faḍl b. Dukayn al-Mulāʾī

(384 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, ḥadīt̲h̲ scholar and historical informant (b. 130/748, d. 29 S̲h̲aʿbān 219/8 Sept. 834). He was a client of the family of Muḥammad’s Companion Ṭalḥa. He lived in al-Kūfa and made occasional visits to Bag̲h̲d…

Ḥamza al-Iṣfahānī

(801 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, ( Ḥamza b. al-Ḥasan , [ Ibn ] al-Muʾaddib ), philologist and historian of the 4th/10th century. Born about 280/893, he died after 350/961 (the year in which his Chronology was completed; note also that ʿAḍud al-Dawla, for whom he is supposed to have written one of his works, was so named only in 351) and, it is said, before 360/970-71. Most of his life was spent in his native Iṣfahān. He mentions three visits to Bag̲h̲dād, one dated in 308/920-1, and another, his third, in 323/935. He had contact with…

Ibn Abi ’l-Dam

(398 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Ibrāhīm b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥamawī , historian and S̲h̲āfiʿī jurist. Born in Ḥamāt on 21 Ḏj̲umādā I 583/29 July 1187, he studied in Bag̲h̲dād, taught in Ḥamāt, Aleppo, …


(1,745 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
(a.) “connection, pedigree, genealogy” designates the most fundamental organising principle of Arab society. It would seem to be an inheritance from the earliest times. Since no convincing cognate has as yet been determined in other Semitic languages, it is not entirely implausible to suggest a prehistoric relationship between the roots s-b-b and n-s-b, unconsciously reflected in the parallelism of nasab and sabab “rope, connection” in the ḥadīt̲h̲ ( Concordance , ii, 388). …
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