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Methodius

(918 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Duridanov, Ludmil (Freiburg)
(Μεθόδιος; Methódios). [German version] [1] Bishop of Olympus, 3rd-4th cent. AD Bishop of Olympus (late 3rd - early 4th cent. BC). Little about his life is known for certain. According to Jer. Vir. ill. 83 he was bishop of Olympus in Lycia, but Tyre, Patara, Myra and Philippi are also mentioned as his see. His martyrdom, also reported by Jerome, is equally disputed. M., who preferred the dialogue form in imitation of Plato, wrote numerous works (CPG 1810-1830) in an elegant style. His main work Sympósion ē Perí hagneías (Συμπόσιον ἢ Περὶ ἁγνείας [2]) celebrates virginity as an anti…

Romanos

(779 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ῥωμανός; Rhōmanós). [German version] [1] R. Melodod, the Melodist Byzantine hymnographer, 5th/6th cent. AD (Ῥωμανὸς Μελωδός; Rhōmanòs Melōdós). Byzantine hymnographer of Syrian origin, b. before AD 493 at Emesa (present-day Ḥims in Syria), d. between AD 551 and 565 at Constantinople. Initially deacon at Berytus (Beirut), he took up his post at the Church of the Virgin at Constantinople under the emperor Anastasius [1] I. According to legend, he is said to have decided to become a composer of hymns after receivi…

Laura

(112 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (λαύρα/ Laúra, ‘lane’). Originally a Christian monastic settlement of hermits under the leadership of a common superior. Around AD 330, Chariton (Χαρίτων) founded near Pharan, Douka and Souka in Palestine the first laúrai with cells (κελλία; kellía) and caves that were connected by a lane. In the centre of the facilities were the church, the bakery, storerooms as well as the home of the superior. The hermits only gathered for the service with the Eucharist. This type of monastery became definitive for Byzantine Chri…

Boeotia, Boeotians

(1,481 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Βοιωτία, Βοιωτοί; Boiōtía, Boiōtoi). [German version] A. Topography Region and people in south-eastern Central Greece; with c. 2,500 km2 almost as large as  Attica. Bounded in the south-west by the Corinthian Gulf and in the north-east and east by the Euboean Gulf, B. is the only land bridge between northern and southern Greece and was thus a battleground over and over again ( Chaeronea,  Coronea,  Plataeae). In the south the  Parnes and the  Cithaeron formed a natural border with Attica and Megaris, while in t…

Petrus

(2,718 words)

Author(s): Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Apostle (Πέτρος/ Pétros, literally 'the rock'). Apostle, leading figure in the group of disciples called by Jesus of Nazareth and in the original Christian community. Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) [German version] A. General comments Sources documenting his life include: (1) the NT writings: the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, Paul's letters (1 Corinthians, Galatians), the 1st and 2nd letter of P. (biographical analysis needs to take into account the special character of these writings); (2) early Church writi…

Gregorius

(2,969 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Γρηγόριος; Grēgórios) [German version] [I 1] Thaumaturgus Lawyer and theologian, 3rd cent. AD G. was born between AD 210 and 213, as the son of a wealthy pagan family in Neocaesarea/ Pontus (modern Niksar), probably under the name of Theodorus. In 232/3 (or 239), after a thorough elementary education G. actually wanted to study law in  Berytus/Beirut but before this in  Caesarea [2] (Palestine) got to know  Origen who taught there and then studied under his supervision the ‘Christian s…

Stephanus

(2,678 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
(Στέφανος; Stéphanos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Antidorides from the deme Eroiadai (Syll.3 205 = IG II/III2 213 = Tod 168: request to renew friendship and alliance with Mytilene in the spring of 346 BC), as prosecutor and politician aligned with Callistratus [2]. The allegation by Apollodorus [1] that S. had attempted to pass off the children of (his children by?) his common-law spouse, Neaera [6], a former hetaera from Corinth, as his own children from a legitimate marr…

Cosmas

(834 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Κοσμᾶς; Kosmâs). [German version] [1] C. and Damianus Doctor's saints and patrons of healing Doctor saints and patrons of healing. The Greek Synaxarion (ed. by H. Delehaye) contains three different pairs of saints with these names: 1) the sons of Theodata, who were born in Asia Minor and buried in Pelusium, whose feast day is 1 November; 2) the Roman martyrs stoned during the rule of  Carinus (283-285), whose feast day is 1 July; 3) the Arab martyrs killed with their three brothers under the emperor Diocleti…

Sinai

(194 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Σινᾶ/ Sinâ, Σινά/ Siná, Σεινά/ Seiná, later also Σιναΐ/ Sinaḯ, Latin Sina; Hebrew sīnay). Mountain in the wilderness of the same name, where the Covenant between Yahweh and Israel was made. S. is primarily attested in the Old Testament; in the New Testament Σινᾶ occurs only in Acts 7,30 and 38 and Gal 4,2; the etymology is debatable. Presumably S. is derived from the Hebrew root sny, 'shine' [1. 52033]. S. often occurs with the later additions 'Mount', 'Desert'. Euseb. On. 172,9 f. distinguished S. from Mount Horeb (Χωρήβ/ Chōrḗb), for Jerome (ibid. 173,15 f.) the …

Eznik of Kolp

(246 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Kołp). Pupil of  Mesrop. His student colleague Koriwn gives some details about E.'s biography in the Vita of Mesrop. According to him, in around AD 406 E. goes to  Edessa [2] (= Urfa) on behalf of his teacher and Katholikos  Sahak in order to learn Syriac and to translate works by the Syrian church fathers into Armenian. Together with Koriwn he brought around 435 Greek biblical manuscripts, manuscripts by the church fathers, and the Acts of the Synods of  Nicaea and  Ephesus from…

Theophanes

(1,115 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Θεοφάνης/ Theophánēs). [German version] [1] T. of Mytilene Close confidant and historiographer of Pompey (Pompeius [I 3]). As a recently-discovered inscription [1. 377-383] shows, T., the son of Hieroitas, was already active as prytanis at Mytilene (FGrH 188 T 1) before making the acquaintance of Pompey, whom he accompanied on the campaign against Mithridates [6] in 67 BC (T 2). He received Roman citizenship from Pompey in 62 BC (cf. Cic. Arch. 24 = T 3a) at an army gathering, and he therefore appears in IG XII 2, 150 as Cn. Po…

Nicolaus

(2,154 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | CH.KÄ. | Et al.
(Νικόλαος/ Nikólaos). [German version] [1] Strategos of Ptolemy IV in Coele Syria, 219 BC Aetolian, stratēgós of Ptolemy IV in Coele Syria. In 219 BC, he unsuccessfully besieged the dissident Theodotus in Ptolemais,  but succeeded in preventing the encirclement of Dora by Antiochus [5] III. Made supreme commander in 218, he occupied the coastal pass north of Sidon, but was repelled by Antiochus at the Damuras river. N. then probably defected to Antiochus, whom he accompanied in 209 to Hyr…

Potamiaena

(117 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Ποταμιαίνα/ Potamiaína). Martyr (died c. AD 360; feast 7 or 28 June). Pupil of Origenes [1] in Alexandria. According to an account by Eusebius [7] (Eus. HE 6,4) she suffered martyrdom under Septimius Severus (193-211). She converted the soldier Basileides who escorted her to her execution. Together with her mother Marcella she was executed by having hot pitch poured over her. After three days she is supposed to have appeared to Basileides, who was arrested for his conversion and then also martyred. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography J. Bollandus, G. Henscheniu…

Mesrop

(287 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] Known as Maštoc in the older MSS and in the vita written by his student Koriwn. His date of birth ( c. AD 360/364) and his descent from the influential family of the Mamikonians are uncertain. Born in Katzikk in the Armenian province of Tarawn, M. received a Hellenic education. After military service under the Armenian king - either Chosrov III ( Chosroes [4]) or his lieutenant Arawan - in Vagharshapat, he became a secretary at the Armenian royal court between 385 and 389. Between 390 and 395, the Armenian Patriarch Sahak [Isaac] the Great ( c. 457-438) made him a monk. Af…

Agathangelus

(217 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Gem cutter, 1st cent. BC Gem cutter (1st cent. BC), signed the famous ‘Agathangelus cameo’ with the portrait of a man (carnelian, Berlin, SM) -- it has been debated since the 18th cent. as to whether this is Sextus Pompeius. Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography Zazoff, AG, 12, 281-283, pl. 79,1. [German version] [2] Secretary to the king of the Arsacides,  Tiridates IV Secretary to the king of the Arsacides,  Tiridates IV (AD 239-281). In the ‘History’ attributed to A., he is described as a ‘reliable witness’. The text deals with the Ch…

Apophthegmata patrum

(215 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀποφθέγματα πατρῶν; Apophthégmata patrôn). Anonymous collection of ‘Patristic sayings’ belonging to the most copied works of early monasticism. It contains short anecdotes of early monastic life and the   anachoresis in the Egyptian desert. They are teachings, prophetic predictions and miraculous acts that describe the daily routine of the monks. Particularly characteristic of the apophthegmata patrum are those sayings that are formulaically introduced by the plea of a believer who petitioned the anchorite in search of advice: ‘Tell …

Diatessaron

(285 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (τὸ διὰ τεσσάρων [εὐαγγέλιον]; tò dià tessárōn [euangélion]). The Diatessaron is the earliest extant harmonization of the gospels, dating back to Tatian, who in the latter third of the 2nd cent. combined the four canonical gospels into one homogenous presentation by embedding the synoptic tradition within the chronological framework of the gospel of John. He also used some apocryphal material and furthermore showed his encratitic, anti-Jewish, and docetic ( Docetics) leanings. Whether the Diatessaron was originally written in Greek or Syriac, in Rom…

Athos

(315 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Ἄθως; Áthōs). [German version] I. Classical and Hellenistic era Highest elevation on the largely forested peninsula of the same name, which in antiquity was mostly called Acte; it is almost 50 km long and averages 6-8 km wide. On its south-east tip a Persian fleet was wrecked in 492 BC and then in 411 BC a Spartan one; its isthmus was penetrated before the advance of Xerxes. The inhabitants of the peninsula (origins largely unknown) were rumoured to be especially long-lived (Makrobioi). The mostly small…

Chazars

(199 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] The C. (Turkish, roughly ‘vagabonds’) belong to the group of Turkish-Altaic peoples and are attested from the 3rd/4th cents. AD. Originally nomadic, in the 7th cent. they founded an autonomous empire reaching from the Black Sea to the Don. Their king (Qağan) was political and religious leader. Although they did not develop their own written language they left behind loan words in Arabic, Greek, Armenian, Georgian, Hebrew and Persian i.a. Their campaigns of conquest reached as far …

Aristides

(3,776 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ἀριστείδης; Aristeídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician and srategos (beginning of the 5th cent. BC) Of Athens, son of Lysimachus. He was one of the most prominent politicians and strategoi of Athens at the time of the Persian Wars. In the battle of Marathon, he probably served as a strategos. In 489/488 BC, he was the eponymous archon (Plut. Aristides 1,2, cf. IG I3 1031). In 482 BC, he was ostrazised ( Ostraka) (Hdt. 8,79; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 22,7; Plut. Aristides 7,1 ff.). His rivalry with  Themistocles, documented already in Herodotus (8,79), …

Palladius

(1,607 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Ruffing, Kai (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Παλλάδιος; Palládios). [German version] [I 1] Greek rhetor, 4th cent. Greek rhetor of the first half of the 4th cent. AD (Suda s.v. P. gives his prime as under Constantinus [1] I) from Methone (probably the Messenian one). According to the Suda, in addition to declamations he wrote in all three rhetorical genres ( genera dicendi ) and also an antiquarian work on the festivals of the Romans (FGrH F 837). Whether P. is identical with one of the numerous Palladii mentioned in the letters of Libanius and if …

Mercurius

(1,746 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania)
[German version] I. Greek (soldier saint) Greek (soldier saint), I (Μερκούριος; Merkoúrios). Widely attested but legendary figure - a soldier saint who according to Soz. 6,2,3ff. is said to have killed Emperor Iulianus [11] at God's behest by spearing him. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography H. Ch. Brennecke, Studien zur Geschichte der Homöer, 1988, 96f. II. Roman (the god Mercury) Roman (the god Mercury), II [German version] A. Origin and functions The traditional view is that M. is the direct Roman transposition of the Greek god Hermes (= H.) [1. 304-306]: …

Sophronius

(224 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Σωφρόνιος/ Sōphrónios). Patriarch of Jerusalem (634-638), Greek-Byzantine saint, poet and author. S. was probably from Damascus and taught rhetoric. He became a monk in Palestine and with his friend Iohannes [29] Moschus travelled to the monastic settlements there. As a staunch opponent of Monotheletism in 633 he tried but failed to persuade Cyrus of Phasis, patriarch of Alexandria [1], to abandon it. S. was able to agree a compromise with the patriarch of Constantinople (Sergios …

Anastasius

(1,079 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
[German version] [1] A. I, AD 491-518 Byzantine emperor A. I, AD 491-518 Byzantine emperor, born c. 431 in Dyrrachion, decurio of the Silentiarii under emperor Zeno the Isaurian, after whose death the widowed empress Ariadne pushed through A.'s selection and took him as her spouse. Ariadne also banned Longinus, the brother of Zeno; he had been regarded as the successor to Zeno. A revolt of the Isaurians which broke out as a consequence of this, was finally put down by A. only in 498. There was a revolt of the people of Constantinople in 512 caused by the preference of the empero…

Amphilochius of Iconium

(125 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] A. ( 340/345 in  Cappadocia, † after 394) was a student of  Libanius and rhetorician in Constantinople. In 370 he returned to Cappadocia and at the instigation of  Basilius the Great became bishop of  Iconium in the newly created province of  Lycaonia in 373. He created an ecclesiastical administration in his episcopacy and defended it against the  Messalians and other heretics. Through his cousin  Gregorius of Nazianze, who converted him, a close friendship developed with the Cappadocians and later with circles in the capital.  Gregorius of Nyssa Savvidis, Kyriak…

Synodikon

(110 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Συνοδικόν; Synodikón). Liturgical formula of the Orthodox Church. The synodìkon originated in the period of iconoclasm in AD 843, on the initiative of Methodius, patriarch of Constantinople, as a document of the victory of the patriarchate over the iconoclasts (Syrian dynasty). It continued the tradition of the diptycha . At the beginning of the 11th cent., the synodìkon was granted the more general function of a liturgical formula, which contained a commemoration list of emperors and patriarchs (in the prov…

Hesychius

(1,271 words)

Author(s): Tosi, Renzo (Bologna) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ἡσύχιος; Hēsýchios). [German version] [1] Alex. scholar, author of a lexicon Alexandrian scholar, author of an alphabetically arranged lexicon, which has passed down to us numerous fragments (primarily of poetry), allows many text variants to be restored, and is of special significance to the study of ancient classical exegesis, of dialects, and of the history of the Greek language. The basis for dating him is the Epistula ad Eulogium, which introduces the lexicon: some scholars identify the addressee with  Eulogius Scholasticus (5th cent. AD), others, includin…

Agrippa

(1,444 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
According to modern etymology, the name derives from *agrei-pod-, ‘having the feet in front’ (according to Leumann, 398, ‘very dubious’). Originally a praenomen (thus still in the Iulii, especially A. Postumus), then a cognomen in the families of the Antonii, Asinii, Cassii(?), Fonteii, Furii, Haterii, Helvii, Iulii, Lurii, Menenii, Vibuleni, Vipsanii, but also of Jewish kings ( Herodes A.). Documented as name of various persons. Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) [German version] [1] M. Vipsanius, consul 37, 28, 27 BC M. Vipsanius, born 64/3 BC, of knightly lineage, probabl…

Iberians

(89 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἴβηροι/ Íbēroi, Ἴβηρες/ Íbēres). I. and Iberia (Ἰβηρία/ Ibēría), as terms for the inhabitants and country of East Georgia, occur only in Graeco-Roman and Byzantine sources; possibly etymologically related to virkʿ (Armenian) or Sáspeires (Σάσπειρες, Hdt. 4,37; 40) [1. 146]. Iberia was bordered in the north by  Sarmatia, in the west by  Colchis, in the south by Greater Armenia ( Armenia) and in the east by  Albania [1] (Ptol. 5,10,1f.). Armenia;  Georgia, Georgians;  Georgian Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography 1 O. Lordkipanidse, Archäologie in Geor…

Kontakion

(198 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (κοντάκιον, κονδάκιον; kontákion, kondákion; from κοντός, ‘parchment roll’). Name given in later times to a genre of Byzantine hymns documented first in the 6th cent. AD. The kontakion consists of 18 to 24 metrically equal stanzas (so-called oíkoi, οἶκοι), preceded by the metrically differing prooemium ( koukoúlion, κουκούλιον). The individual stanzas are connected by acrostichs ( Acrostich) and have a common refrain (the ephýmnion or akroteleútion, ἐφύμνιον, ἀκροτελεύτιον). Kontakia are related to the Syrian madraša ( Ephrem Syrus), …

Elishē

(118 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Ełišē). Author of a history of the Vardanids and the Armenian wars in the Armenian language, describing the uprising of the Armenian people under the leadership of Vardan Mamikonyan against the Sassanid occupation forces in AD 450/1. However, E. did not himself witness the historical events which he describes, but is likely to have lived in the 6th cent. AD. It was his aim to provide a martyrological anchor for the foundation of the Armenian church.  Armenia;  Armenians, Armenian literature;  Sassanids Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography E. Ter-Minassjan, Va…

Syntomon

(90 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (σύντομον; sýntomon). As a specimen of Byzantine liturgical poetry the s. lies between the kontákion and the kanṓn [2], but without having achieved their popularity. In the liturgy of the Orthodox Church its four to nine strophes are inserted between the verses of psalms, and for this reason a s. is also called a stichērón (στιχηρόν). Presumably it can be traced to the poet and hymnographer Kyprianos (1st half of the 8th cent.). Hymn IV. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography J. Szövérffy, A Guide to Byzantine Hymnography ..., 1979.

Eutherius

(221 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Εὐθήριος; Euthḗrios). [German version] [1] Slave at the court of Constantine I An Armenian pagan eunuch, who had come to the court of Constantine I as a slave, later served under Constans, and under Julian rose to praepositus sacri cubiculi (AD 356-360). In Milan in 356/7, E. appeared before Constantius II to defend Julian against Marcellus' accusations (Amm. Marc. 16,7,2f.); after Julian had been made Augustus in 360, he became his envoy with Constantius (Amm. Marc. 20,8,19; 9,1-4; Zos. 3,9,3f.); In 361, Julian recalled him once ag…

Euthymius I of Constantinople

(143 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Εὐθύμιος; Euthýmidos) I of Constantinople (b. c. AD 834 in  Seleucia, d. 917). After a period as monk on the Bithynian  Olympus, he transferred to the monastery of St. Theodorus outside Constantinople. As the father confessor of Emperor  Leo VI, he became abbot of the monastery of Psamathias, which the emperor had built for him specifically. After the deposition of the patriarch of Constantinople,  Nicolaus I Mysticus, he assumed that office; in agreement with the other patriarchs and …

Theodosiopolis

(286 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Θεοδοσιόπολις/ Theodosiópolis, Θεοδοσιούπολις/ Theodosioúpolis). [German version] [1] Modern Ras al-Ain, Syria T. in Osroene (in northern Mesopotamia), according to Procop. BP 2,19,29 (cf. Aed. 2,2,16) on the Ḫabur about 40 miles (= 60 km) from Dara, the village of Resaeina (= Ras al-Ain at the source of the Ḫabur) elevated c. AD 383 by Theodosius [2] I to a city (Malalas 13,40 p. 345 Dindorf). Iustinianus [1] I further increased the fortification of T., which was situated at the end of the Byzantine Limes (VI. C.), with forts (Procop. A…

Gennadius

(167 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] [1] Patriarch of Constantinople 5th cent. AD (Γεννάδιος, Gennádios) Patriarch of  Constantinople AD 458-471. As an advocate at the Council of  Calchedon (451), he opposed acceptance of the Christology of  Cyrillus of Alexandria. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography F. Diekamp, Analecta Patristica, 1938, 54-72 (73-108). [German version] [2] Priest in Marseilles, 5th cent. AD Priest in Marseilles associated with the Semipelagians, who died between 492 and 505. Complementary to  Hieronymus' De viris illustribus, he compiled under the same title a c…

Leontius

(1,073 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Et al.
(Λεόντιος; Leóntios). [German version] [1] Ptolemaic commander of Seleucid Pieria, late 3rd cent. BC Ptolemaic commander of Seleucea Pieria; in 219 BC, he surrendered the city to Antiochus [5] III after initial resistance in a hopeless position. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] General of peltasts, 3rd cent. BC Macedonian, named general of peltasts by Antigonus [3] Doson in his will. Together with Megaleas, L. opposed the pro-Achaean politics of Philippus V and his mentor Aratus [2]; after inciting the elite troops against the k…

Trapezus

(981 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Pontos Euxeinos | Syria | Byzantium | Urarṭu | Christianity | Xenophon | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Limes | Pompeius | Patricius (Τραπεζοῦς/ Trapezoûs; Lat. Trapezus; the modern Trabzon, Turkey). [German version] I. Geographical Situation A Greek city in the region of Colchis (Xen. An. 4,8,22; 5,3,2) on the southeast coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), situated in a favourable setting with a secure acropolis. T. may have been first founded as early as 756 BC (…

Alexius

(223 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] A legend from  Edessa tells of a young Byzantine man (5th cent.) who left his wife on their wedding night to live an ascetic life [1. 36-44]. The figure of A., who became the archetype of the ascetic, was also known in Constantinople in the 9th cent., where Melodus († 833) composed a hymn in honour of A. The discovery of a Greek version that had escaped notice for a long period and which agrees in its main traits with a Syriac version of the 6th cent., but without being its translation [2. 56c], again raises the question of the original's language. Other Greek versions of the A.- vita…

Colchis

(404 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Κολχίς; Kolchís, Lat. Colchis). [German version] I. Historical overview from early times Area of the east coast of the Black Sea ( Pontos Euxeinos) stretching as far as western Transcaucasia, bordered to the north by the Great Caucasus and by Meskheti to the south. The favourable climatic and soil conditions (fertile river valleys, forests and a proliferation of natural resources) meant that advanced civilizations emerged in C. as early as the 3rd millennium BC. Kulcha is mentioned in Urartian documents together with the capital city Ildamuša (which flourished in the 8th cent.…

Tabor

(174 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Ταβώρ/ Tabṓr). Conically tapering mountain with a broad plateau at the peak (about 1,200 m × 400 m) in the Plain of Jezreel in Israel. According to Jos 19:22, the territories of the tribes of Zebulun, Issachar and Naphtali bordered on Mount T. In the Biblical texts, no indications are given of any cultic function of the mountain. Neither is there any connection with the cult of the Rhodian god Zeus Atabyrios ([1]; Rhodes). It has been possible to demonstrate Iron Age settlement [2…

Tychon

(284 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Τύχων/ Týchōn). [German version] [1] Ithyphallic god Ithyphallic god (Str. 13,1,12), associated with Priapus (Diod. Sic. 4,6,4), but primarily with Hermes (Clem. Al. Protreptikos 102,1; Theognostus, Anecdota Oxoniensia 2, p. 33,31 Cramer), as in the only inscriptional record, from Magnesia [2] on the Maeander [2] [2. 136 no. 203]; also with Aphrodite (Herodian. 1,37,15 Lentz; Hesych. s. v. T.; cf. Apollophanes PCG 2 fr. 6). His efficacy was considered limited (Anth. Pal. 9,334,1), but Alexander [II 15…

Philoponos, Iohannes

(656 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Wildberg, Christian (Princeton)
(Φιλόπονος, “der Fleißige”; auch Γραμματικός/ Grammatikós, “der Lehrer” genannt). [English version] I. Leben Ph. lebte als christl. Universalgelehrter in Alexandreia [1] um 490-575 n.Chr. und war Schüler des Ammonios [12]. Sein Beiname könnte sich auf seinen Arbeitseifer oder auf seine Zugehörigkeit zur Bruderschaft der philóponoi (φιλόπονοι) beziehen. Er wurde wegen seines christl. Glaubens von dem neuplatonischen Gelehrten der Akademie (Akademeia) in Athen Simplikios scharf angegriffen, nachdem Kaiser Iustinianus [1] diese im J. 529 n.C…

Kosmas

(774 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Κοσμᾶς). [English version] [1] K. und Damianos Ärzteheilige und Heilungspatrone Ärzteheilige und Heilungspatrone. Das griech. Synaxarion (hrsg. von H. Delehaye) überl. drei unterschiedliche Heiligenpaare mit diesen Namen: 1) die in Asia minor geb. und in Pelusion begrabenen Söhne der Theodota, deren Festtag der 1. November ist; 2) die röm., unter der Herrschaft des Carinus (283-285) gesteinigten Märtyrer, deren Festtag der 1. Juli ist; 3) die arab., unter Kaiser Diocletian (284-305) im kilikischen Aigai …

Kontakion

(179 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] (κοντάκιον, κονδάκιον; von κοντός, “Pergamentrolle”). Späterer Name für die Gattung byz. Hymnen, die seit dem 6. Jh.n.Chr. nachweisbar ist. Das K. besteht aus 18 bis 24 metrisch gleichen Strophen (sog. oíkoi, οἶκοι), denen das metrisch differierende Prooimion ( kukúlion, κουκούλιον) vorangestellt ist. Die einzelnen Strophen sind durch Akrostichis (Akrostichon) verbunden und haben einen gemeinsamen Refrain (das ephýmnion bzw. akroteleútion, ἐφύμνιον, ἀκροτελεύτιον). Kontakia sind verwandt mit den syr. madraša (Ephraem Syrus), …

Tarasius

(125 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Ταράσιος; Tarásios). Patriarch of Constantinople ( c. AD 730-806), of noble descent, secretary to the empress Irene, who had him elected patriarch in 784 in connexion with her efforts to restore iconolatry. The Synod (Synodos II.D.) at Nicaea in 787, convened by him to solve the iconoclasm controversy (Syrian dynasty), was able at the second attempt to resolve to restore the worship of icons. It is to him that resolutions made at the synod are due; he had already written them in 754. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography Editions: PG 98, 1424-1428 (Apologeticus)  PG …

Iohannes

(7,268 words)

Author(s): Frey, Jörg (Stuttgart) | Domhardt, Yvonne (Zürich) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Redies, Michael (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἰωάννης; Iōánnēs). Well-known persons i.a.: I. [1] the Evangelist, I. [4] Chrysostomos, bishop of Constantinople and Homilet, I. [18] Malalas, author of the world chronicle, I. [25] of Gaza, rhetor and poet, I. [33] of Damascus, the theologian, I. [39] Baptistes. [1] I. the Evangelist [German version] A. Tradition and criticism According to the inscriptions, the author of a  Gospel (Jo), of three letters and the Apocalypse in the NT is called I. (= J.; the name appears only in Apc. 1:1; 1:4; 1:9; 22:8). Since the end of the 2nd cent. (Iren. adv…

Troparion

(139 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (τροπάριον/ tropárion, from τρόπος/ trópos in the sense of 'mode, note'). Originally a short strophe in free-rhythm Byzantine prose with the character of a prayer and a melody resembling psalmody. The troparion was present at the beginning of  Byzantine hymnography (Hymnos IV.) and was initially sung in antiphony to every verse of a psalm. From the 5th cent. it was expanded and integrated into the ending of psalms (between the 3-6 last verses). It also found entry into the kontákion and the kanṓn [2]. For the most part transmitted anonymously, the troparion experienced…

Andreas

(442 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Ἀνδρέας; Andréas). [German version] [1] Personal physician of Ptolemaeus Philopator Originally from Carystus. Personal physician of Ptolemaeus Philopator, was murdered before the battle of Raphia in the year 215 BC (Pol. 5,81). The son of Chrysareus, he was a Herophilean ( Herophilus), who wrote about medicaments (this was especially so in his writing Narthex), midwifery, poisons, doxography and the history of medicine. He commented on Hippocrates, even if he did not write any actual commentaries. Eratosthenes (EM s. v. Bibliaegisthus) accused h…

Maximus

(3,163 words)

Author(s): Trapp, Michael (London) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μάξιμος; Máximos) [German version] [I 1] Maximus of Tyre Author of lectures mainly on ethics and theology, 2nd cent. AD, [1] Maximus of Tyrus AD 2nd cent.; author of 41 short dialéxeis (lectures), according to the most important MS (Cod. Parisinus graecus 1962) delivered in Rome (the Suda dates a visit to the reign of Commodus, AD 180-191). His concepts are simple yet rhetorically sophisticated (frequent use of comparisons, quotations from poetry, mythological and historical examples); his main topic is…

Basilius

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Et al.
(Βασιλεῖος; Basileîos). [German version] [1] Basil the Great Theologian and bishop of Caesarea/Cappadocia. Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) [German version] A. Biography B. (born around 329/330 as the son of a Christian senatorial family who owned large estates) together with his younger brother  Gregorius of Nyssa and his friend  Gregorius of Nazianze were called the three great Cappadocians. His grandmother gave him his first introduction to the Bible and theology along the lines of Origenism. His education contin…

Biblical poetry

(1,645 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Roberts, Michael (Middletown, CT)
[German version] I. Greek Biblical poetry (BP) started with the early church poetry of hymns and psalms that were part of devotional service. Extensive biblical quotations or poetic paraphrases mark the origin of BP. Then as later, it is impossible to separate literary from liturgical poetry. Thus the heirmós (εἱρμός) Χριστὸς γεννᾶται, for example, is taken from the beginning of a  homily of  Gregorius of Nyssa (PG 36, 312ff.). The  kontakion, developed in Constantinople around 500, marks the high point of BP. One of the leading figures for t…

Sahak

(308 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Isaac). S. I (the Great), born between AD 340 and 350, died AD 438/9. Patriarch of Armenia, son of the patriarch Nerses the Great; last representative of the Gregorians (descendants of Gregory the Illuminator, Armenia [B]). S. grew up in Constantinople and studied there. Named patriarch of the Armenian Church in 387 in a time of internal conflict after Armenia was divided between Byzantium and Persia, his election was intended to reinforce Armenia's ties to Byzantium to counter t…

Philaretus

(367 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Φιλάρετος; Philáretos). [German version] [1] Greek writer on medicine Greek writer on medicine. A text which bears P.’s name and ultimately goes back to Galen’s theories about the pulse, is a Byzantine revision (from the 9th cent.?) of the text De pulsibus ad Antonium (= Gal. 19,629-642 K.) which was influenced by pneumat (Pneumatists). Whether or not P. was the author of the original text or the revised version, is a matter of controversy. A connection with Philagrius cannot be ruled out as his name is occasionally misrepresented in P.…

Menas

(248 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Μηνᾶς; Menâs). [German version] [1] Spartiate, 421 BC One of the Spartiates who in 421 BC swore the Peace of Nicias and the symmachy with Athens (Thucyd. 5,19,2; 5,24,1). In the interval between these treaties he was one of the emissaries who, by the terms of the peace, were to guarantee the transfer of Amphipolis to Athens, but owing to the resistance of Clearidas, the commandant there, failed (Thucyd. 5,21). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] see Menodorus [1] see Menodorus [1] Neudecker, Richard (Rome) [German version] [3] Sculptor from Pergamum, 2nd cent. BC Son of A…

Paulicians

(316 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Παυλικιανοί/ Paulikianoí; Armenian Pawlikeank'). Heretical Christian group of Armenian origin in the Byzantine Empire, whose teachings survive only in secondary sources of Orthodox polemic. The accounts of the Armenian katholikós John of Odzun (8th cent. AD) and of Petros Sikeliotes (9th cent. AD) are particularly important. According to these the Paulicians were described as an offshoot from the Manichaeans (Mani), whose dualistic doctrine postulated only an individualistic approach to faith and rejected the OT (Bible), the sacraments ( sacramentum

Lazi

(120 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Λᾶζαι, Λάζοι; Lâzai, Lázoi). People of the Caucasus mountains who migrated into Colchis about 100-75 BC, initially settled on the river Phasis (modern Rioni; Plin. HN 6,12; Ptol. 5,10,5) and later spread widely. About AD 300, they founded the Lazic state in the belief they were the true descendants of the Colchi. Colchis then became known as the Lazica (Λαζική/ Lazikḗ; in Old Georgian sources also Egrisi). In the Byzantine period the Lazi were the cause of battles between imperial and Persian troops because of the important trade routes across the Caucasus. von Bredow, …

Maronites

(140 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] Christian religious community going back to the Syrian hermit Maro(n) (Μάρω(ν)/ Márō(n), Syriac Morun; 4th/5th cent. AD), the patron saint of a monastery on the Orontes near Apamea [3] in Syria, which became the centre of the resistance against the Monophysitism. After the death of the patriarch Anastasius II (died 609), the Antiochene ( Antioch [1]) patriarchal see remained vacant (Persian invasions); in 636, the region came under Arab rule. Its isolation in terms of geography and Church poli…

Methodios

(825 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Duridanov, Ludmil (Freiburg)
(Μεθόδιος). [English version] [1] Bf. von Olympos, 3./4. Jh. Bischof von Olympos (E. 3./Anf. 4. Jh.n.Chr.). Über sein Leben ist wenig Sicheres bekannt. Nach Hier. vir. ill. 83 war er Bischof des lykischen Olympos, aber auch Tyros, Patara, Myra und Philippoi werden als Bischofssitze gen. Ebenso umstritten ist das ebenfalls bei Hieronymus berichtete Martyrium. Der in Anlehnung an Platon den Dialog bevorzugende M. verfaßte zahlreiche Schriften (CPG 1810-1830) in elegantem Stil. Sein Hauptwerk Sympósion ē Perí hagneías (Συμπόσιον ἢ Περὶ ἁγνείας [2]) feiert die Jungfräulich…

Hesychios

(1,189 words)

Author(s): Tosi, Renzo (Bologna) | Markschies, Christoph (Heidelberg) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Tinnefeld, Franz (München)
[English version] [1] alex. Gelehrter, Verf. eines Lex. Alexandrinischer Gelehrter, Verf. eines alphabetisch angeordneten Lex., das uns zahlreiche Frg. (v.a. von Dichtung) überliefert, die Wiedergewinnung zahlreicher Textvarianten ermöglicht und eine bes. Bedeutung für das Studium der ant. Klassikerexegese sowie der Dialekte und der Gesch. der griech. Sprache einnimmt. Für die Datierung grundlegend ist die das Lex. einführende Epistula ad Eulogium: Manche Gelehrte setzen den Adressaten mit Eulogios Scholastikos (5. Jh. n.Chr.) gleich, andere, darunter L…

Phokas

(445 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Tinnefeld, Franz (München)
(Φωκᾶς). [English version] [1] Märtyrer um 305 Märtyrer († um 305 n.Chr. in Sinope; Fest: 22. 9.). Lebte in Sinope als Gärtner und erlitt durch Enthauptung das Martyrium. Bereits im 4. Jh. soll sich über seinem Grab in Sinope eine Kirche befunden haben. Von dort verbreitete sich sein Kult im gesamten Mittelmeerraum. Er wird als Gärtner dargestellt. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography J. Bollandus, G. Henschenius u.a. (ed.), Acta sanctorum, Bde. 1ff., 1643ff.; 6, 293-299; 7.3, 629-632  PG 60, 36ff. [English version] [2] Ph. Diakonos Dichter Nur durch ein Monodistichon bek…

Palladios

(710 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Gatti, Paolo (Trient) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
(Παλλάδιος). [English version] [1] griech. Rhetor, 4. Jh. Griech. Rhetor der 1. H. des 4. Jh.n.Chr. (Suda s.v. P. setzt die Blüte unter Constantinus [1] I. an) aus Methone (wahrscheinlich dem messenischen). Nach der Suda verfaßte er neben Deklamationen aller drei rhet. Genera ( genera dicendi ) auch eine antiquarische Schrift über die Feste der Römer (FGrH F 837). Ob P. mit einem der zahlreichen in den Briefen des Libanios erwähnten P. identisch ist und wenn ja mit welchem, läßt sich nicht klären; außer in der Suda w…

Gennadios

(39 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] Patriarch von Konstantinopolis 458-471 n.Chr. Als Verfechter der Synode von Chalkedon (Kalchedon) (451) bezog er Stellung gegen die Rezeption der Christologie des Kyrillos von Alexandreia. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography F. Diekamp, Analecta Patristica, 1938, 54-72 (73-108).

Paphnutios

(112 words)

Lazai

(114 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] (Λᾶζαι, Λάζοι; die Lazen). Kaukasischer Volksstamm, der gegen 100-75 v.Chr. in Kolchis einwanderte, sich zunächst am Phasis (h. Rioni) ansiedelte (Plin. nat. 6,12; Ptol. 5,10,5) und sich später stark ausbreitete. Um 300 n.Chr. gründeten sie in der Überzeugung, die wahren Nachkommen der Kolchoi zu sein, den lazischen Staat; seitdem trug die Kolchis den Namen Lazike (Λαζική) - in den altgeorg. Quellen Egrisi gen. In byz. Zeit gaben die L. wegen der wichtigen Handelsstraße über den Kaukasos oft Anlaß zu Kämpfen zw. kaiserlichen und pers. Truppen. von Bredow, Iris (B…

Philaretos

(316 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Φιλάρετος). [English version] [1] griech. Medizinschriftsteller Griech. medizinischer Schriftsteller. Eine Schrift, die Ph.' Namen trägt und letztlich auf Galenos' Pulslehre zurückgeht, stellt eine byz. Überarbeitung (aus dem 9. Jh.?) der pneumatisch beeinflußten Schrift De pulsibus ad Antonium (= Gal. 19,629-642 K.) dar (Pneumatiker). Ob Ph. der Verf. der Originalschrift oder der Überarbeitung war, wird kontrovers diskutiert. Ein Zusammenhang mit…

Maximos

(1,402 words)

Author(s): Trapp, Michael (London) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Μάξιμος). [English version] [1] M. von Tyros Autor von Vorlesungen u.a. zu Ethik und Theologie, 2. Jh. 2. Jh.n.Chr., Autor von 41 kurzen dialéxeis (Vorlesungen), nach dem wichtigsten Ms. (Cod. Parisinus graecus 1962) in Rom gehalten (die Suda datiert einen Besuch auf die Regieru…

Buch der Briefe

(103 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] Armenische Sammlung wichtiger theolog. Briefe, die die Gesch. der armen. Kirche und ihre Beziehungen zu den Nachbarkirchen (Syrien, Georgien, Byzanz) dokumentieren, so die Trennung der georg. Kirche von der armen. um 600. Das B. ist in drei chronologische Phasen gegliedert: 5.-7., 8.-11. und 11.-13.Jh. Byzanz; Georgien; Syrien Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography Girk T̀`ġtoc`, 1901  E. Ter-Minassiantz, Die armen. Kirche in ihren Beziehungen zu den syr. Kirchen. Bis zum Ende des 13.Jh. Nach den armen. und syr. Quellen bearbeitet (Texte und Unt. 4), 1904  N.…

Andreas

(409 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Leibarzt des Ptolemaios Philopator, ermordet 215 v. Chr. urspr. aus Karystos. Leibarzt des Ptolemaios Philopator, wurde vor der Schlacht von Raphia im Jahre 215 v. Chr. ermordet (Pol. 5,81). Der Sohn des Chrysareus war ein Herophileer (Herophilos), der über Arzneimittel (dies vor allem in seiner Schrift Narthex), Geburtshilfe, Gifte, Doxographie und Medizingesch. schrieb. Er kommentierte Hippokrates, auch wenn er keinen eigentlichen Komm. geschrieben haben mag. Eratosthenes (Etym. m. s. v. Bibliaigisthos) bezichtigte ihn …

Aristeides

(3,645 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Köln) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florenz) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ἀριστείδης). [English version] [1] Athen. Politiker und Stratege (Anf. 5. Jh. v. Chr.) Aus Athen, Sohn des Lysimachos, einer der prominentesten Politiker und Strategen Athens z.Z. der Perserkriege. Bei Marathon diente er wahrscheinlich als Stratege. 489/88 v. Chr. war er eponymer Archon (Plut. Aristeides 1,2, vgl. IG I3 1031). 482 wurde er ostrakisiert (Ostraka) (Hdt. 8,79; Aristot. Ath. pol. 22,7; Plut. Aristeides 7,1 ff.). Dabei spielte wohl seine bereits bei Herodot bezeugte …

Chazaren

(183 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] Die Ch. (türk., etwa “Vagabunden”) gehören zur Gruppe der turk-altaischen Völker und sind seit dem 3./4.Jh. n.Chr. bezeugt. Urspr. Nomaden, gründeten sie im 7.Jh. ein unabhängiges Reich, das vom Schwarzen Meer bis zum Don reichte. Der König (Qağan) war polit. und rel. Oberhaupt. Obwohl sie keine eigene Schriftsprache entwickelten, hinterließen sie Lehnwörter u.a. im Arab., Griech., Armen., Georg., Hebr. und Pers. In ihren Eroberungszügen drangen sie bis Chersonesos und bis zum h. Bulgarien vor. Im ersten arab.-ch. Krieg an der Grenze des Kaukasos waren sie zunächst Verbündete, dann Feinde des Byz. Reiches. 737 wurde ihr Reich von den Arabern erobert. Dennoch waren sie bis ca. 965 für die Rus, die bis zum Kaspischen Meer vordrangen, ein unüberwindliches Hindernis. Um 740 traten zahlreiche Mitglieder der Führungsschi…

Katene

(64 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] ( catena; συναγωγὴ/συλλογὴ ἐξηγήσεων; “Kette”). K. meint die florilegistisch aneinandergereihte, fortlaufende Kommentierung biblischer Schriften unterschiedlichen Umfangs. Dabei können die Auslegungen eines oder mehrerer Kirchenväter redaktionell durch den Kompilator überarbeitet werden und den Bezug zum urspr. Exzerpt verlieren. Florilegium; Scholia Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography U. und …

Anthimos

(225 words)

Author(s): Schmitt-Pantel, Pauline (Paris) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] [1] griech. Arzt, lat. Autor über Diätetik nach 511 Griech. Arzt, der bald nach 511 n. Chr. eine kurze lat. Abhandlung in Briefform über Diätetik schrieb, De observatione ciborum ad Theodoricum regem Francorum epistula. Als medizinische Abhandlung und Rezeptbuch zugleich bietet das Werk die Beschreibung der Ernährungsgewohnheiten eines german. Volkes. Verfaßt ist es in einer an die Umgangssprache der Menschen seiner Zeit und seiner Region angelehnten Sprache (vlat.). Schmitt-Pantel, Pauline (Paris) Bibliography Ed.: E. Liechtenhan, 1963 (CML VIII 1). …

Kanon

(1,816 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Vogt-Spira, Gregor (Greifswald) | Rese, Martin (Münster) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[1] literarisch-künstlerischer Begriff [English version] I. Allgemein Das griech. Wort K. (κανών, kanṓn) leitet sich wahrscheinlich von κάννα ab ( kánna: “Binsenrohr, -rute”), einem semit. Lehnwort im Griech. Von der urspr. Bed. “gerades Rohr, Stange, Stab (in verschiedener Anwendung)” ausgehend entwickelten sich mehrere spezifisch technische Bedeutungen. So bezeichnet griech. k. die Richtlatte bzw. das Winkelmaß des Zimmermanns oder Maurers, eine chronologische oder astrologische Tafel, in der musi…

Chronicon paschale

(159 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] (Ἐπιτομὴ χρόνων). Das Ch. (auch Ch. Alexandrinum, Ch. Constantinopolitanum

Athinganoi

(164 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] (Ἀθίγγανοι). Die A. (“Unberührbare”, von θιγγάνω) werden als Häretiker, die zu den Paulikianern gezählt werden, zuerst von Patriarch Germanos (De haeres. et synodis, PG 98, 85) im 8.Jh. erwähnt. Sie werden nach ihrer Herkunft “Phryger” oder wegen ihren magischen und astrologischen Praktiken “Manichäer” genannt. Blüte im 9.Jh.; Anhänger fanden sich selbst in Palastkreisen (Michael II.). Sie unterstützten den Ikonoklasmus. Mehrere Versuche, sie zu integrieren, blieben ohne Erfolg. Astrologia; Magie; Mani; Phrygia Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography J…

Diatessaron

(258 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] (τὸ διὰ τεσσάρων [εὐαγγέλιον]). Das D. stellt die erste uns bekannte Evangelienharmonie dar, die auf Tatianos zurückgeht. Dieser faßte im letzten Drittel des 2. Jh. die vier Evangelien in einer einheitlichen Darstellung zusammen, indem er die synoptische Überlieferung in den chronologischen Rahmen des Johannesevangeliums einbettete. Er verwendete z.T. auch apokryphes Material und ließ seine enkratitische, antijüd. und doketische (Doketen) Tendenz einfließen. Es ist noch nicht geklärt, ob das D. urspr. griech. oder syr., in Rom oder in Syri…

Abdias

(121 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] Unter dem Namen A., angeblich erster Bischof von Babylon und Zeitgenosse des Origenes, ist eine lat. überlieferte Sammlung apokrypher Apostelgeschichten ( Historia Certaminis Apostolici oder Historiae Apostolicae) bekannt, die im MA oft rezipiert wurde. Sie umfaßt 10 Bücher und soll von A. hebr. verfaßt, von Eutropios ins Griech. und von Julius, der bekanntlich griech. schrieb, ins Lat. übertragen worden sein. Die Sammlung setzt jedoch die Gesch. Rufins voraus und muß im 6.-7. Jh. entstanden sein. …

Sahak

(293 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] (Isaak). S. I. (der Große), geb. zw. 340 und 350 n. Chr., † 438/9 n. Chr. Patriarch von Armenien, Sohn des Patriarchen Nerses d.Gr. und letzter Vertreter der Gregoriden (Nachfahren von Gregor dem Erleuchter, Armenia B.). S. wuchs in Konstantinopolis auf und studierte dort. Nach der Teilung Armeniens zw. Byzanz und Persien wurde er 387, in einer Zeit der inneren Zerrissenheit des Landes, zum Patriarchen der armenischen Kirche ernannt. Seine Wahl sollte die Verbindung Armeniens zu …

Alexios

(220 words)

Armenier, Armenische Literatur

(317 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] Die A. bezeichnen sich selbst als hayk', A. wird von Persern (Behistun-Inschr.) und Griechen (Herodot und Xenophon) gebraucht. Im 6.Jh. v.Chr. sind die A. eingewandert und haben sich mit den autochthonen Urartäern vermischt. Nach medischer, persischer, maked. und seleukidischer Herrschaft erkämpfte der armen. König Artasches 189 n.Chr. die Unabhängigkeit. Die A.L. setzt mit der Erfindung der armen. Schrift durch Maštoc' (ab dem 8.Jh. Mesrop in den Hss.), dem Schüler des Katholikos Saha…

Athos

(286 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Ἄθως). [English version] I. Klassische und hellenistische Zeit Höchste Erhebung auf der gleichnamigen, in der Ant. zumeist Akte genannten, fast 50 km langen und durchschnittlich 6-8 km breiten, weitgehend bewaldeten Halbinsel, an deren SO-Spitze 492 v.Chr. eine pers. und 411 v.Chr. eine spartan. Flotte scheiterten, und deren Isthmos vor dem Zug des Xerxes durchstoch…

Potamiaina

(114 words)

Leontios

(851 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Tinnefeld, Franz (München) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Et al.
(Λεόντιος). [English version] [1] Ptolem. Kommandant von Seleukeia Pieria, Ende 3. Jh. v. Chr. Ptolem. Kommandant von Seleukeia Pieria; 219 v.Chr. übergab er die Stadt - nach anfänglichem Widerstand in aussichtsloser Position - an Antiochos [5] III. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [English version] [2] Peltastengeneral, 3. Jh. v. Chr. Makedone, von Antigonos [3] Doson testamentarisch zum Peltastengeneral berufen. L. widersetzte sich mit Megaleas der proachaiischen Politik Philippos' V. und dessen Mentor Aratos [2]; nach der Aufwiegelung der Elitetruppen gegen den König wurde L. als Mitverschwörer des Apelles [1] ohne Prozeß 218 v.Chr. hingerichtet (Pol. 4,87…

Euthymios I. von Konstantinopel

(124 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] (* um 834 n.Chr. in Seleukeia, † 917). Nach einer Zeit als Mönch auf dem bithynischen Olympos wechselte er zum Theodoros-Kloster vor Konstantinopel. Als Beichtvater Kaiser Leons VI. wurde er Abt des Psamathias-Klosters, das der Kaiser eigens für ihn errichten ließ. Nach Absetzung des Patriarchen von Konstantinopel, Nikolaos. I. Mystikos, nahm er dessen Position ein und willigte in Übereinstimmung mit den übrigen Patriarchen gegen das byz. Kirchenrecht…

Elischē

(104 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] (Ełišē) verfaßte in armen. Sprache eine Gesch. der Vardeank und der armen. Kriege, welche den Aufstand des armen. Volkes 450/1 n.Chr. unter der Führung des Mamikoniterfürsten Vardan gegen die sāsānidischen Besatzer beschreibt. E. war kein Augenzeuge der histor. Ereignisse, die er beschreibt, sondern muß im 6. Jh. gelebt haben. Sein Ziel war es, die Gründung der armen. Kirche martyrologisch zu verankern. Armenia; Armenier, armenische Literatur; Sāsāniden Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography E. Ter-Minassjan, Vasn Vardanay ew Hayoc paterazmic, …

Agathangelos

(195 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Steinschneider, 1. Jh. v. Chr. Steinschneider (1. Jh. v. Chr.), signierte die berühmte ›Agathangelos-Gemme‹ mit dem Portrait eines Mannes (Karneol, Berlin, SM) - seit dem 18. Jh. als Sextus Pompeius diskutiert. Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography Zazoff, AG, 12, 281-283, Taf. 79,1. [English version] [2] Sekretär des Arsakiden-Königs Tiridates IV., Autor zur Christianisierung Armeniens, 3. Jh. Sekretär des Arsakiden-Königs Tiridates IV. (239-281 n. Chr.). In der A. zugeschriebenen “Geschichte” wird er als “zuverlässiger Zeuge” b…

Eutherios

(97 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] In der 1. H. des 5. Jh. Bischof von Tyana. Als überzeugter Anhänger des Nestorios widersetzte er sich den Anathematismen des Kyrillos von Alexandreia. Im J. 431 wurde er auf der Synode von Ephesos exkommuniziert. Er schloß sich Iohannes von Antiocheia an und bezog Stellung gegen die sich anbahnende Einigung zw. ihm und Kyrillos. Als diese 433 zustande kam, trennte er sich von Iohannes. Daraufhin verlor er sein Amt und wurde zum Exil nach Skythopolis verurteilt. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography M. Tetz, Eine Antilogie des E. von Tyana, (Patristische Te…

Iohannes

(6,414 words)

Author(s): Frey, Jörg (Stuttgart) | Domhardt, Yvonne (Zürich) | Markschies, Christoph (Heidelberg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Redies, Michael (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἰωάννης). Bekannte Personen u.a.: I. [1] der Evangelist, I. [4] Chrysostomos, der Bischof von Konstantinopel und Homilet, I. [18] Malalas, der Verf. der Weltchronik, I. [25] von Gaza, der Rhetor und Dichter, I. [33] von Damaskos, der Theologe. [1] I. der Evangelist [English version] A. Tradition und Kritik Der Verf. eines Evangeliums (Jo), dreier Briefe und der Apokalypse im NT heißt nach den Inschr. I. (= J.; der Name steht im Text nur Apk 1,1; 1,4; 1,9; 22,8). Seit Ende des 2. Jh. (Iren. adversus haereses 3,1,1; Polykrates von Ephesos nach…

Armenia

(628 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] A. Hellenismus und Römische Zeit Das Hochland südl. und südwestl. des Kaukasus. Hauptfluß ist der Araxes (h. Aras). Nördl. Grenzfluß Kyros (h. Kura), desgleichen Oberläufe und Nebenflüsse von Tigris und Euphrat. Seen: Lichnitis (h. Sevan), Thospitis (h. Van) und Matianus (Urmia). Hl. Berg Baris (5165 m, h. Ararat), bewahrt vorant. Namen Urartu eines Staates mit hurrit. Bevölkerung, die unter pers. Herrschaft in den Haikh (= Armeniern) aufging. Die indeurop. Sprache stand dem Phrygischen nahe (Hdt. 7,73; Steph. Byz. p. 1…

Agrippa

(1,410 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
Nach moderner Etym. sei der Name Agrippa von * agrei-pod- “vorn die Füße habend” abzuleiten. (lt. Leumann, 398, “sehr zweifelhaft”). Urspr. ein Praenomen (so noch bei den Iulii, bes. A. Postumus), dann Cognomen, in den Familien der Antonii, Asinii, Cassii(?), Fonteii, Furii, Haterii, Helvii, Iulii, Lurii, Menenii, Vibuleni, Vipsanii, aber auch bei jüd. Königen (Herodes A.). Als Nomen bei verschiedenen Personen belegt. Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) [English version] [1] M. Vipsanius, cos. 37, 28, 27 v. Chr. M. Vipsanius, geb. 64/3 v. Chr., ritterlichen Geschlechts, wohl…

Basileios

(1,213 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Heidelberg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (München) | Et al.
(Βασιλεῖος). [English version] [1] B. der Große Theologe und Bf. von Kaisareia/Kappadokien. Markschies, Christoph (Heidelberg) [English version] A. Biographie Zusammen mit seinem jüngeren Bruder Gregor von Nyssa und seinem Freund Gregor von Nazianz zählt B. (* um 329/30 als Sohn einer christl. senatorischen Großgrundbesitzerfamilie) zu den sog. drei großen Kappadoziern. Seine Großmutter gab ihm eine erste Einführung in Bibel und Theologie in den Bahnen des Origenismus. Kaisareia/Kappadokien, Konstantinopel und At…

Laura

(97 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] (λαύρα, “Gasse”). Urspr. christl. Mönchssiedlung von Eremiten unter Leitung eines gemeinsamen Oberen. Chariton (Χαρίτων) gründete um 330 n.Chr. bei Pharan, Douka und Souka in Palaestina die ersten laúrai mit Zellen (κελλία, kellía) und Höhlen, die durch eine Gasse miteinander verbunden waren. Im Zentrum der Anlage befanden sich Kirche, Bäckerei, Lagerräume sowie die Wohnung des Oberen. Die Eremiten kamen nur zum Gottesdienst mit Eucharistiefeier zusammen. Dieser Klostertyp wurde maßgeblich für das byz. Christe…

Apophthegmata patrum

(204 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] (Ἀποφθέγματα πατρῶν). Anonymes Sammelwerk von “Vätersprüchen”, zählt zu den am meisten rezipierten Werken des frühen Mönchtums. Es enthält kurze Anekdoten über das frühe monastische Leben und die Anachorese in der ägypt. Wüste. Es sind Weisungen, prophetische Voraussagen oder Wunderhandlungen, die den Alltag der Mönche beschreiben. Charakteristisch für die a. p. sind jedoch vor allem jene Sprüche, die formelhaft mit der Bitte des Gläubigen eingeleitet werden, der sich als Ratsuchender an den Anachoreten wendet: ›Sag mir ein Wor…

Merkurios

(43 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] (Μερκούριος). Breit bezeugte, aber legendarische Gestalt eines Soldatenheiligen, der in Anlehnung an Soz. 6,2,3ff. Kaiser Iulianus [11] auf göttl. Geheiß hin mit einem Speerwurf getötet haben soll. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography H.Ch. Brennecke, Stud. zur Gesch. der Homöer, 1988, 96f.

Paulikianer

(276 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] (Παυλικιανοί; armen. Pawlikeank'). Häretische christl. Gruppe armen. Ursprungs im byz. Reich, deren Lehre nur aus Sekundärquellen orthodoxer Polemik erh. ist. Bes. wichtig sind die Angaben des armenischen katholikós Iohannes von Odzun (8. Jh. n.Chr.) und des Petros Sikeliotes (9. Jh.n.Chr.). Demnach wurden die P. als Filiation der Manichäer (Mani) bezeichnet, deren dualistische Lehre nur einen individualistischen Zugang zum Glauben postulierte, das AT (Bibel) sowie Sakramente ( sacramentum ) und Ekklesiologie ablehnte. Entst…

Gregorios

(2,040 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Heidelberg) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[English version] [1] Thaumaturgos Anwalt und Theologe, 3. Jh. G. wurde zw. 210 und 213 n.Chr. als Sohn einer begüterten paganen Familie in Neokaisareia/ Pontos (h. Niksar) geb., wohl unter dem Namen Theodoros. Nach gründlicher Elementarbildung wollte G. 232/3 (oder 239) eigentlich in Berytos/Beirut Jura studieren, lernte freilich zuvor in Caesarea [2] (Palaestina) den dort lehrenden Origenes kennen und studierte daraufhin bei ihm “christl. Wissenschaften” (zunächst Dialektik, Physiologie, Ethik, Philos.…

Menas

(232 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Μηνᾶς). [English version] [1] Spartiat, 421 v.Chr. Einer der Spartiaten, die 421 v.Chr. den Nikias-Frieden und die Symmachie mit Athen beschworen (Thuk. 5,19,2; 5,24,1); in der Zeit zwischen den Verträgen war er einer der Gesandten, die vertragsgemäß die Übergabe von Amphipolis an Athen garantieren sollten, aber infolge des Widerstandes des dortigen Kommandanten Klearidas keinen Erfolg hatten (Thuk. 5,21). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [English version] [2] s. Menodoros [1] s. Menodoros [1] Neudecker, Richard (Rom) [English version] [3] Bildhauer aus Pergamon, 2. Jh.…

Nikolaos

(1,607 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Markschies, Christoph (Heidelberg) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Νικόλαος). [English version] [1] Stratege Ptolemaios' IV. in Koile-Syria, 219 v.Chr. Aitoler, stratēgós Ptolemaios' IV. in Koile-Syria, belagerte 219 v.Chr. vergeblich den abtrünnigen Theodotos in Ptolemais, verhinderte aber die Einschließung von Dora durch Antiochos [5] III. Im J. 218 zum Oberkommandierenden gemacht, besetzte er den Küstenpaß nördl. von Sidon, wurde aber von Antiochos am Damurasfluß zurückgeworfen. N. ging dann wohl zu Antiochos über, den er 209…
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