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Writing, direction of

(341 words)

Author(s): Schade, Gerson (Berlin)
[German version] I. Greek The direction of writing in the earliest Greek inscriptions is not fixed; i.e both single and multiple line inscriptions can begin on the left or the right and are continued in the same direction ([3. 44] versus [5. 141]). Similarly, and this right from the beginning, we have texts that are written boustrophēdón ('turning like a team of oxen in ploughing') (and even in what is probably the earliest of all stone inscriptions, CEG 433: 8th cent. BC): it begins (in the case in question) on the right in the first line and cont…

Tomos synkollesimos

(179 words)

Author(s): Schade, Gerson (Berlin)
[German version] (τόμος συγκολλήσιμος/ tómos synkollḗsimos, literally 'piece glued together'). In Antiquity reports, documents, contracts and other papers belonging together were glued together and kept in archives or in the offices of 'officials' ( logistaí); examples of papyri from such glued collections are POxy. 53 (AD 316) and 87 (AD 342). It is such a document that is being discussed in POxy. 34 I 12f. (AD 127: τὸν τόμον τῶν ... συγκολλησίμων/ tòn tómon tôn ... synkollēsímōn, 'the volume of pieces of writing glued together') and probably also in the earlier PGrenf…


(443 words)

Author(s): Schade, Gerson (Berlin)
[German version] (περίοδος/ períodos, Latin periodus). Ancient word for a rhythmical and melodic formation principle. In metre, the term refers to the linking of two or more cola into a closed, harmonious unit, the kolon here consisting of a so-called metrical foot or a group of several feet. Period in metre refers both to spoken verses such as hexameters and trimeters and to the sung verses of choral lyrics. Periods are separated by a pause at which the word must (virtually) end and hiatus is permitted; the l…


(404 words)

Author(s): Schade, Gerson (Berlin)
[English version] (περίοδος, lat. periodus). Ant. Begriff für ein rhythmisch-melodisches Formungsprinzip. In der Metrik bezeichnet er die Verbindung von zwei oder mehreren Kola zu einer in sich geschlossenen, harmonischen Einheit; das Kolon besteht in diesem Zusammenhang aus einem sog. Versfuß bzw. einer Gruppe von mehreren Versfüßen. P. bezeichnet in der Metrik sowohl Sprechverse wie etwa Hexameter und Trimeter als auch Singverse der Chorlyrik. P. werden durch Pausen getrennt, in denen (virtuell) Wortende…

Diacritical signs

(1,054 words)

Author(s): Schade, Gerson (Berlin) | Kruschwitz, Peter (Berlin)
[German version] I. Greek Texts by Greek authors were already supplied in antiquity with a whole range of symbols; aids to reading ( Punctuation) such as punctuation marks and accenting, as well as critical and, finally, colometrical signs ( Colometry) can be differentiated. Although  Aristophanes [4] of Byzantium ( c. 265 ─ c. 190 BC) is regarded as the inventor of punctuation [8. 222], he was by no means the first person to use it. Punctuation to separate metric units is already encountered in the dikolon on the cup from Ischia called, because of the inscription, the Nestor…

Metrische Zeichen

(934 words)

Author(s): Schade, Gerson (Berlin) | Kruschwitz, Peter (Berlin)
[English version] I. Griechisch Texte griech. Autoren sind bereits in der Ant. mit einer ganzen Reihe von Zeichen versehen worden; es lassen sich Lesehilfen (Lesezeichen) wie Interpunktion und Akzentuierung, ferner kritische, schließlich kolometrische Zeichen (Kolometrie) unterscheiden. Aristophanes [4] von Byzanz (ca. 265 - ca. 190 v.Chr.) gilt zwar als Erfinder der Interpunktion [8. 222], jedoch war er keineswegs der erste, der sie angewendet hat. Interpunktion zur Abtrennung metrischer Einheiten begegnet s…