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Tree of Life

(2,095 words)

Author(s): Schaper, Joachim | Schroer, Silvia | Zchomelidse, Nino
[German Version] I. Old Testament The motif of the tree of life (םייִּחַהַ ץעֵ/ ʿeṣ haḥayyîm), a variation of the idea of the “sacred tree” that appears in Canaanite, Mesopotamian and Egyptian texts, and also in the Indo-European area, is found in Gen 2:9; 3:22,24; Prov 3:18; 11:30; 13:12; 15:4 and Isa 65:22 LXX. The tree, on the basis of its cyclical sef-renewal, functions as a symbol of the regeneration of the cosmos, as an image of fertility, and thus also of immortality (Gen 3:22). The related concept of a “cosmic” or World tree is present in Ezek 17:22–24; 31:2–9 and Dan 4:7b–9. Most exegetes since Budde offer a literary-critical explanation of the tree of life motif, deriving it from the story of paradise (II) in Gen 2–3 (cf. e.g. Witte 79–87); but in the ancient Near East the “sacred tree” and, related to it, the tree of life and the “Plant of Life” (Gilgamesh: XI) appear as part of the theme of God’s garden (Gilgamesh: IX; CTA 3,5,14–15; cf. Gen 2f.; Ezek 31:8f.; 47:1–12), so that the tree of life motif in…


(576 words)

Author(s): Schaper, Joachim | Jacobs, Martin
[German Version] I. Old Testament - II. Early Judaism …

Rahlfs, Alfred

(185 words)

Author(s): Schaper, Joachim
[German Version] (May 29, 1865, Linden near Hanover – Apr 8, 1935, Göttingen), became a Privatdozent (OT) in 1891, extraordinary professor in 1901, full professor in 1919, in Göttingen; he was director of the Septuagint project of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences, a pr…

High Priest

(1,797 words)

Author(s): Schaper, Joachim | Schwartz, Daniel R. | Klauck, Hans-Josef | Link-Wieczorek, Ulrike
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Early Judaism – III. New Testament – IV. Dogmatics I. Old Testament

Child of God

(2,719 words)

Author(s): Schaper, Joachim | Klein, Hans | Schlapkohl, Corinna | Börner-Klein, Dagmar
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. New Testament – III. Christianity – IV. Judaism I. Old Testament The Hebrew Bible can designate both individuals and groups as children (cf. e.g. Deut 32:5) or as sons and daughters of YHWH (cf. e.g. Deut 32:19). This usage occurs elsewhere in the ancient Near East to describe members of a deity's cultic community. The concept of childhood should be understood as mediated through creation (Deut 32:6; Isa 45:11; 64:8) or covenant (Isa 1:2, 4; Mal 1:2f.; 2:10); one can speak of an ontological identity only in relation t…

Social History

(4,845 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph | Schaper, Joachim | Hezser, Catherine | Leutzsch, Martin | Herrmann, Ulrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology and Theory In its scientific exploration of the past, all historiography aims at a synthesis in the sense of a valid overview of what has gone before. At best, however, the quest can succeed only paradigmatically and typically, because any reconstruction of an histoire t…


(4,188 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph | Schaper, Joachim | Hezser, Catherine | Leutzsch, Martin | Herrmann, Ulrich | Et al.
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff; Theorieprobleme Alle Geschichtsschreibung zielt in ihrer wiss. Erforschung der Vergangenheit auf Synthese im Sinne einer gültigen Gesamtschau des Gewesenen. Doch kann ihr dies höchstens paradigmatisch und idealtypisch gelingen, weil jede Rekonstruktion einer histoire totale zum Scheitern verurteilt ist. Gleichwohl darf Historiographie nicht auf das Wagnis verzichten, Geschichte als Ganzes in den Blick zu nehmen, weil ihr angesichts unüberschaubarer Details sonst jede Deutung gesch. …


(158 words)

Author(s): Schaper, Joachim
[English Version] Rahlfs, Alfred (29.5.1865 Linden bei Hannover – 8.4.1935 Göttingen). 1891 PD für AT, 1901 a.o., 1919 o. Prof. in Göttingen; Leiter des 1908 von Rudolf Smend (1851–1913) und J. Wellhausen begründeten Septuaginta-Unternehmens (Septuaginta…