Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)" )' returned 52 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Hippe

(224 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Ἵππη; Híppē). [German version] [1] Mistress of Theseus Mistress of  Theseus (Hes. fr. 147 M-W = Ath. 13,557a). Her identification with Hippolyte (= Antiope, according to Cleidemus FGrH 323 F 18 = Plut. Theseus 27,13a) is reasonable considering the identification of Antiope with Hippo (Callim. H. 3,239; 266); furthermore, the name H. appears in the form of Hippo (Clem. Al. Strom. 1,73,4-5 and [1st Prologue l. 21]). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Daughter of the centaur Chiron and of Chariclo Daughter of the centaur  Chiron (Hyg. Poet. Astr. 2,18) and of Ch…

Segetia

(158 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] Roman goddess (from * sēi, 'sow (seed)': [1. 285]; from seges: Plin. HN 18,8; cf. Isid. Orig. 17,2,7). Linked to a triad in Aug. Civ. 4,8 (= Varro Antiquitates rerum divinarum fr. 166 Cardauns) in the context of a  polemical account of the multiplicity of Roman gods: Seia is stated to be responsible for the grain in the ground, S. for the same on the culm and Tutilina for it when harvested. The images ( simulacra) of these deities could be seen in circo (Plin. HN. 18,8), possibly referring to reliefs on columns (Tert. De spectaculis 8,3; cf. Macrob. Sat. 1,16,8…

Ganyctor

(222 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Γανύκτωρ; Ganýktōr). Person in the  competition between Homer and Hesiod; information on his role and genealogical position varies: [German version] [1] Son of king Amphidamas [5] of Chalcis The son of king Amphidamas [5] of Chalcis (Certamen l. 63), as such perhaps the judge in the poetic competition (Vita Hesiodi l. 10). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Son of the Locrian Phegeus from Oenoë Son of the Locrian Phegeus of Oenoë, the brother of Amphiphanes. Together they killed Hesiod for seducing their sister Ctimene, who then gave birth to S…

Thallophoria

(245 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (θαλλοφορία/ thallophoría, 'carrying of branches'). At the Panathenaea the act, performed by selected old men (Xen. Symp. 4,17,4), of presenting branches; the term thallophoria is not recorded, but thallophóros ('branch carrier': Hsch. s. v.) and the verb thallophoreîn (Eust. in Hom. Od. 1157,24) are, and these both became proverbial (Aristoph. Vesp. 542 f. with schol.; Suet. perì blasphēmiôn 8,10) in with the meaning 'useful only for carrying branches'. To this extent the modern terminology [1. 278; 2. 1215] is motivated by analogous…

Moriae

(193 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (μορίαι/ moríai). In Athens a term for the olive-trees that were sacred to Athena, the maintenance of which, by assigning special custodians, known as gnṓmones, was watched over by the Areopagus ( áreios págos ) (Lys. or. 7,25). The moriai and even their stumps, which were protected by fences ( sēkós), were sacred, and this may be connected with the high regenerative power of olive trees (cf. Hdt. 8,55). Even the Spartans are said, according to schol. Soph. OC 701, to have spared them when devastating Attica. Offences against the moriai were punished with death (Aristo…

Pandion

(379 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Πανδίων/ Pandíōn). [German version] [1] Attic King Mythical Attic king and eponymous hero of the Pandionis [2] phyle (with 11 demes [2. 370]). P. occupies the sixth place on the list of kings in Hellanicus [1 (FGrH 4, commentary, vol. 1, p. 449). this list was later expanded by duplications of P. and Cecrops, first detectable in the Marmor Parium (FGrH 239 A 1-17). Here, P. I occupies the fifth place, and P. II the eighth. Originally, the list probably only contained the kings Cecrops, P., Erechtheus and Aegeus, as only they were phyle heros while they were kings. P. is therefore one legendary …

Hippomenes

(246 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Ἱππομένης; Hippoménēs). [German version] [1] Victor in foot race against Atalante Boeotian from Onchestus, son of  Megareus (Hyg. Fab. 185) or Ares (schol. Theoc. 3,40) and Merope (Hyg. Fab. 185). The foot race between H. and  Atalante was already known to Hesiod (fr. 74 M.-W.). The most comprehensive account can be found in Ov. Met. 10,560-707 [1]: Upon his request, Venus gives him three apples which Atalante picks up during the race, causing her to lose. H. fails to perform the thanks-offering; Venus en…

Taurokathapsia

(140 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ταυροκαθαψία/ Taurokathapsía: CIG 3212, Smyrna). From taúros ('bull') and katháptein ('hang on to'). A form of bull-fighting at the Eleutheria in Larisa [3] (IG IX 531; 535; 536), in which a rider swung himself on to the bull grabbing its horns and tried to throw it to the ground (as in Heliod. 10,28-30; cf. Anth. Pal. 9,543); a relief from Smyrna and coin images from Larisa have been preserved [1. 221-224]. In inscriptions, taurokathapsia is suggested for cities of the Greek East (Aphrodisias: CIG 2759b; Ancyra: CIG 4039; Sinope: CIG 4157); it is c…

Cecrops

(658 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Κέκροψ; Kékrops). Indigenous (Apollod. 3,177) Attic first king, who was revered cultically on the acropolis of  Athens, where his grave also lay (Antiochus-Pherecydes FGrH 333 F 1). The Cecropion (building inscription Erechtheion IG I3 474,56. 56-63) is presumably identical with the structure at the south-west corner of the Erechtheion, which was taken into consideration during the construction of the temple, and can be dated before the  Persian Wars (Hecatompedon inscription IG I3 4B, 10-11). An inscription of the Augustan period names a priest of …

Laius

(699 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Λάιος; Láios). [German version] [1] Mythical Theban king Mythical Theban king, son of Labdacus, grandson of Polydorus [1] and great-grandson of Cadmus [1] (Hdt. 5,59); his mother's name is not mentioned. He lives four generations before the Trojan War (his great-great-grandson Tisamenus is a minor when the war begins: Paus. 9,5,13). He loses his father when he is one year old (Apollod. 3,40); Lycus, the brother of L.'s great-grandfather on his mother's side, Nycteus (Paus. 9,5,5), becomes his guardi…

Mulciber

(165 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] M. was an epithet for Vulcanus documented on an inscription (CIL XI 5741 from Sentinum) and in literature (amongst others Plaut. Epid. 34, Ov. Met. 2,5 and Sil. 4,668). Besides erroneous constructs (Serv. Aen. 8,724: quod mulcatus pedes; Donat. in Ter. Hec. 1,1,8: quod mutilatus; Don. in Ter. Ad. 1,2,10: a mulctando), classical derivations of the name originate mostly from the destructive power of fire, which is meant by the verb mulcere (as in Serv. Aen. 8,724; Macrob. Sat. 6,5,2; Donat. in Ter. Hec. 1,1,8). The derivation a molliendo scilicet ferro in Fest. 129 L. points …

Valetudo

(288 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] ('Health'). In contrast to the generally positive connotations of salus , v. as a term for health is neutral and is hence given qualifying epithets ( bona: Lucr. 3,102; incommoda: Liv. 5,31,9; cf. esp. Manil. 3,140f.) or can, according to context, be biased in diametrically opposed ways (positive: Liv. 4,25,3; negative: 8,12,2). The wish for good health was common (Sen. Ep. 10,4; Petron. Sat. 61), but as early as the Roman Republic appears to have transcended a purely private nature (as in Livius [I 7] Drusus…

Teleboae

(203 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τηλεβόαι; Tēlebóai). Mythical people in the west of Acarnania, on Leucas (Str. 7,321 f.) and the adjoining islands (Plin. HN 4,53). Their eponymous progenitor Teleboas is considered a son of Poseidon and the father of Pterelaus (Anaximand. FGrH 9 F 1) or as the latter's son of Pterelaus and the brother of Taph(i)us (Herodorus FGrH 31 F 15). His descriptive name means 'far-calling' (Eust. Od. 1396,3-4) or derives in a strange etymology from T.'s campaign against Electryon to steal his 'oxen' ( bóas) 'far' ( tḗle) from his homeland (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,747), to …

Quies

(89 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] Personification of quiet, the religious worship of which is documented exclusively by the mention of a sanctuary of  Q. ( fanum Quietis) on the via Labicana  (Liv. 4,41,8). The inscription Quies Augustorum can be found on coins of Diocletianus and Maximianus after their abdication in AD 305; however, it must be seen in connection with the relief they felt at their withdrawal from official duties, rather than as in fact reflecting religious practice. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) Bibliography R. Vollkommer, s. v. Q., LIMC 7.1, 612; 7.2, 489.

Pyanopsia

(193 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Πυανόψια; Pyanópsia). Attic festival in honour of Apollo, held on the 7th of the month Pyanopsiṓn (end of October). A thick pulse soup (Greek pýanos, ‘bean’ and hépsein, ‘to cook’, from which the festival's name is also derived) was cooked on the occasion, which was etiologically linked with Theseus' homecoming (Plut. Theseus 10; [2. 150-153]). A procession of boys hung the E iresiṓnē, olive branches bound with wool decoration and laden with first-fruit offerings, on the doors of houses and on the temple of Apollo (Schol. Aristoph. Equ. 72…

Tolma

(137 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τόλμα/ Tólma, 'boldness, daring'). Notes on the ancient concept of T. as a deity, although scanty and late, are unquestionable [1. 1681]: Schol. Aesch. PV 12c Harington mentions an (unidentified) sanctuary to T. and Anaideia in Athens; in App. Lib. 21 Scipio (Cornelius [I 71]) prays to T. and Phobos; Anth. Pal. 9,29,1-4 (Antiphilus [3] of Byzantium) addresses T. as the fateful inventor of sea travel (ambivalent: Anth. Pal. 7,529,1). Claudianus [2] presents the corresponding Latin …

Gorgophonus/-os

(93 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Epithet of Athena (‘killer of Gorgo’). Epithet of Athena in Orph. H. 32,8 (but see  Gorgophone [1]). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Epithet of Perseus Epithet of Perseus (Eur. fr. 985 Nauck; Nonnus, Dion. 18,305; 30,269; 31,12; 47,506; 47,536). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [3] Son of Electryon and Alcmene Son of  Electryon and Anaxo, Alcaeus' daughter, thus Perseus' grandson.  Alcmene is mentioned as his sister, his brothers' names are listed as Stratobates, Phylonomos, Celaeno, Amphimachus, Ly…

Tenerus

(113 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τήνερος; Tḗneros). Mythical seer ( Mántis : Pind.  Fr. 51d) in Thebes, son of Apollo and the ash-nymph Melia (Melia [1]; schol.  Lycoph. 1211), who gives birth to him in the Ismenion  (Pind. Fr. 52k), where his oracle also was (schol. Pind. Pyth. 11,5); brother of Ismenius (Paus. 9,10,6). Apollo bestows on him the gift of prophecy (schol.  Lycoph. 1211). The Tenerian Plain between Thebes and Lake Copais is named after T. (Str. 9,413; Paus. 9,26,1). Pindar's seventh p…

Memnonides

(174 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Μεμνονίδες/ Memnonídes; Lat. Memnoniae aves).The legend of the birds of Memnon is closely associated with the grave of Memnon [1] on the river Aisepus. According to Paus. 10,31,6 Polygnotus had portrayed Memnon wearing a robe painted with birds in the picture of Hades on the Lesche of the Cnidians at Delphi. The extant versions probably date back to scholarly of Alexandrine poetry: according to Q. Smyrn. 2,642-655 it is the companions of Memnon who are turned into birds by Eos (simil…

Phallus

(672 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (φαλλός/ phallós, Latin phallus; from a Proto-Indo-European root * bhel-, 'blow up', 'swell up'). As bearer of the beneficent power of procreation, the male member played an important role in religion and cult. Its connection with Dionysus is particularly close: Phallus processions can be found in the rural Dionysia (Aristoph. Ach. 241-276), where the phallus is personified as Phales, to whom the cultic song is addressed (Aristoph. Ach. 263; 276), and at the great Dionysia, where the membe…

Zephyritis

(228 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ζεφυρίτις; Zephyrítis). Epithet of Arsinoe [II 3] II, the sister-wife of Ptolemaeus [3] II Philadelphus who was worshipped as Aphrodite Z. Her sanctuary, donated by the admiral of the fleet Callicrates [9] (Posidippus, Epigrammata 12 GA I. 3110-3119) was located on the cape of Zephyrion (from which the name Z. is derived) not far from Alexandria [1] (Str. 17,1,16; Posidippus, Epigrammata 13 GA 1, 3120-3125) according to Ath. 7,318d; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ζεφύριον), where she may have b…

Hellusii

(107 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] In Tac. Germ. 46,4, the name of a fantastic people with a human face and a body the shape of an animal. An etymology that goes back to an animal name is therefore assumed; a Germanic equivalent with Greek ἐλλός, Armenian eln, Lithuanian élnis ‘deer (fawn)’ [1. 534-537] has been suggested. Whether this fantastic people bears witness to Scandinavian peoples or rather to seals with a face resembling that of a human remains to be seen [1. 537]. They should certainly not be linked with the Helisii, part of a tribe of Lugians (Tac. Germ. 43,2). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) Bibliogra…

Telete

(465 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (τελετή /teletḗ, pl. teletaí, < *tḷ1-et2 from teléō/télos < *tel-1 , 'to bring' [10. 232] in contrast to the common two-fold derivation of *kwel- and *tel-2 ; as a Greek foreign word in Lat. teleta, Apul. Met. 11,22 et alibi on the cult of Isis). In the religious realm, the term could refer to various types of events (cf. Hsch. s. v. τ.: festivals, sacrifices, mysteries), originally to religious acts in general (e.g. Batr. 303 [11. 97]; Aristoph. Pax 413). It is therefore used in connection with various Greek fest…

Gorgophone

(187 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Γοργοφόνη; Gorgophónē). [German version] [1] Epithet of Athena Epithet of Athena in the sense of ‘killer of Gorgo’ (Eur. Ion 1478; Orph. H. 32,8 Quandt after the passage in Euripides, although γοργοφόνος is transmitted in the vocative); the name can also be interpreted as ‘glowing terribly’ (cf.  Persephone). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) Bibliography 1 F. Bräuninger, s.v. Persephone, RE 19, 946-947. [German version] [2] One of the Danaids One of the Danaids ( Danaus, Danaids) natural sister of Hypermestra. Her husband is Proteus (Apollod. 2,16 Wagner), whose …

Zenoposeidon

(168 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ζηνοποσειδών/ Zēnoposeidṓn). Ζηνο-/ Zēno- is the Doric form of Zeus, Z. is the interpretating Greek translation of Zeus Osogo(a) worshipped in the Carian city of Mylasa [2. nos. 319-327, 361-376; 4. 109-117] who, according to depictions on coins [3. vol. 2, 576-582], exhibited attributes and traits of Zeus (eagle, double axe) and Poseidon (crab, trident) [4. 117-126]; this is documented in the double name (with a humorous anecdote in Machon fr. 8 GA = Ath. 8,337c). The sanctuary which can be located close to (Ath. loc.cit.) or inside (Str. 14,2,23) the city (f…

Taraxippus

(146 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ταράξιππος/ taráxippos, 'confuser of horses', from híppos and the aorist stem of taráttein). The monument in the form of a round altar, which was associated with T. (v.i.), stood on the (long) eastern side of the Hippodrome in Olympia, near the nýssa (turning post); the horses often shied there, which may have been due to preparing to round the turning post, but was explained by divine action. Paus. 6,20,15-18 offers several identifications for T. and his monument and himself considers an altar to Poseidon Hippios likel…

Protesilaus

(380 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Πρωτεσίλαος/ Prōtesílaos, Latin Protesilaus; approx. 'First Among the People', cf. Hom. Il. 2,702; [2. 938]; mythological interpretation of the name from his death before Troy in Eust. Hom. Il. 2,700 p. 325; in Hdt. 9,116 Πρωτεσίλεως). Son of Iphicles (Hom. Il. 2,704-707) or Actor (Hes. fr. 199,6 M.-W.); Astyoche (Eust. Il. 2,698 p. 323) and Diomedea (Hyg. Fab. 103) are named as his mother. Like his brother Podarces [1] (Hom. ibid.), he courted Helen (Helena I [1]) (Hes. fr. 199,5 M…

Myrmex

(177 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Μύρμηξ; Mýrmēx). [German version] [1] Father of the eponymous heroine of the Attican deme of Melite According to Philochorus FGrH 328 F 27 and Hes. fr. 225 M.-W. (= Harpocr. 202,7 Dindorf) he was the father of the eponymous heroine of the Attican deme of Melite. The legend of the Athenians' futile war against the máchimoi mýrmēkes (‘embattled ants’; Eubulus, Glaucus PCG V fr. 20) who guarded the gold dust on Mt. Hymettus, is likewise set in Attica and probably related to this myth. It became proverbial (Pl. Plt. 450b; Harpocr. 308,6 Dindorf). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2]…

Hipponous

(100 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Ἱππόνοος; Hippónoos). [German version] [1] Name of Bellerophontes According to schol. Hom. Il. 6,155 Dindorf, the old name of  Bellerophontes; schol. Hom. Il. 6,155 Erbse offers the name of Leophontes (Λεωφόντης). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Son of Adrastus Son of Adrastus [1] who deliberately threw himself on the pyre with him (Hyg. Fab. 242). The same motif can be found in the story about Capaneus' and Evadne's fate. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [3] Father of Capaneus With Astynome, H. fathered  Capaneus (Apollod. 3,63 Wagner; Hyg. F…

Prometheia

(115 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Προμήθεια/ Promḗtheia). Attic festival of unknown date in honour of Prometheus, at which there were torch races from his altar in the Academy through the Kerameikos to an unrecorded finish (Paus. 1,30,2; Schol. Aristoph. Ran. 135). A torch race modelled on that of the P. was introduced or reorganised at the Hephaistia (Hephaestus II) in 421/20 BC (IG I3 82,32-35). Each phyle entered a team and a gymnasiarch (Isaeus 7,36) for the music agon of the men's and boys' choirs (IG II2 1138; Ps.-Xen. Ath. Pol. 3,4); their performance costs are given as 12 minai (Lys. 21,3). Scherf, J…

Hersilia

(241 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] Daughter of the noble Sabine Hersilius (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,1). During the rape of the Sabine women, she is the only married woman who is abducted (Cass. Dio 56,5,5 is a reflection of this: H. teaches the Roman women tà gamiká, ‘what forms part of marriage’), she stays with her daughter, who was also abducted (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,45; Macrob. Sat. 1,6,16), and marries, according to some sources, a certain Hostilius in Rome and so becomes the grandmother of King Tullus  Hostilius (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,1; Plut. Romu…

Pandareus

(297 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Πανδάρεος, -εως; Pandáreos, -eōs). Son of Merops [5], from a city named Miletus (schol. V Hom. Od. 19,518); according to Paus. 10,30,2, from Cretan Miletus [3]. His descent from Hermes and Merope (schol. B Hom. Od. 19,518) probably derives from the motif of theft: P. steals the golden hound posted by Zeus to guard his sanctuary in Crete and takes him to Tantalus for safekeeping; through Hermes, Zeus demands the hound back and has Tantalus killed by being cast from Mt. Sipylus for de…

Quadriformis

(124 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] ('four-formed', also Quadrifrons, 'four-faced'). Sobriquet of Janus (Ianus) whose statue, which looked in four directions, is supposed to have been taken to Rome after the conquest of Falerii [1] in 241 BC (Serv. Aen. 7,607; Macrob. Sat. 1,9,13). Under Domitian it was moved to the Forum Transitorium (Mart. 10,28,5 f.); there is an illustration of the cult image on an as of Hadrian [1. 621 no. 21]. Varro uses quadrifrons as a cosmological symbol of the quattuor partes mundi ('the four directions of the world', fr. 234 Cardauns) [2. 63]. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) Biblio…

Lymphae

(174 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (also Lumphae: Prisc. Institutio de arte grammatica 2,36,22). Italian name for water goddesses. The name should be regarded as close, from the point of view of content and language, like Oscan diumpaís, to Greek nýmphai ( Nymphs) [1] to which it is partly used as a parallel: CIL V 3106 (Vicetia), Aug. Civ. 4,34; Paul. Fest. 107,17 L. As an equivalent of Greek nymphólēptos, ‘raging’, Latin lymphatus is created (Varro, Ling. 7,87; Paul. Fest. 107,17-20 L.). The cult worship of the lymphae attested by inscriptions - e.g. CIL III 6373 (Salonae), XI 1918 (Perusia) …

Hippalektryon

(161 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἱππαλεκτρυών; Hippalektryṓn, ‘horse rooster’). Fantastic  monster, a combination of cock and horse. The earliest literary record is Aesch. Myrmidones fr. 134 Radt. The references in Aristophanes (Pax 1177; Av. 800; Ran. 932, as in Aesch. with the epithet xouthós, ‘golden, yellow’) are parodies of tragedies. In Hesychius and Photius s.v. and in the scholia to Aristophanes, the creature has a bird's head - this is the exact opposite of the archaeological findings (a cock's hindquarters with two cock's legs, front of a …

Gegeneis

(175 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Γηγενεῖς, ‘Earth Born ’). [German version] [1] Epithet of the Giants Epithet of the Aloads (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,482),  Orion (Apollod. 1,25 Wagner), the Spartans (Eur. Bacch. 264), Argus [I 5] (Aesch. PV 567), and the  giants (Batr. 7; Soph. Trach. 1058f.; Eur. Phoen. 1131). As a noun = giants (Aristoph. Nub. 853; Lycoph. 1408; explained in Diod. Sic. 4,21,7). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Mythical people Mythical people living near Cyzicus, mentioned by Apoll. Rhod. (1,941-3; 989-91 with schola). Dei(l)ochus of Proconnesus called them ἐγχειρογάστορες ( Enche…

Pythia

(1,432 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Prophetess of the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi (Πυθία; Pythía). Prophetic seer of the oracle of Apollo Pythios at Delphi. In addition to her genuine designation as Pythía, her function is characterized by such epithets as mántis (Aesch. Eum. 29), prómantis (Hdt. 6,66), or prophȇtis (Eur. Ion 42). The P.'s establishment may have occurred after a period in which male priests were responsible for the promulgation (H. Hom. 3,393-396; [3. 215]). In the oracle's primeval period, the role of the seer was probably not fulfilled by…

Calydon

(553 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Καλυδών; Kalydṓn). [German version] [1] Eponymous of the Aetolian city of the same name The eponymous of the Aetolian city of the same name, C. [3], son of  Aetolus and  Pronoe, brother of Pleuron, husband of Aeolia and through her the father of Epicaste and Protogenea (Apollod. 1,58-59). A similar genealogically linked construct in Deimachus (FGrH 65 F 1 = schol. Hom. Il. 217-218 Erbse) where the succession Endymion-Aetolus-Pleuron-C. is found, also the names of the region and both of the largest cities. According to Steph. Byz. s.v., either Endymion or Aetolus is the father of C. C. is a…

Glanis

(166 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] The silurid The silurid ( silurus glanis), an (up to 3 metres long) freshwater fish. Aristot. Hist. an. 8(9),37,691 a20-b2 describes the care of the brood of the glánis, whose name was passed on to Thomas of Cantimpré ( glamanez monstrum [1] 6,26) and Albertus Magnus ( garcanez, animal. 24,35 [2]) via the Arabian-Latin translation of Michael Scotus as glanieuz without real knowledge of the animal. A connection to evil demons was ascribed to it, perhaps due to its supposed attacks on fishing nets [3. 1 § 458]. Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) Bibliography 1 H. Boese (…

Victoria

(690 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Roman goddess and personification of victory Roman goddess and personification of victory, etymologically derived from vincere, "to be victorious" [5. 2501]. In contrast to Nike, her Greek counterpart whom she followed closely in her personification and iconography (as winged goddess, often with cornucopia, wreath and palm leaf: [4. 239-269]), V. was worshipped early and independently in her cult as the symbol of victory achieved (mostly militarily, therefore the close connection to Mars, according to CIL III 4412; VII 220; V. in the pompa circensis: Cic. A…

Nike

(1,060 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Νίκη; Níkē). [German version] I. Mythology N. is the Greek personification of victory. As early as in Hesiod she is an abstract concept: Nike is the daughter of Styx and Pallas and the sister of similar personifications: Zelos (zeal), Kratos (power) and Bia (force) (Hes. Theog. 384-385). Zeus commands these powers forever (ibid. 388), since, on the advise of Styx, they supported him in the Gigantomachy (ibid. 389-403; Serv. Aen. 6,134). Nonnus outlined N.'s participation in the battle (Nonnus, Dion. …

Pax

(957 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
('peace'). [1] Peace in general [German version] A. Definition Latin pax (< Indo-European  pac, hence pac-s, pacisci > pango, cf. Greek πήγνυμι/ pḗgnymi; on ancient terminology, see [6. 17-29]) means primarily the state of peace and not the manner in which it is obtained [7. 46]. Although Roman sources do call pax the absence of war ( bellum), pax is only the result of a concrete war ended by means of conquest, deditio or agreement by treaty (see D below) [7. 49f.; 8. 51; 6. 155]. Attributes indicate 'peacemakers' or different domains (cf. Pax deorum (deum) ). Kehne, Peter (Hannover) …

Midas

(755 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Μίδας/ Mídas). [German version] I. Historical King of Phrygia, son of Gordius [1]. Assyrian sources document him as Mit-ta-a, ‘king of the land of Muski, ’ for 718-709 BC. In the epichoric inscriptions of Yazılıkaya (‘city of Midas’) the name M. is found in conjunction with the titles laagtei and anaktei. The name M. is more likely Old Anatolian than Phrygian. According to Assyrian sources M. conspired with the Luwian kings of Atuna (Tyana), Karkemiš, Gurgum and Malida against Sargon II, until he - snubbing Urarṭu and fearing the Cimmerians - placed hi…

Tychon

(284 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Τύχων/ Týchōn). [German version] [1] Ithyphallic god Ithyphallic god (Str. 13,1,12), associated with Priapus (Diod. Sic. 4,6,4), but primarily with Hermes (Clem. Al. Protreptikos 102,1; Theognostus, Anecdota Oxoniensia 2, p. 33,31 Cramer), as in the only inscriptional record, from Magnesia [2] on the Maeander [2] [2. 136 no. 203]; also with Aphrodite (Herodian. 1,37,15 Lentz; Hesych. s. v. T.; cf. Apollophanes PCG 2 fr. 6). His efficacy was considered limited (Anth. Pal. 9,334,1), but Alexander [II 15…

Hyllus

(747 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Ὕλλος; Hýllos). [German version] [1] Son of Heracles and Deianira Son of  Heracles and  Deianira; brother of Macaria. Ctesippus, Glenos and Oneites (Hes. fr. 25,19 M-W; Apollod. 2,165 Wagner) or Gleneus and Odites (Diod. Sic. 4,37,1) have been named as his brothers and Euaichme (Hes. fr. 251b M-W) as his daughter. Heracles asks him to burn his body on a pyre on Mount Oeta and to marry Iole (Soph. Trach. 1179-1258; (Ps.-)Sen. Hercules Oetaeus 1481-1491). After his father's death, he and the other Heraclid…

Gelonus

(147 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Γελωνός; Gelōnós). [German version] [1] Son of Heracles and the snake maiden Echidna Son of Hercules and the snake maiden  Echidna, brother of Agathyrsus and of  Scythes, eponym of the Graeco-Scythian Geloni (Hdt. 4,10). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] City of the Butini City of the Budini, mentioned only by Hdt. 4,108, according to the context of the highly contested passage, north of the Melanchlaeni on the upper Donec. Herodotus describes a city built of wood with Greek architecture and a Greek life-style. The inhabit…

Glaucus

(2,298 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Γλαῦκος; Glaûkos). The name means ‘glossy blue’, also ‘luminous’ [1];  Glauce: Hom. Il 16,34). [German version] [1] Sea demon A sea demon, into which a Boeotian fisherman from Anthedon was transformed after consuming a magical herb. The place of his jump into the sea after the transformation, Γλαύκου πήδημα ( Glaúkou pḗdēma, ‘Glaucus' jump’), was indicated (Paus. 9,22,6-7). Representations are known by Evanthes, Hedyle and Nicander (Ath. 7,295b-297c), by Callimachus (Suda s.v.), Q. Cornificius (Macrob. Sat. 6,5,13) and Cicero (Plut. Cic. 2,3,86…

Memnon

(1,680 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μέμνων; Mémnon). [German version] [1] Mythical King of the Ethiopians Mythical King of the Ethiopians, son of Tithonus and Eos, brother of Emathion (Hes. Theog. 984-5). His entry into Troy as an ally of the Trojans after the death of Penthesilea, his successful single combat with Antilochus, his death at the hands of Achilles and the immortality conferred upon him by Zeus at the behest of Eos were, as the summary of Proclus (Chrestomathia 172) shows, depicted in the lost Cyclic epic Aithiopís . Hom. Od. 4,187-8 and Pind. P. 6,28-39 also refer to his single combat with Antiloc…

Pylos

(1,818 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg)
(Πύλος/ Pýlos). [German version] [1] Homeric P. Kingdom of Nestor In Homer, P. can designate both the domain and residence of Nestor [1] [3. 119-126]. The geographic information on the location of the palace - however concretely verifiable in the actual topography - given in Homer in the Iliad and the Odyssey each lead to different locations. In the tale of Nestor, the so-called Nestorís in the 11th book of the Iliad (cf. [2. 296-298] on Hom. Il. 11,670-762), the information clearly points to a place south of the Alpheius [1]. In the Odyssey, on the other h…

Neoptolemus

(2,308 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Νεοπτόλεμος; Neoptólemos). [German version] [1] Son of Achilles and Deidamia The son of Achilles [1] and Deidamia, the daughter of king Lycomedes [1] of Scyros. Rare but explainable variants of the mother's name are Pyrrha (Heliodorus 3,2 = Anth. Pal. 9,485,8) and Iphigenia (Duris of Samos FGrH 76 F 88; on this FGrH 2 C 130). Homer only knows the name N., and Pyrrhus probably only becomes more common in the 4th cent. (first Theopompus FGrH 115 F 355) because of dynastic considerations of the Epirote king…

Lycus

(2,142 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Λύκος; Lýkos). Mythology and religion: L. [1-9], historical persons: L. [10-13], rivers: L. [14-19]. [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno [1] (Ps.-Eratosth. Katasterismoi 23), only Apollod. 3,111 mentions his translation to the Islands of the Blessed, possibly to differentiate him from L. [6], with whom he is connected by Hyg. Fab. 31, 76 and 157 in spite of the descent from Poseidon. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Son of Prometheus and Celaeno Son of Prometheus and Celaeno [1], on whose tomb in th…

Olympus

(2,377 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ὄλυμπος/Ólympos). Geography: [1-13]. People: [14-15]. [German version] [1] Home of the ›Olympian‹ gods, highest mountain in Greece (Latin Olympus) (Latin Olympus). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) [German version] I. Geography The highest mountain in Greece, regarded as the home of the 'Olympian' gods (twelve (Olympian) gods). Its altitude, overlooking all of its surroundings, creates a powerful impression, as do its massive size and density and its dramatic ascent, especially at the east and west, which …
▲   Back to top   ▲