Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Schiemann, Gottfried" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Schiemann, Gottfried" )' returned 359 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Taxatio

(152 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] (die “Schätzung”) ist im röm. Formularprozeß ( formula ) die Höchstgrenze, bis zu der der iudex (“Richter”) nach der Anweisung des Praetors zur Verurteilung ( condemnatio ) die Urteilssumme festsetzen durfte. Die t. kommt typischerweise vor: (1) bei der Haftung des Herrn mit dem Eigengut ( peculium ) des Sklaven oder Haussohnes aus der actio de peculio oder aus der actio de in rem verso wegen Vermögensvermehrungen durch das Handeln solcher Gewaltunterworfener ( patria potestas ), (2) bei der Einrede des Schuldners wegen einer Notlage ( beneficium competentiae) und …

Schadensersatz

(774 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
Sch. zum Ausgleich von Verlusten oder zur Wiedergutmachung von Beeinträchtigungen unterlag in der Frühen Nz. folgenden Entwicklungen: der klaren Trennung zwischen Sch. und staatlicher Strafe, verbunden mit einem Perspektivenwechsel von der »Rache« gegenüber dem »Täter« zum Ersatzbedürfnis des Opfers; der Entdeckung und Entwicklung einer Entschädigung für persönliche Beeinträchtigungen jenseits von Vermögensverlusten; auch sonst einer stärkeren Hinwendung zum Personenschaden (Tod, Körper- und Gesundheitsverletzung); schließlich der Zusam…

Damages

(789 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
Damages to compensate losses or to make good other adverse effects underwent the following developments in the early modern period: the clear distinction between damages and public penalties, associated with a shift of perspective from “revenge” on the “offender” to the need to compensate the victim; the discovery and elaboration of compensation for personal suffering other than pecuniary loss; and in general a greater attention to personal injury (death, injury to one's body and health); and la…
Date: 2019-03-20

Suppositio Partus

(18 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Im röm. Recht die strafbare Handlung der Kindesunterschiebung, partus suppositus . Schiemann, Gottfried

Zitiergesetz

(269 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Das in der mod. Lit. sogenannte Z. ist eine Anordnung des röm. Kaisers darüber, welche Juristen früherer Jh. bei der Rechtsfindung herangezogen und zitiert werden durften. Mit der Krise des röm. Reiches in der Mitte des 3. Jh. n. Chr. verlor auch die röm. Rechtswissenschaft ( iuris prudentia ) die polit., sozialen und wirtschaftlichen Bedingungen für eine produktive Fortsetzung. Die Rechts-Lit. seit dem 1. Jh. v. Chr., dem Beginn ihrer “klass.” Periode, wurde damit aus einem Fundus für den ideellen Diskurs…

Verbannung

(55 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Die V. ersetzte in der griech.-röm. Antike weitgehend die Todesstrafe für die Angehörigen der Oberschicht, kam aber wie im attischen ostrakismós auch als selbständige Strafe vor. Zu den Einzelheiten für Griechenland, insbesondere Athen, s. phygḗ , aeiphygía , apeniautismós , für Rom s. exilium , deportatio , relegatio . Schiemann, Gottfried

Kreuzigung

(140 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Die K., lat crux oder damnatio in crucem (“Verurteilung zur K.”), griech. in hell. Zeit ἀνασταύρωσις/ anastaúrōsis (das bei Hdt. 3,125 und wohl auch noch bei Xenophon [10] von Ephesos 4,2 aber eher “Pfählen” bedeutet), war nur eine von mehreren Arten der Vollstreckung einer Todesstrafe (II.) im röm. Reich. Sie kommt dort verm. aus der Gefahrenabwehr gegenüber Sklaven im Rahmen der coercitio (“Zwangsgewalt”) durch die tresviri [1] capitales. Die K. hatte vielleicht orientalische und punische Vorbilder und war zur Zeit der K. Jesu eine typische Ma…

Strafprozeß

(300 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Von einem S. im technischen Sinne kann in histor. Perspektive nur gesprochen werden, wenn sich ein Bereich der Strafverfolgung im öffentlichen (staatlichen) Interesse (Strafe, Strafrecht) von der Rechtsverfolgung im privaten Interesse (einschließlich etwaiger Privatstrafen, lat. poena ) unterscheiden läßt. Die Tatsache, daß z. B. die private Rache durch den Zwang zur Durchführung eines gerichtlichen Verfahrens kanalisiert wird, begründet noch keinen S.: Zur Wahrung des öffentlichen Friedens und d…

Vidua

(17 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Lat. Ausdruck und t.t. des röm. Rechts für die Witwe (II.). Schiemann, Gottfried

Vermächtnis

(72 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Der t.t. V. des mod. Rechts ist geprägt durch das röm. legatum , dessen wörtliche Übers. “V.” ist. Das röm. Recht unterschied bei der testamentarischen Regelung der Vermögensnachfolge nach dem Tod zw. der Einsetzung zum vollgültigen Rechtsnachfolger als Erbe ( heres, s. dazu Erbrecht III.) - bzw. mehrere Erben - und Zuwendung einzelner Gegenstände als V. Andere ant. Rechte enthalten keine vergleichbare Konstruktion. Fideicommissum; Testament [2] IV. Schiemann, Gottfried

Vormundschaft

(59 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Die V. spielte sowohl im attischen Recht (vgl. epítropos [2]) als auch im röm. Recht (vgl. tutela [1]) eine wichtige Rolle. Sie bestand nicht nur gegenüber Kindern und Heranwachsenden, soweit sie nicht unter patria postestas (“väterlicher Gewalt”) waren, sondern in weitem Umfang auch als Geschlechts-V. gegenüber Frauen ( kýrios II., tutela [1] III.). Schiemann, Gottfried

Soldatenlehen

(240 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] ist der vielleicht besser als “Soldatengüter” zu bezeichnende Landbesitz, an den sich mil. Pflichten knüpften: sei es der Waffendienst des Inhabers, seien es die Stellung und Ausrüstung von Soldaten (gleichsam als Stellvertreter des Inhabers). S. in diesem Sinne kamen insbes. im Alten Orient vor. Sie sind relativ gut überl. für das Perserreich der Achaimenidai [2] (6.-4. Jh. v. Chr.) und für das Hethitische Reich (Ḫattusa II.); auch äg. Militärkolonien bestanden wohl aus aktiven …

Scriptura

(111 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] (wörtl. “das Aufgeschriebene”), bezeichnet im juristischen Bereich alle röm. Urkunden, und (mit der Zunahme der Schriftlichkeit) seit dem Prinzipat, v. a. aber in der Spätant., u. a. das Testament, den Schuldschein ( cheirógraphon ), überhaupt den Vertrag, aber auch eine Rechtsansicht oder eine rechtliche Entscheidung, soweit diese schriftlich niedergelegt waren. In einem engeren Sinne - wohl daher, daß die röm. Steuerpächter ( publicani ) das Geschäft zur Überlassung von öffentlichem Weideland an private (Unter-) pächter aufschrieben - war s. das Entgel…

Signum

(264 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
(wörtl. “Zeichen”, Pl. signa). [English version] [1] (Name) s. Supernomen (Name) s. Supernomen Schiemann, Gottfried [English version] [2] (Militärwesen) s. Feldzeichen; Signale (Militärwesen) s. Feldzeichen; Signale Schiemann, Gottfried [English version] [3] Brandzeichen für Sklaven Brandzeichen, mit dem bei den Römern Sklaven kenntlich gemacht wurden (Sklaverei). Dies kam zur Verhinderung der Flucht und bei Diebstahlsgefahr vor sowie generell bei Straftätern, die zur Arbeit im Bergwerk ( in metallum) verurteilt worden und dadurch zu Sklaven geworden waren. We…

Gesetzgebung

(232 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] ist in der Ant. sowohl Gegenstand praktischer Politik (Rechtskodifikation) als auch theoretischer (politikwiss. und rechtsphilos.) Reflexion. Letztere wurde von den Griechen erstmals (als nomothesía) thematisiert und sogleich auf einen Höhepunkt der Geistesgeschichte geführt, v. a. in Platons [1] Spätwerk über die Gesetze ( Nómoi). Platons Auffassung von G. dürfte, vermittelt wohl auch durch Cicero mit seiner Theorie der G. ( De legibus), nachhaltigen Einfluß auf die G. der röm. Kaiserzeit und hierdurch auf die europäische Rechtswissensch…

Spado

(135 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Der lat. Ausdruck für den Eunuchen, aber auch für den unabhängig von einer Kastration ( castratio ) nicht Zeugungsfähigen (Ulp. Dig. 50,16,128). Für den s. galten im röm. Recht familien- und erbrechtliche Besonderheiten: Während aus dem 2. Jh. n. Chr. die Regelung überliefert ist, daß der s. generell zur Adoption fähig ist (Gai. inst. 1,103), wird unter Iustinianus (6. Jh n. Chr.) differenziert: Die ältere Regel gilt nur noch für den s. aus natürlichen Gründen, nicht für Kastrierte (Inst. Iust. 1,11,9). Dies entspricht einer generellen Tendenz g…

Tabulae duodecim

(940 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
(‘Zwölf Tafeln oder vollständiger lex duodecim tabularum, ‘Gesetz der Zwölf Tafeln), die wichtigste Gesetzgebung der röm. Republik. Sie haben ihren Namen davon, daß man sie angeblich auf 12 eichene ( roboreas, wie es richtiger statt eboreas, “elfenbeinern”, bei Pomp. Dig. 1,2,2,4 heißen müßte) Tafeln aufschrieb. Inschr. sind sie aber nicht überl.; Text und Inhalt müssen aus der ant. Lit. rekonstruiert werden. Aus der Schilderung des Gesetzgebungsvorganges bei ant. Schriftstellern (v. a. Liv. 3,32 ff.) läßt sich ihre Entstehung um 450 v. Chr. vermuten. [English version] I. Anl…

Thesaurus

(215 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Im röm. Recht der t.t. für den Schatz, den jemand findet (Inst. Iust. 2,1,39). Der spätklass. Jurist Iulius [IV 16] Paulus (Anf. 3. Jh. n. Chr.) verwendet dafür thensaurus, den er definiert als ‘ein lange zurückliegendes Weglegen von Geld, an das keine Erinnerung mehr vorhanden ist, so daß es keinen Eigentümer mehr hat’ ( vetus quaedam depositio pecuniae, cuius non existat memoria, ut iam dominium non habeat, Dig. 41,1,31,1). Als th. wurde aber nicht nur Geld, sondern jeder Wertgegenstand angesehen. Warum man dafür ein griech. Lehnwort gebrauch…

Vindicta

(81 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Im röm. Gerichtsverfahren der legis actio sacramento in rem (“gesetzlichen Klage auf die Sache”) der Stab, der symbolisch an den Sklaven oder die Sache angelegt wurde, um den Anspruch des Klägers und den Gegenanspruch des Beklagten auf die Sache sinnfällig auszudrücken. Die Etym. von v. ist umstritten (dazu neuestens [1. 47 f.12]). Am wahrscheinlichsten erscheint der Zusammenhang mit vim dicere (“behaupten, die - rechtmäßige - Gewalt über die Sache zu haben”). Rei vindicatio Schiemann, Gottfried Bibliography 1 A. Bürge, Röm. Privatrecht, 1999.

Verleumdung

(98 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Die V. wurde als schwere Persönlichkeitsverletzung sowohl im griech. (att.) Recht als auch im röm. Recht verfolgt. In Athen dürfte die V. unter den Tatbestand der kakēgoría (vgl. auch loidoría ) gefallen sein und zu einer Geldbuße auf private Klage hin geführt haben. Im röm. Recht war die V. ebenfalls ein Privatdelikt als eine Ausprägung der iniuria (Rechtsverletzung). Mit der V. verwandt war möglicherweise das carmen famosum (“Spottgedicht”) der 12 Tafeln ( tabulae duodecim ). Eine qualifizierte Art der V. war die röm. calumnia (falsche Ansc…

Vindicius

(154 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] (auch Vindex: Pomp. Dig. 1,2,2,24). Eine Legendengestalt der röm. Geschichtsschreibung, z. B. Liv. 2,4,5-10. V. soll als Sklave eine Verschwörung der Tarquinii (vgl. Tarquinius [7; 12]) zur Wiederherstellung der Königsherrschaft im J. 509 v. Chr. entdeckt haben. Zur Belohnung soll er freigelassen und in den röm. Bürgerstand aufgenommen worden sein. Möglicherweise diente diese Legende zur “histor.” Erklärung dafür, daß die Freilassung nach röm. Recht zum Erwerb des Bürgerrechts füh…

Gericht

(374 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Seit Beginn ant. Staatlichkeit gab es die Institution des G. Ob und wo eine Phase der Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit voranging, läßt sich nicht mehr erschließen. In den Urkunden des Alten Orients sind G. vielfach belegt [1; 2; 3]. Der jeweilige Stadtfürst oder König dürfte auch Gerichtsherr gewesen sein; daneben gab es aber in Mesopotamien auch lokale Gerichtsbarkeit (d. h. innerhalb bestimmter Gruppen) [2]. Die Schreiber waren aufgrund ihrer Ausbildung für die Tätigkeit als Richter geei…

Sponsalia

(73 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Das Verlöbnis im röm. Recht. Es hat seine Bezeichnung offenbar daher, daß in früherer Zeit die Ehe wechselseitig durch förmliche stipulatio (oder sinngleich sponsio ) der Väter beider Brautleute versprochen wurde. In der späten Republik und im Prinzipat waren die s. frei widerruflich, und es konnte nicht auf Eingehung der Ehe geklagt werden. Auch indirekte Bindungen (z. B. Vertragsstrafen, Dig. 45,1,134 pr.) waren nichtig. Schiemann, Gottfried Bibliography Honsell/Mayer-Maly/Selb, 392 f.  Treggiari, 145-160.

Vincula

(274 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] (wörtl. “Fesseln”). Schon nach den XII Tafeln (tab. 3,3; tabulae duodecim ) konnte der Gläubiger zum Zwecke der Zwangsvollstreckung den Schuldner in v. legen. Damit wurde eine Schuldhaft begründet. Sie zielte zunächst auf die Erzwingung der Schuldzahlung durch den Schuldner selbst oder einen Dritten, war aber auch Durchgangsstadium dazu, über den Schuldner persönlich nach Ablauf einer Frist zu verfügen, ihn z. B. in die Sklaverei zu verkaufen oder ihn in Schuldknechtschaft die Summe, zu der er verurte…

Tabulae nuptiales

(185 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] (wörtl. “Ehetafeln”). In Urkunden niedergelegte Eheverträge des röm. Rechts seit der Kaiserzeit (vgl. Tac. ann. 6,45,5 zu Messalina [2] und Silius 48 n. Chr.). Die Ehe selbst war nach röm. Recht kein (förmlicher) Vertrag, sondern Geschlechtsgemeinschaft mit dem Willen zum ehelichen Leben ( affectio maritalis). Gegenstand der t.n. waren hingegen die mit der Ehe verbundenen Vermögensfragen, v. a. das Versprechen der Mitgift ( dos ) an den Mann zur Versorgung der Frau, in der Spätant. wohl auch das Versprechen von Schenkungen des Mannes vor oder wegen der Ehe ( donati…

Supplicium

(229 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] (“Strafe”, = St.) wird im röm. Recht ähnlich wie poena verwendet, jedoch beschränkt auf die “öffentliche” St. (Strafrecht) und spezieller die Todesstrafe. Darüber, wie s. (urspr. wohl: Bitte um Vergebung) die Bed. einer St. erh. hat, sind nur Spekulationen möglich. Die Zwölf Tafeln (5. Jh. v. Chr.) kennen zwar die Todes-St. in einigen Fällen, jedoch überwiegend als private St.; sie wird in den Berichten über das Gesetz nicht als s. bezeichnet. Mehrfach ist in den Quellen von einem s. more maiorum (“St. nach der Vätersitte”) die Rede (Nachweise [1. 204-207…

Suizid

(449 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Der S., von neulat. suicidium (“Selbsttötung”) als Parallelbildung zu homicidium , war in der griech. und röm. Ant. Gegenstand lebhafter intellektueller Auseinandersetzung: In schematischer Gegenüberstellung kann man sagen, daß die Anhänger und Nachfolger Platons, zumal Aristoteles [6] und der Neuplatonismus den S. verurteilten, während schon einige Sophisten (Sophistik) und erst recht der Kynismus den S. als Ausdruck der individuellen Freiheit hinnahmen, ja sogar ausdrü…

Urteil

(88 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Das U. aufgrund gerichtlicher Verfahren wurde in der griech. und röm. Ant. ganz durch die vorangehende Klage oder Anklage bestimmt, z. B. in Athen von díkē [2] (Zivilklage) und graphḗ [1] (Strafklage). Zur Findung des U. war dann nichts zu begründen; nur die Stimmen im Entscheidungsgremium waren auszuzählen. Der “Urteiler” ( iudex ) im röm. Recht hatte im wesentlichen nur Beweise zu erheben. Die rechtliche Würdigung war vorweggenommen mit der Zulassung der Klage ( actio [2]), v. a. durch den Praetor. Prozeßrecht; Strafe, Strafrecht Schiemann, Gottfried

Translatio

(146 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] [1] s. Status [1] A. s. Status [1] A. Schiemann, Gottfried [English version] [2] juristischer Ausdruck T. iuris (“Übertragung des Rechts”) kommt in der berühmten Sentenz zum Ausdruck: ‘Niemand kann mehr Recht auf einen anderen übertragen, als er selbst hat’ ( nemo plus iuris transferre potest quam ipse habet, Ulp. Dig. 50,17,54). Dieser “Merksatz” vom Anf. des 3. Jh. n. Chr. spiegelt die Vorstellung des klass. röm. Rechts wider, daß subjektive Rechte nicht - wie in der früheren Gedankenwelt - in der Person jedes Inhabers neu e…

Völkerrecht

(1,338 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] I. Überblick Als ein eigenes Rechtsgebiet ist das V. in der frühen Neuzeit (v. a. durch Hugo Grotius, 1583-1645) etabliert worden. Dafür hat sich der aus dem röm. Recht stammende Begriff des ius (A.2.) gentium durchgesetzt, der in der Ant. nicht V. bezeichnete, sondern diejenigen Vorstellungen vom Recht überhaupt, die - wie man annahm - allen Völkern gemeinsam waren. Dazu gehörten auch Grundsätze, die dem V. im engeren Sinn zuzuordnen sind, wie die Unverletzlichkeit diplomatischer Vertreter (Dig. 50,7,18). Einen…

Synallagma

(254 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] (συνάλλαγμα, wörtl.: “der gegenseitige Austausch”). Griech. Ausdruck für den (Geschäfts-) Verkehr, zuweilen auch für jede rechtliche Verpflichtung, unabhängig von ihrer Begründung durch Delikt oder Vertrag; eine präzise juristische Bed. hat er nicht. Dennoch nehmen die röm. Juristen M. Antistius [II 3] Labeo (um Christi Geburt) und Titius Aristo (E. 1. Jh. n. Chr.) das griech. Wort s. im Lat. auf, um damit eine Vereinbarung zu bezeichnen, die für beide Partner Verpflichtungen begründet. Dies können insbes. auch sog. Innominatverträ…

Tergiversatio

(171 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] (wörtl. etwa “das den Rücken Wenden”). Im röm. Recht die Abwendung des privaten Anklägers im Strafverfahren ( accusatio , delatio nominis ) von der durch ihn eingeleiteten Verfolgung des Angeklagten. Die t. führte seit dem SC Turpillianum (61 n. Chr.) zu einem Strafverfahren gegen den Ankläger selbst. Bei ungerechtfertigtem Rücktritt wurde die t. mit einer Geldbuße bestraft (Dig. 47,15,3,3). Darüber hinaus erlitt der private Ankläger den Verlust der Amtsfähigkeit und bürgerlichen Ehre ( infamia , Dig. 48,16,2). Der vom (zurückgetret…

Sectio bonorum

(81 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] (“Vermögensverkauf”) ist das Modell für die röm. Vermögensvollstreckung ( missio in possessionem ) gegen Schuldner im röm. Recht. Blieb jemand, insbes. ein Steuerpächter ( publicani ), dem röm. Staat etwas schuldig, wurde sein ganzes Vermögen veräußert. Der Erwerber mußte die Schuld übernehmen. Der Verkaufspreis ging an den Staatsschatz ( aerarium ). Die s. b. fand auch bei den Bürgen ( praedes) statt, die der Staatsschuldner vielfach beizubringen hatte. Schulden Schiemann, Gottfried Bibliography M. Kaser, K. Hackl, Das röm. Zivilprozeßrecht 21996, 389 f…

Verbera

(122 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] (wörtl. “Schläge”), z. B. mit dem Stock ( ferula) oder Peitschen ( flagella), waren in Rom ein Mittel der Züchtigung ( castigatio). Sie kamen vor als eigenständige (Polizei-)Strafe v. a. gegenüber Sklaven und Angehörigen der Unterschicht ( humiliores, s. honestiores ) im Rahmen der Polizeigewalt der Magistrate ( coercitio ), insbes. der tresviri capitales in republikanischer Zeit, dann des Kaisers und seiner Beauftragten sowie der Provinzgouverneure. V. waren ferner - wie von der Geißelung Jesu bekannt - im röm. Strafrecht eine “Nebenstrafe”,…

Syrisch-römisches Rechtsbuch

(282 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Das ‘S.-r. R. ist eine spätant. Rechts-Slg., die in mehreren syrischen, arabischen und armenischen Versionen verschiedenen Umfanges überl. ist. Sie war im Gebiet der oriental. Kirchen verbreitet, enthielt aber weltliches röm. Recht. Das Interesse am “Reichsrecht” in den östl. Prov. des röm. Reiches zeigt sich überlieferungsgesch. zunächst an den Sententiae Syriacae, einer Paraphrase kaiserlicher Gesetze, v. a. aus der Zeit des Diocletianus mit dem Schwerpunkt in den J. 293/4 n. Chr. Die Übers. ins Syrische erfolgte nicht unmitt…

Scheidung

(409 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Die Auflösung der Ehe durch Sch. scheint in der Ant. von Mesopotamien bis Rom überall möglich gewesen zu sein, freilich nicht immer für Männer und Frauen in gleicher Weise. So war zwar in Äg. im 1. Jt. v. Chr. Frauen ebenso wie Männern die Erklärung der Sch. möglich; im altjüd. Recht wie wohl auch in Mesopotamien war hingegen nur die Verstoßung durch den Mann bekannt. Das jüd. Recht knüpfte die Auflösung der Ehe jedenfalls in späterer, talmudischer Zeit (Halakha) zudem an Sch.-Gr…

Zivilrecht

(973 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English Version] . I. Z. oder Bürgerliches Recht (sinngleich oft auch: Privatrecht) bez. denjenigen Teil des geltenden Rechts, der die Beziehungen der Bürger (und der privaten Unternehmen) untereinander regelt, nämlich die Verträge zw. ihnen, die einseitigen Akte mit Wirkung für andere (wie Testamente oder Kündigungen) und die unmittelbar gesetzlich begründeten Ansprüche, z.B. auf Unterhalt, auf die Beseitigung von Störungen der Individualsphäre oder die Wiedergutmachung von Schäden. Der Begriff Z…

Basilics

(144 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The ‘Basilics’, after the Greek term basiliká (n.pl.: ‘imperial’; sc. law books), are a compilation in Greek of the most important parts of the   Corpus iurisDigesta and   Codex (II)Iustinianus, as well as extracts from   Institutiones and   Novellae C.) from the time of the Byzantine emperor Leo(n) [9] VI (886-912). For five-and-a-half centuries the Basilics secured the continuance of Roman law in Byzantium (I. B.3). At the same time, they are an invaluable secondary source for the survival of the Corpus iuris, above all the Digesta (A.3). The Basilics also f…

Criminal procedure

(366 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] From a historical perspective it is only possible to speak of a criminal procedure (CP) in the technical sense if we can distinguish a field of criminal prosecution in the public (state) interest ( Punishment; Criminal law) from legal prosecution in the civil interest (including any civil law penalties, Lat.   poena ). The fact, for example, that private  revenge is channelled via the obligation to conduct a judicial procedure still does not constitute a CP: to protect public peace and state authority, only the …

Interpolation, critique of

(483 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In Roman legal history critique of interpolation specifically refers to the examination of the transmitted version of the texts of the Corpus Iuris for falsifications compared with the original. This is of particular relevance to the fragments from the writings of the classical jurists (1st cent. BC - 3rd cent. AD) in the  Digesta , but also to the  Institutiones in comparison to their models and even to the older imperial pronouncements collected in the  Codex Iustinianus . With regard to the Digesta, emperor Justinian himself had already given an express…

Scriptura

(124 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] (literally 'that which is written down'), in the field of law, denoted all Roman documents, and (as literacy increased) from the Principate, but esp. in late antiquity, e.g. the testament, the note of hand ( cheirógraphon ), generally the contract, but also a legal opinion or a legal ruling, provided that these were given in writing. In a narrower sense, probably arising from the fact that the Roman tax farmers ( publicani ) 'marked down' transactions of relinquishment of public pasture to private (sub-)lessees, scriptura was the payment the lessee had to make for…

Denuntiator

(89 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] Someone who has something to announce or proclaim. In a narrower sense the term is applied to those who, whether as a private individual or on behalf of an office, report a criminal offence. Denuntiator is then very often synonymous with   delator . The excesses of the latter had a lasting effect on the public opinion on denunciation. Denuntiatores crop up in Rome even as junior officials in the role of heralds. For similar functions in Greek law   menysis ,   sykophantes . Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)

Manumissio

(17 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The Latin term for Manumission (C.), the freeing of slaves. Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)

Dictio dotis

(219 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] Under Roman law a unilateral promise to provide a dowry (  Dos ). Proculus (Dig. 50,16,125) gives the form of words used to make the promise: dotis filiae meae tibi erunt aurei centum (‘as dowry for my daughter you will have 100 gold pieces’). The words were said by the father or another male ancestor of the bride, or by herself, or by someone in her debt designated by her (such as a previous husband forced to return the dowry he himself had once received, following an actio rei uxoriae, a divorce). Despite its one-sided declaration the dictio dotis was considered a settlement…

Communio

(722 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
Joint ownership of an object in Roman law. [German version] A. Past history The most important circumstances that led to the formation of a communio entailed a community of purchasers ( societas quaestus) or a community of heirs. Regarding both, the communio did not gain acceptance until late, towards the end of the Republic. Before that, multiple heirs were joined in a community of ercto non cito (after erctum ciere: to make a division), as we know from the papyrus find of 1933, containing Gaius, Institutiones 3, 154a, b. It originally meant a community of property that exclude…

Conubium

(399 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In Rome being eligible to marry ( conubium) was a prerequisite for a legally valid marriage. Both partners had to have the conubium: Conubium est uxoris iure ducendae facultas. Conubium habent cives Romani cum civibus Romanis: cum Latinis autem et peregrinis ita, si concessum sit. Cum servis nullum est conubium (‘ Conubium is the legal ability to marry a woman. Roman citizens have the conubium to marry each other but, only by special dispensation, to marry Latins and other foreigners . There is no conubium with slaves’; Ulp. 5,3-5). That description omits to mentio…

Absolutio

(227 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] in Roman court proceedings is the opposite of ‘condemnation’ (  condemnatio ). In civil proceedings the formula in which the praetors set down the programme for the iudex ends stereotypically with the judicial command ... condemnato. Si non paret, absolvito. Both absolutio and condemnatio were final and absolute, in other words the decision -- apart from the special case of   appellatio -- was irrevocable, the dispute was definitively concluded and the exceptio rei iudicatae (demurrer of legal force) stood in the way of a new action. The saying omnia iudicia absolutor…

Modus

(303 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] has two meanings in Roman law: one describing a ‘measure’ primarily of land, the other - according to the matter in hand - the same as the modern concept of an instruction (on a gift or testamentary benefit). M. agri (the land measure) was the subject of a well-known action from Paul. sent. 2,17,4  ( actio de modo agri): if the price of a piece of land was calculated according to its area, the purchaser could demand from the seller double the proportional price as a private penalty, if it transpired that the area was smaller than stated.…

Remancipatio

(163 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In Roman law, the actus contrarius ('reversion') of the mancipatio (formal alienation). It served, for instance, for the return of objects given for fiduciary safekeeping ( fiducia ). The remancipatio was also a constituent act in the complex ceremonies of the emancipatio (release from the family group). Above all, however, it was an important element in divorce proceedings in the old manus marriage (cf. also Marriage III): if such a marriage was to be dissolved, the wife had to be released from the special authority of the husband. This remancipatio consisted of a ce…

Aequitas

(674 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The word aequitas has several meanings. There is a particularly fluid transition to iustum. The latter usually tends to refer to fidelity to positive law, aequitas to justice characterizing and penetrating the whole of law. Linguistic kinship to the horizontal points to equality in the sense of the corollary of performance and counter-performance, misconduct and sanction. Additionally aequitas includes the meaning of proper appropriation of facts as equal or unequal to the cases already decided in positive law. Going still further at th…

Adulterium

(329 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version]  Adultery ( a.) in Roman law according to the l. Iulia de adulteriis coercendis was a matter for public criminal proceedings ( iudicium publicum). The factual proximity of this ruling to Augustus' other marriage legislation suggests that the law on adultery originates from the same year as the l. de maritandis ordinibus (18 BC). According to a report by Paulus (Coll. 4,2,2), from the late classical period, several earlier laws were rescinded by the l. Iulia. So adulterium must already have been prosecuted at the time of the Republic, probably by the holder of authority ( pat…

Comparatio publica

(125 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] was probably not a technical term at first (therefore also c. venalitium, c. specierum). It referred to the public purchases of provisions for the Roman State, primarily concerning military equipment and public grain supplies ( Logistics,   cura annonae ). Comparatio publica (CP) did not become a legal category until the Cod. Theod. (under headings 11,15). There, it is designated as a highly regulated type of business including sales obligations (in modern law: contract obligations) and exact price …

Syro-Roman law book

(350 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The SRLB is a juristic collection of Late Antiquity which survives in several Syriac, Arabic and Armenian versions of differing scope. It was widespread in the territory of the Oriental churches, but contained secular Roman law. The interest in imperial law in the eastern provinces makes itself felt in terms of the history of transmission, first in the Sententiae Syriacae, a paraphrase of imperial laws, esp. from the reign of Diocletian and primarily from the years AD 293/4. The translation into Syriac was not directly from the (lost) Lat…

Damnatio in crucem

(149 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] Latin   crux or damnatio in crucem (‘sentencing to crucifixion’), Greek during the Hellenistic period ἀνασταύρωσις/ anastaúrōsis (which, however, in Hdt. 3,125 and probably also in Xenophon [10] of Ephesos 4,2 means ‘impaling’) was only one of several ways of exacting the  death penalty (II) in the Roman empire. It probably originated as deterrence against slaves in the context of the   coercitio (‘power of coercion’) by the   tresviri [1] capitales. Damnatio in crucem was perhaps based on Oriental and Punic precedents. At the time of the crucifixion of…

Concubinatus

(520 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In Roman law a permanent union between man and woman without affectio maritalis, i.e. without the intention of both parties of permanently entering a legal bond for forming a household, procreating and raising children. Since the marital laws of Augustus, the concubinatus increasingly became a form of living together if marriage was prohibited. Thus, senators and their descendants were prohibited under the l. Iulia de maritandis ordinibus from marrying a freedwoman, actress or daughter of an actor. Freeborn Romans could not enter into a marriage…

Latini Iuniani

(411 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] Roman freedmen, whose manumission ( Manumissio ) was deficient. For this reason the freedman did not receive citizenship and in general had an inferior legal status compared to other freedmen. The term Latini Iuniani ( LI) is derived from a lex Iunia ( Norbana?), probably of AD 19. It legally equated certain groups of freedmen with Latini coloniarii (holders of citizenship in a Latin colony). Therefore, they had no political rights (especially no voting rights) but were able to take part in legal transactions with Roman citizens because they had the commercium

Manus

(730 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] Manus is used in Roman law in the sense of the ‘controlling and protecting hand’, expressing the family law concept of a relationship based on domination. Originally, manus may have described the hegemony of the head of the family ( pater familias ) not merely over his children ( patria potestas ) but also over his wife. Already in the Law of the Twelve Tables (5th cent. BC), however, paternal power is treated separately. The meaning of manus is accordingly restricted to the husband's relationship of power over his wife. Our best source for manus are the ‘Institutions’ of …

Ius

(4,952 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
A. Historical Overview [German version] 1. Ius in ancient Rome Ius, the Roman expression for law, went through considerable changes during the thousand-year history of the Roman state. Ius was originally the criterion by which the permitted exercise of liberty, particularly the legitimate exercise of power (over people and things) was distinguished from the disruptive exercise of force ( vis). Ius in modern terminology was thus subjective law. It attested its legal character ‘by observing a generally known and practised ritual’ [1. 253] in the way it was…

Carmen famosum

(180 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The carmen famosum (CF) (according to Paulus, Sent. 5,4,6) or malum carmen (defamatory poem) is a criminal offence like the   occentatio placed beside each other in the Tabulae duodecim (8,1). It is possible that this crime was only barely comprehensible even for ancient writers (e.g. Cic. Rep. 4,12), particularly because of the extremely severe penalty for mere defamation: probably  death penalty. It was a matter of private punishment, though, so it was barely more than a legally p…

Signum

(297 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
(Literally 'sign', pl. signa). [German version] [1] (Name) see Supernomen (Name) see Supernomen Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) [German version] [2] (Military matters) see Ensigns; Signals (Military matters) see Ensigns; Signals Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) [German version] [3] Brand mark for slaves The brand mark by which the Romans identified slaves (Slavery). It was used to prevent escape and deter theft, and for criminals in general if they were condemned to work in the mines ( in metallum), thus becoming slaves. Those who had been branded in this manner could …

Sponsalia

(85 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] A couple's engagement in Roman law. The term appears to have derived from the fact that marriage in earlier times had been promised mutually through an official stipulatio (or through sponsio ) of the couple's fathers. In the late Republic and in the Principate, the sponsalia could be revoked freely and it was no longer possible to file a suit for marriage. Indirect commitments (e.g. contract penalties, Dig. 45,1,134 pr.) were abolished as well. Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) Bibliography Honsell/Mayer-Maly/Selb, 392 f.  Treggiari, 145-160.

Dispensator

(169 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] ( ab aere pendendo, Varro, Ling. 5,183). In earlier times the dispensator would presumably weigh unminted precious metals for his master or the state. The post developed into that of bookkeeper, cashier and steward, much like the Greek oikonómos. It is frequently encountered in Roman inscriptions. Many dispensatores were slaves or freedmen. In Gaius Inst. 1,122 they are distinguished as a special type of slaves: servi, quibus permittitur administratio pecuniae, dispensatores appellati sunt (‘slaves entrusted with the management of money are called dispensatores…

Furtum

(819 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Overview Furtum is the offence against property in Roman law. At least in the classical period (1st-3rd cents. AD) the term furtum includes not only theft and embezzlement, but also the mere use of items that are not one's own ( furti usus), the removal of one's own property, e.g. from a collateral creditor ( furtum possessionis, possession theft), fraud, receiving stolen goods and aiding and abetting the perpetrator of a furtum. The object of furtum could in addition to res corporales be slaves and persons under paternal authority. In the classical period, …

Litis contestatio

(653 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Term In Roman legal language, lis is the expression for a dispute, in particular when it is taken to court. Litis contestatio (LC) thus refers to the ‘witnessing’ of such a dispute (Fest. p. 34,50 L.). The instigation of a claim (action) and defence (repudiation of action) in front of witnesses determined the course of a (civil) law suit. Until the predominance of the imperial cognitio procedure around AD 300, LC was the crucial point [1. 77] in the entire proceedings. Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) [German version] B. Legis actio procedure The necessity of summonin…

Suppositio Partus

(20 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In Roman law the punishable act of substituting children, partus suppositus . Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)

Taxatio

(163 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] (the 'appraisal') in the Roman formula process was the upper limit to which the iudex ('judge') could set the sentence sum on conviction ( condemnatio ), by instruction of the praetor. The taxatio typically occurred in cases of (1) liability of the master for the property ( peculium ) of the slave or filiusfamilias from the actio de peculio or the actio de in rem verso, in respect of asset gains made by the action of such individuals under his power ( patria potestas ), (2) an exception sought by the debtor because of distress ( beneficium competentiae) and (3) an appeal for iniur…

Consensus

(331 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] is the unanimous will of the parties of a contract (  contractus ). In Roman law it was the basis of the binding character of buying (  emptio venditio ), contracts of lease, work and employment (  locatio conductio ), of commission (  mandatum ) and association (  societas ). The ‘invention of’ consensus as the central element of a system of civil law is one of the ‘grandest juridical achievements, and one of the most influential for further development’ [1. 180]. The liability resulting from consensus necessitates neither a specific form nor an advance nor perfo…

Furor

(203 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The expression for  mental illness in Roman law. The person affected by this, the furiosus, according to the Twelve Tables ( c. 450 BC), found himself in a special relationship of authority and dependence (foster-care, cura furiosi). The agnate (  agnatio ) and, when needed, in early times the gentile (  gens ) were entitled to the office of the curator (Cic. Inv. 2,148; Rhet. Her. 1,23). The position of the curator, similar to that of a trustee, corresponded to a great extent to that of a guardian (  tutela ) and was valid not only for the person but also for the property of the furi…

Caelibatus

(260 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The unmarried state ( caelibatus) was a significant object of social evaluation and legal regulation in Rome. In the Republican period, perhaps following early precursors as early as 403 BC (Val. Max. 2,9,1), the censor (102, not 131 BC) Q. Caecilius Metellus Numidicus spoke out against the unmarried state and childlessness in a speech to the people (Gell. NA 1,6). Augustus took this up, expressly to justify the lex Iulia de maritandis ordinibus, in the first main piece of his legislation relating to marriage (18 BC) (Liv. 59). This law made it obliga…

Translatio

(166 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] see Status [1] A. see Status [1] A. Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Legal expression Translatio iuris ('transfer of rights') finds expression in the famous phrase: "A person cannot transfer to another person rights greater than those he has himself" (' nemo plus iuris transferre potest quam ipse habet', Ulp. Dig. 50,17,54). This formula from the early 3rd cent. AD reflects the concept in classical Roman law that subjective rights do not emerge anew in the person receiving them -- as was assumed in the ear…

Tergiversatio

(193 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] (literally 'to turn your back'). In Roman law, the term refers to the turning away of the private accuser in a criminal trial ( accusatio , delatio nominis ) from the case he had brought against the defendant. Beginning with the SC Turpillianum (AD 61), the tergiversatio led to a case against the accuser himself. When the withdrawal was unjustified, the tergiversatio was punished with a fine (Dig. 47,15,3,3). Beyond that, the private accuser lost his right to hold an office as well as his civic honour ( infamia , Dig. 48,16,2). The defendant who had…

Abolitio

(109 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The abolitio, which has come down to us in the Digest title 48,16, is in Roman law discontinuation of criminal proceedings, often with the effect of a pardon (  indulgentia ), but mainly with the possibility of renewing the charge, as with the abolitio publica, ordered by the Senate or in exceptional cases by the emperor, and the abolitio privata, pronounced by the judge at the request of a private prosecutor. The abolitio ex lege, for example, takes effect on the death of the prosecutor. In any event this first appears under the designation abolitio in the imperial period…

Patria potestas

(908 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The PP, which continued to exist as paternal power in the German Civil Code was only replaced in Germany following an interim stage of parental power with effect from 1.1.1980 by paternal care, in Rome referred to the extensive right of control which the pater familias exerted over the family. Originally the PP, like the manus over the wife (Marriage III.C.), probably had no legal boundaries, but merely moral and religious ones. The transgression of these could, for example lead to a loss of honour or an exclusion from the nobility or the equites. In Imperial times the PP…

Orbi

(138 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The childless who, according to Roman law dating from the time of Augustus, suffered certain legal penalties: to promote a higher birthrate, women who had many children benefited through the lex Iulia de maritandis ordinibus and the lex Papia ( ius liberorum ), while on the flip-side childless people (men and women) were restricted in their capacity ( capacitas) to accept inheritances and legacies: what was left to orbi under a will, was halved (in the case of a surviving spouse reduced to a tenth). The remainder, known as the caducum (a lapsed inher…

Indulgentia

(284 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The technical term from the beginning of the 3rd cent. AD for a criminal law pardon by the Roman emperor (e.g. Cod. Just. 9,23,5 of the year 225). However there had long been pardons in Rome. They could happen during criminal proceedings (e.g. Mod. Dig. 48,16,17) as well as after them in order to lift the sanction imposed, and even before the initiation of any prosecution. In this way, Julius Caesar ordered the people's tribune M. Antonius to arrange a plebiscite to pardon those condemned according to Pompey's law on electoral fraud (  ambitus ) (Caes. …

Ampliatio

(130 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] An ampliatio (continuation of the case at another date) happened in Roman criminal proceedings if part of the jury (e.g. according to the l. Acilia it had to be a third) by special declaration or withdrawing of vote in the question of guilt made it clear that they did not yet regard the case as ripe for judgement ( non liquet). Ampliatio should be distinguished from   comperendinatio , legally prescribed in certain cases. Republican legislation had, it seemed, already tried to oppose the proliferating use of ampliatio by threatening fines against the judges in the c…

International law

(1,438 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Overview International law (IL) was established as a field in its own right during the early modern period (especially by Hugo Grotius, 1583-1645). The term   ius (A.2.) gentium, which originated in Roman law, established itself as its name. However, in antiquity this term did not mean IL but those concepts of  law in general that were assumed to be common to all peoples. This also included principles that belong to IL in its narrow sense such as the inviolability of diplomatic representatives (Dig. 50,7,18). Antiquity did not have a term for IL per se. However, ancient …

Delatio nominis

(412 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] ‘To indicate the name (of a suspect)’ is originally only the very first step in initiating a public prosecution in Rome. Plaut. Aul. 416 uses the expression in this way regarding the campaign conducted by the   tresviri capitales against underclass criminality. In proceedings before these magistrates, a kind of police-court justice, the meaning of delatio nominis ─ entirely in the sense of a modern complaint to the police ─ is evidently confined to the sole process of reporting a criminal act [1. 60, 78]. In the 3rd and above all the 2nd cents. BC, alongside the …

Iactus

(175 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The technical term in Roman law for ‘jettison’, the unloading of goods at sea from a ship in distress. The so-called lex Rhodia de iactu held that in these cases a community of endangerment of all involved existed: between the damaged party, the mariner ( nauta) and the owners of the salvaged load. In fact, this lex was a customary law throughout the Hellenistic world. Specifically, the damaged party could demand his share of compensation from the mariner in a service contract suit ( actio locati), while the mariner could in turn demand a compensation from the oth…

Carnifex

(103 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The hangman, who in Roman society as in virtually every place and time fulfilled a despised function, to be performed beyond the pale of civic life. Execution of  capital punishment by the carnifices was supervised under the Roman Republic by the   tresviri capitales . Whether they were state slaves, as was generally supposed in the past, is entirely uncertain. In Cumae and Puteoli it was the independent undertakers, during the imperial age soldiers too, who fulfilled the duties of the carnifex. Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) Bibliography W. Kunkel, Staatsordnung …

Coemptio

(159 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] Probably the usual type of arrangement for setting up a marriage in which the   manus power relationship applied to the woman. Coemptio cannot simply be interpreted as the purchase of a bride (even as a practice in a very early phase of development) because it is connected to the formal transaction of the   mancipatio , which, at a very early stage separated the actual procedure from that of the conceptual image the term evokes. One can assume that originally, the bride's father ‘transferred’ the power over his daugh…

Divisor

(157 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] (‘One who apportions endowments’). From the 2nd cent. BC or earlier war spoils of the Roman state were occasionally distributed among the people of Rome. In the absence of an official ‘Body of Apportionment’ it fell to private citizens, divisores, to assume that function. By the end of the Republic this had led to a system of canvassing that has been described in detail in Cicero Planc. 48ff. Divisores promised in single   tribus a ‘reward’ to a sufficient number of tribus members in the event of a particular candidate being elected. If the tribus was won over and the cand…

Contumacia

(299 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] Derived from contemnere (to despise; this meaning of the word survives today in the contempt of court of British law). In Roman law the contumacia meant above all the defendant's failure to obey a legal summons in the exercise of extraordinaria  cognitio . No similar use of the word contumacia is encountered before the introduction of this procedure in the Principate and of the contumacia, probably under Claudius. Admittedly a comparable function existed in earlier civil proceedings after the XII Tables (5th cent. BC) in a judge's ruling for o…

Peregrinus

(645 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] (perhaps from peregre, 'outside the fields', namely the territory of Rome) was the most important technical term of Roman law referring to foreigners (Aliens, the position of), who did not belong to the community of rights of the Roman citizens ( civitas ) but who was nevertheless an enemy or completely without rights. The dediticii , who as members of communities subjected by Rome had been given neither Roman nor Latin citizen law (Latin law), were sometimes partially distinguished from peregrini, and sometimes treated as a special group of peregrini In the time of t…

Thesaurus

(256 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In Roman law, thesaurus refers to a treasure found by someone (Just. Epit.. 2,1,39). The Late Classical jurist Iulius [IV 16] Paulus (early 3rd cent. AD) uses the term thensaurus, which he defined as "money that was put away so far back in the past that no memory of it exists and it therefore no longer has an owner" ( vetus quaedam depositio pecuniae, cuius non existat memoria, ut iam dominium non habeat, Dig. 41,1,31,1). However, not only money but any type of valuable object was regarded as a thesaurus. Why a Greek loan-word was used for this can no longer be deter…

Gesta

(320 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In the Republican period in Rome the records (also   commentarii ) that a magistrate made or had made regarding the orders decreed by him (  acta ). They were personally archived by the magistrate after the end of his period in office (Cic. Sull. 42). From the 3rd cent. AD the term gesta superseded the expression commentarii for the official records. Apart from gesta the word cottidiana occurs in the same sense . With this meaning gesta can be found in all levels of the administration of late antiquity. Ultimately the recording of official files and negotiations by gesta was tr…

Crematio

(340 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] (Burning at the stake) was a form of Roman capital punishment. The execution may originally have been left to the injured party and his agnates (  agnatio ) in a kind of ‘channelled’ private revenge. In that case, the criminal proceedings served only to establish the prosecutor's right to carry out the private punishment. This is probably how we should understand Gaius' report in his comm. on the Twelve Tables (Dig. 47,9,9), which states that this law (pl. 8,10) ordered execution by fire for premeditated arsons: igni necari iubetur (interpretation according to [1], b…

Abortio

(196 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] also partus abactio, is  abortion in late Roman law. For a long time abortion in Rome was apparently not punishable, any more than it was in Greek law (  amblosis ). This was consistent with a legal system which even allowed abandonment of children. It is possible, though, that the censor made sure there was effective social control with regard to evident abuses. Not until a rescript of Sept. Severus and Caracalla (cf. Marcianus Dig. 47,11,4) was exile imposed on married and divorced women w…

Tutelage

(67 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] Tutelage played an important part in both Athenian (cf. epitropos [2]) and Roman law (cf. tutela [1]). It applied not only in respect of infants and impubes ('those under the age of discretion') not under the patria postestas ('paternal power'), but also in a wider context as a gender-based tutelage in respect of women ( Kyrios [II], Tutela, [1 III]). Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)

Lending

(381 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] Handing an object to someone for use free of charge probably occurs in all societies every day. Legal conflicts hardly ever result from it. Many legal systems therefore manage without special regulations for these circumstances. It was probably generally the same in antiquity. Roman law, however, equally contains two institutions for the social phenomenon of the loan: the precarium (loan at request) and the commodatum, a binding contract by which the lender is obligated to hand over the object until the end of its usage or until the expiry of …

Naturales liberi

(370 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] (also known as liberi naturales ). In Late Antiquity, ‘natural children’ were the issue of an illegitimate union ( concubinatus ). Compared to other children of illegitimate descent ( spurius ), they were privileged in many respects. Thus, the possibility of a legitimation, that is the eventual acquisition of the legal status of legitimate offspring ( legitimi), existed only for NL. In what was probably initially intended as an incentive to contract marriage with one's partner in concubinage, the parents' marriage brought about the ful…

Fictio

(422 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] Fictio, rooted in Roman jurisprudence, describes a technique still used in modern legal practice in order to arrange sanctions for different circumstances from those originally addressed by the law through working on the assumption that both sets of circumstances are identical, even though in reality they are not. This concept developed from the religious rule stating simulacra pro veris accipiuntur (‘images are accepted as reality’): Priests as the first legal experts in Rome's early history transferred the concept expressed in this reli…

Libel

(97 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] Libel was prosecuted as serious injury to the character in both Greek (Attic) and Roman law. In Athens, libel may have come under kakēgoría (cf. also loidoría ) and have led to a fine in a private suit. In Roman law, libel was likewise a civil offence as a form of iniuria (a wrongful act). Possibly related to libel was the carmen famosum (‘defamatory poem’) of the Twelve Tables ( tabulae duodecim ). An aggravated form of libel was the Roman calumnia (false accusation), which could lead to harsh punishments. Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)

Coitio

(165 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In Roman criminal law, a type of criminal association, e.g. between thieves and publicans, as mentioned by Ulpia (Dig. 4,9,1,1), but in particular, the punishable election alliance (a defined case of election fraud,   ambitus ). Election alliances between candidates were probably regarded as harmless as long as only personal relationships, friendships and clientele connections were combined for common success in an election. Distinctly different was the joint bribing of electors on a large scale, against which the lex Licinia by Crassus (55 BC) was directed,…

Vidua

(16 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] Latin expression and Roman legal term for widow (II.). Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)

Privilegium

(234 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] A technical term in Roman law, and as such not to be understood in the broad sense of 'privilege' in the medieval and early modern periods, still less to be equated with the same word in modern colloquial usage, Roman privilegium was a 'law for an individual', and according to the Twelve Tables (tab. 9,1) impermissible as a law of proscription at the expense of an individual: it was forbidden to propose it in the popular assembly ( ne inroganto, Cic. Leg. 3,4,11). During the Principate, prerogatives of certain institutions and groups of people were denoted by means of privilegi…

Legislation

(262 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] in antiquity is both the subject of pragmatic politics ( Law, codification) and theoretical reflection (political science and legal philosophy). The latter was first discussed by the Greeks (as nomothesía) and immediately reached an intellectual high point, especially in Plato's [1] late work on laws ( Nómoi). Plato's opinion of lawgiving, as is also related by Cicero in his theory of lawgiving ( De legibus), had a sustained effect on Roman Imperial lawgiving and, therefore, on European legal science after the reception of Roman law beginning …

Petitio

(325 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The word petitio ('request') referred to a specific form of action used in the Roman formulary procedure ( formula ), for example for the actio (action), which arose out of a specific object or a specific sum of money (Dig. 12,1), or the action of the true heir against the possessor of an inheritance ( hereditatis petitio, Dig. 5,3; Cod. Iust. 3,31). Besides these, claims arising from the cognitio procedure ( cognitio ) were mostly referred to as petitio. A strong conceptual distinction between actio, petitio and persecutio (prosecution) did not exist in Roman legal…

Partus ancillae

(220 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The offspring of a slave which, according to Roman law - similar to the young of a domestic animal which belonged to the owner of the female animal - were born as slaves of the dominus of their mother. This was in accordance with the general principle that a child acquired the status of its mother (Gai. Inst. 1,81f.). No legal relationship with the father existed. Only in the time of Justinian [1] (AD 527-565) attempts were made, regarding a (freed or freeborn) father and child to allow them the legal consequences in terms of succession accorded to illegitimate offspring ( natura…

Auctoratus, Auctoramentum

(202 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] An auctoratus is, according to Gai. Inst. 3,199, a dependent person, who is named together with the minor children and wives as well as the indentured servants ( iudicati). The position of the auctoratus probably rested on a willing subjection by oath ( auctoramentum), perhaps also on a duty of service on behalf of the   pater familias of the auctoratus to the employer. Since the end of the Republic, a free man could commit himself as auctoratus as a  gladiator, which did not protect him from the   infamia which was otherwise associated with the pos…
▲   Back to top   ▲