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Schadensersatz

(774 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
Sch. zum Ausgleich von Verlusten oder zur Wiedergutmachung von Beeinträchtigungen unterlag in der Frühen Nz. folgenden Entwicklungen: der klaren Trennung zwischen Sch. und staatlicher Strafe, verbunden mit einem Perspektivenwechsel von der »Rache« gegenüber dem »Täter« zum Ersatzbedürfnis des Opfers; der Entdeckung und Entwicklung einer Entschädigung für persönliche Beeinträchtigungen jenseits von Vermögensverlusten; auch sonst einer stärkeren Hinwendung zum Personenschaden (Tod, Körper- und Gesundheitsverletzung); schließlich der Zusam…

Damages

(789 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
Damages to compensate losses or to make good other adverse effects underwent the following developments in the early modern period: the clear distinction between damages and public penalties, associated with a shift of perspective from “revenge” on the “offender” to the need to compensate the victim; the discovery and elaboration of compensation for personal suffering other than pecuniary loss; and in general a greater attention to personal injury (death, injury to one's body and health); and la…
Date: 2019-03-20

Sectio bonorum

(81 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] (“Vermögensverkauf”) ist das Modell für die röm. Vermögensvollstreckung ( missio in possessionem ) gegen Schuldner im röm. Recht. Blieb jemand, insbes. ein Steuerpächter ( publicani ), dem röm. Staat etwas schuldig, wurde sein ganzes Vermögen veräußert. Der Erwerber mußte die Schuld übernehmen. Der Verkaufspreis ging an den Staatsschatz ( aerarium ). Die s. b. fand auch bei den Bürgen ( praedes) statt, die der Staatsschuldner vielfach beizubringen hatte. Schulden Schiemann, Gottfried Bibliography M. Kaser, K. Hackl, Das röm. Zivilprozeßrecht 21996, 389 f…

Scheidung

(409 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Die Auflösung der Ehe durch Sch. scheint in der Ant. von Mesopotamien bis Rom überall möglich gewesen zu sein, freilich nicht immer für Männer und Frauen in gleicher Weise. So war zwar in Äg. im 1. Jt. v. Chr. Frauen ebenso wie Männern die Erklärung der Sch. möglich; im altjüd. Recht wie wohl auch in Mesopotamien war hingegen nur die Verstoßung durch den Mann bekannt. Das jüd. Recht knüpfte die Auflösung der Ehe jedenfalls in späterer, talmudischer Zeit (Halakha) zudem an Sch.-Gr…

Strafprozeß

(300 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Von einem S. im technischen Sinne kann in histor. Perspektive nur gesprochen werden, wenn sich ein Bereich der Strafverfolgung im öffentlichen (staatlichen) Interesse (Strafe, Strafrecht) von der Rechtsverfolgung im privaten Interesse (einschließlich etwaiger Privatstrafen, lat. poena ) unterscheiden läßt. Die Tatsache, daß z. B. die private Rache durch den Zwang zur Durchführung eines gerichtlichen Verfahrens kanalisiert wird, begründet noch keinen S.: Zur Wahrung des öffentlichen Friedens und d…

Vindicius

(154 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] (auch Vindex: Pomp. Dig. 1,2,2,24). Eine Legendengestalt der röm. Geschichtsschreibung, z. B. Liv. 2,4,5-10. V. soll als Sklave eine Verschwörung der Tarquinii (vgl. Tarquinius [7; 12]) zur Wiederherstellung der Königsherrschaft im J. 509 v. Chr. entdeckt haben. Zur Belohnung soll er freigelassen und in den röm. Bürgerstand aufgenommen worden sein. Möglicherweise diente diese Legende zur “histor.” Erklärung dafür, daß die Freilassung nach röm. Recht zum Erwerb des Bürgerrechts füh…

Verbera

(122 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] (wörtl. “Schläge”), z. B. mit dem Stock ( ferula) oder Peitschen ( flagella), waren in Rom ein Mittel der Züchtigung ( castigatio). Sie kamen vor als eigenständige (Polizei-)Strafe v. a. gegenüber Sklaven und Angehörigen der Unterschicht ( humiliores, s. honestiores ) im Rahmen der Polizeigewalt der Magistrate ( coercitio ), insbes. der tresviri capitales in republikanischer Zeit, dann des Kaisers und seiner Beauftragten sowie der Provinzgouverneure. V. waren ferner - wie von der Geißelung Jesu bekannt - im röm. Strafrecht eine “Nebenstrafe”,…

Kreuzigung

(140 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Die K., lat crux oder damnatio in crucem (“Verurteilung zur K.”), griech. in hell. Zeit ἀνασταύρωσις/ anastaúrōsis (das bei Hdt. 3,125 und wohl auch noch bei Xenophon [10] von Ephesos 4,2 aber eher “Pfählen” bedeutet), war nur eine von mehreren Arten der Vollstreckung einer Todesstrafe (II.) im röm. Reich. Sie kommt dort verm. aus der Gefahrenabwehr gegenüber Sklaven im Rahmen der coercitio (“Zwangsgewalt”) durch die tresviri [1] capitales. Die K. hatte vielleicht orientalische und punische Vorbilder und war zur Zeit der K. Jesu eine typische Ma…

Suppositio Partus

(18 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Im röm. Recht die strafbare Handlung der Kindesunterschiebung, partus suppositus . Schiemann, Gottfried

Spado

(135 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Der lat. Ausdruck für den Eunuchen, aber auch für den unabhängig von einer Kastration ( castratio ) nicht Zeugungsfähigen (Ulp. Dig. 50,16,128). Für den s. galten im röm. Recht familien- und erbrechtliche Besonderheiten: Während aus dem 2. Jh. n. Chr. die Regelung überliefert ist, daß der s. generell zur Adoption fähig ist (Gai. inst. 1,103), wird unter Iustinianus (6. Jh n. Chr.) differenziert: Die ältere Regel gilt nur noch für den s. aus natürlichen Gründen, nicht für Kastrierte (Inst. Iust. 1,11,9). Dies entspricht einer generellen Tendenz g…

Tabulae duodecim

(940 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
(‘Zwölf Tafeln oder vollständiger lex duodecim tabularum, ‘Gesetz der Zwölf Tafeln), die wichtigste Gesetzgebung der röm. Republik. Sie haben ihren Namen davon, daß man sie angeblich auf 12 eichene ( roboreas, wie es richtiger statt eboreas, “elfenbeinern”, bei Pomp. Dig. 1,2,2,4 heißen müßte) Tafeln aufschrieb. Inschr. sind sie aber nicht überl.; Text und Inhalt müssen aus der ant. Lit. rekonstruiert werden. Aus der Schilderung des Gesetzgebungsvorganges bei ant. Schriftstellern (v. a. Liv. 3,32 ff.) läßt sich ihre Entstehung um 450 v. Chr. vermuten. [English version] I. Anl…

Scriptura

(111 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] (wörtl. “das Aufgeschriebene”), bezeichnet im juristischen Bereich alle röm. Urkunden, und (mit der Zunahme der Schriftlichkeit) seit dem Prinzipat, v. a. aber in der Spätant., u. a. das Testament, den Schuldschein ( cheirógraphon ), überhaupt den Vertrag, aber auch eine Rechtsansicht oder eine rechtliche Entscheidung, soweit diese schriftlich niedergelegt waren. In einem engeren Sinne - wohl daher, daß die röm. Steuerpächter ( publicani ) das Geschäft zur Überlassung von öffentlichem Weideland an private (Unter-) pächter aufschrieben - war s. das Entgel…

Sponsalia

(73 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Das Verlöbnis im röm. Recht. Es hat seine Bezeichnung offenbar daher, daß in früherer Zeit die Ehe wechselseitig durch förmliche stipulatio (oder sinngleich sponsio ) der Väter beider Brautleute versprochen wurde. In der späten Republik und im Prinzipat waren die s. frei widerruflich, und es konnte nicht auf Eingehung der Ehe geklagt werden. Auch indirekte Bindungen (z. B. Vertragsstrafen, Dig. 45,1,134 pr.) waren nichtig. Schiemann, Gottfried Bibliography Honsell/Mayer-Maly/Selb, 392 f.  Treggiari, 145-160.

Signum

(264 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
(wörtl. “Zeichen”, Pl. signa). [English version] [1] (Name) s. Supernomen (Name) s. Supernomen Schiemann, Gottfried [English version] [2] (Militärwesen) s. Feldzeichen; Signale (Militärwesen) s. Feldzeichen; Signale Schiemann, Gottfried [English version] [3] Brandzeichen für Sklaven Brandzeichen, mit dem bei den Römern Sklaven kenntlich gemacht wurden (Sklaverei). Dies kam zur Verhinderung der Flucht und bei Diebstahlsgefahr vor sowie generell bei Straftätern, die zur Arbeit im Bergwerk ( in metallum) verurteilt worden und dadurch zu Sklaven geworden waren. We…

Völkerrecht

(1,338 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] I. Überblick Als ein eigenes Rechtsgebiet ist das V. in der frühen Neuzeit (v. a. durch Hugo Grotius, 1583-1645) etabliert worden. Dafür hat sich der aus dem röm. Recht stammende Begriff des ius (A.2.) gentium durchgesetzt, der in der Ant. nicht V. bezeichnete, sondern diejenigen Vorstellungen vom Recht überhaupt, die - wie man annahm - allen Völkern gemeinsam waren. Dazu gehörten auch Grundsätze, die dem V. im engeren Sinn zuzuordnen sind, wie die Unverletzlichkeit diplomatischer Vertreter (Dig. 50,7,18). Einen…

Tabulae nuptiales

(185 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] (wörtl. “Ehetafeln”). In Urkunden niedergelegte Eheverträge des röm. Rechts seit der Kaiserzeit (vgl. Tac. ann. 6,45,5 zu Messalina [2] und Silius 48 n. Chr.). Die Ehe selbst war nach röm. Recht kein (förmlicher) Vertrag, sondern Geschlechtsgemeinschaft mit dem Willen zum ehelichen Leben ( affectio maritalis). Gegenstand der t.n. waren hingegen die mit der Ehe verbundenen Vermögensfragen, v. a. das Versprechen der Mitgift ( dos ) an den Mann zur Versorgung der Frau, in der Spätant. wohl auch das Versprechen von Schenkungen des Mannes vor oder wegen der Ehe ( donati…

Thesaurus

(215 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Im röm. Recht der t.t. für den Schatz, den jemand findet (Inst. Iust. 2,1,39). Der spätklass. Jurist Iulius [IV 16] Paulus (Anf. 3. Jh. n. Chr.) verwendet dafür thensaurus, den er definiert als ‘ein lange zurückliegendes Weglegen von Geld, an das keine Erinnerung mehr vorhanden ist, so daß es keinen Eigentümer mehr hat’ ( vetus quaedam depositio pecuniae, cuius non existat memoria, ut iam dominium non habeat, Dig. 41,1,31,1). Als th. wurde aber nicht nur Geld, sondern jeder Wertgegenstand angesehen. Warum man dafür ein griech. Lehnwort gebrauch…

Verbannung

(55 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Die V. ersetzte in der griech.-röm. Antike weitgehend die Todesstrafe für die Angehörigen der Oberschicht, kam aber wie im attischen ostrakismós auch als selbständige Strafe vor. Zu den Einzelheiten für Griechenland, insbesondere Athen, s. phygḗ , aeiphygía , apeniautismós , für Rom s. exilium , deportatio , relegatio . Schiemann, Gottfried

Vormundschaft

(59 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Die V. spielte sowohl im attischen Recht (vgl. epítropos [2]) als auch im röm. Recht (vgl. tutela [1]) eine wichtige Rolle. Sie bestand nicht nur gegenüber Kindern und Heranwachsenden, soweit sie nicht unter patria postestas (“väterlicher Gewalt”) waren, sondern in weitem Umfang auch als Geschlechts-V. gegenüber Frauen ( kýrios II., tutela [1] III.). Schiemann, Gottfried

Taxatio

(152 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] (die “Schätzung”) ist im röm. Formularprozeß ( formula ) die Höchstgrenze, bis zu der der iudex (“Richter”) nach der Anweisung des Praetors zur Verurteilung ( condemnatio ) die Urteilssumme festsetzen durfte. Die t. kommt typischerweise vor: (1) bei der Haftung des Herrn mit dem Eigengut ( peculium ) des Sklaven oder Haussohnes aus der actio de peculio oder aus der actio de in rem verso wegen Vermögensvermehrungen durch das Handeln solcher Gewaltunterworfener ( patria potestas ), (2) bei der Einrede des Schuldners wegen einer Notlage ( beneficium competentiae) und …

Vincula

(274 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] (wörtl. “Fesseln”). Schon nach den XII Tafeln (tab. 3,3; tabulae duodecim ) konnte der Gläubiger zum Zwecke der Zwangsvollstreckung den Schuldner in v. legen. Damit wurde eine Schuldhaft begründet. Sie zielte zunächst auf die Erzwingung der Schuldzahlung durch den Schuldner selbst oder einen Dritten, war aber auch Durchgangsstadium dazu, über den Schuldner persönlich nach Ablauf einer Frist zu verfügen, ihn z. B. in die Sklaverei zu verkaufen oder ihn in Schuldknechtschaft die Summe, zu der er verurte…

Synallagma

(254 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] (συνάλλαγμα, wörtl.: “der gegenseitige Austausch”). Griech. Ausdruck für den (Geschäfts-) Verkehr, zuweilen auch für jede rechtliche Verpflichtung, unabhängig von ihrer Begründung durch Delikt oder Vertrag; eine präzise juristische Bed. hat er nicht. Dennoch nehmen die röm. Juristen M. Antistius [II 3] Labeo (um Christi Geburt) und Titius Aristo (E. 1. Jh. n. Chr.) das griech. Wort s. im Lat. auf, um damit eine Vereinbarung zu bezeichnen, die für beide Partner Verpflichtungen begründet. Dies können insbes. auch sog. Innominatverträ…

Suizid

(449 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Der S., von neulat. suicidium (“Selbsttötung”) als Parallelbildung zu homicidium , war in der griech. und röm. Ant. Gegenstand lebhafter intellektueller Auseinandersetzung: In schematischer Gegenüberstellung kann man sagen, daß die Anhänger und Nachfolger Platons, zumal Aristoteles [6] und der Neuplatonismus den S. verurteilten, während schon einige Sophisten (Sophistik) und erst recht der Kynismus den S. als Ausdruck der individuellen Freiheit hinnahmen, ja sogar ausdrü…

Vindicta

(81 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Im röm. Gerichtsverfahren der legis actio sacramento in rem (“gesetzlichen Klage auf die Sache”) der Stab, der symbolisch an den Sklaven oder die Sache angelegt wurde, um den Anspruch des Klägers und den Gegenanspruch des Beklagten auf die Sache sinnfällig auszudrücken. Die Etym. von v. ist umstritten (dazu neuestens [1. 47 f.12]). Am wahrscheinlichsten erscheint der Zusammenhang mit vim dicere (“behaupten, die - rechtmäßige - Gewalt über die Sache zu haben”). Rei vindicatio Schiemann, Gottfried Bibliography 1 A. Bürge, Röm. Privatrecht, 1999.

Zitiergesetz

(269 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Das in der mod. Lit. sogenannte Z. ist eine Anordnung des röm. Kaisers darüber, welche Juristen früherer Jh. bei der Rechtsfindung herangezogen und zitiert werden durften. Mit der Krise des röm. Reiches in der Mitte des 3. Jh. n. Chr. verlor auch die röm. Rechtswissenschaft ( iuris prudentia ) die polit., sozialen und wirtschaftlichen Bedingungen für eine produktive Fortsetzung. Die Rechts-Lit. seit dem 1. Jh. v. Chr., dem Beginn ihrer “klass.” Periode, wurde damit aus einem Fundus für den ideellen Diskurs…

Gericht

(374 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Seit Beginn ant. Staatlichkeit gab es die Institution des G. Ob und wo eine Phase der Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit voranging, läßt sich nicht mehr erschließen. In den Urkunden des Alten Orients sind G. vielfach belegt [1; 2; 3]. Der jeweilige Stadtfürst oder König dürfte auch Gerichtsherr gewesen sein; daneben gab es aber in Mesopotamien auch lokale Gerichtsbarkeit (d. h. innerhalb bestimmter Gruppen) [2]. Die Schreiber waren aufgrund ihrer Ausbildung für die Tätigkeit als Richter geei…

Gesetzgebung

(232 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] ist in der Ant. sowohl Gegenstand praktischer Politik (Rechtskodifikation) als auch theoretischer (politikwiss. und rechtsphilos.) Reflexion. Letztere wurde von den Griechen erstmals (als nomothesía) thematisiert und sogleich auf einen Höhepunkt der Geistesgeschichte geführt, v. a. in Platons [1] Spätwerk über die Gesetze ( Nómoi). Platons Auffassung von G. dürfte, vermittelt wohl auch durch Cicero mit seiner Theorie der G. ( De legibus), nachhaltigen Einfluß auf die G. der röm. Kaiserzeit und hierdurch auf die europäische Rechtswissensch…

Translatio

(146 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] [1] s. Status [1] A. s. Status [1] A. Schiemann, Gottfried [English version] [2] juristischer Ausdruck T. iuris (“Übertragung des Rechts”) kommt in der berühmten Sentenz zum Ausdruck: ‘Niemand kann mehr Recht auf einen anderen übertragen, als er selbst hat’ ( nemo plus iuris transferre potest quam ipse habet, Ulp. Dig. 50,17,54). Dieser “Merksatz” vom Anf. des 3. Jh. n. Chr. spiegelt die Vorstellung des klass. röm. Rechts wider, daß subjektive Rechte nicht - wie in der früheren Gedankenwelt - in der Person jedes Inhabers neu e…

Syrisch-römisches Rechtsbuch

(282 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Das ‘S.-r. R. ist eine spätant. Rechts-Slg., die in mehreren syrischen, arabischen und armenischen Versionen verschiedenen Umfanges überl. ist. Sie war im Gebiet der oriental. Kirchen verbreitet, enthielt aber weltliches röm. Recht. Das Interesse am “Reichsrecht” in den östl. Prov. des röm. Reiches zeigt sich überlieferungsgesch. zunächst an den Sententiae Syriacae, einer Paraphrase kaiserlicher Gesetze, v. a. aus der Zeit des Diocletianus mit dem Schwerpunkt in den J. 293/4 n. Chr. Die Übers. ins Syrische erfolgte nicht unmitt…

Vidua

(17 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Lat. Ausdruck und t.t. des röm. Rechts für die Witwe (II.). Schiemann, Gottfried

Verleumdung

(98 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Die V. wurde als schwere Persönlichkeitsverletzung sowohl im griech. (att.) Recht als auch im röm. Recht verfolgt. In Athen dürfte die V. unter den Tatbestand der kakēgoría (vgl. auch loidoría ) gefallen sein und zu einer Geldbuße auf private Klage hin geführt haben. Im röm. Recht war die V. ebenfalls ein Privatdelikt als eine Ausprägung der iniuria (Rechtsverletzung). Mit der V. verwandt war möglicherweise das carmen famosum (“Spottgedicht”) der 12 Tafeln ( tabulae duodecim ). Eine qualifizierte Art der V. war die röm. calumnia (falsche Ansc…

Supplicium

(229 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] (“Strafe”, = St.) wird im röm. Recht ähnlich wie poena verwendet, jedoch beschränkt auf die “öffentliche” St. (Strafrecht) und spezieller die Todesstrafe. Darüber, wie s. (urspr. wohl: Bitte um Vergebung) die Bed. einer St. erh. hat, sind nur Spekulationen möglich. Die Zwölf Tafeln (5. Jh. v. Chr.) kennen zwar die Todes-St. in einigen Fällen, jedoch überwiegend als private St.; sie wird in den Berichten über das Gesetz nicht als s. bezeichnet. Mehrfach ist in den Quellen von einem s. more maiorum (“St. nach der Vätersitte”) die Rede (Nachweise [1. 204-207…

Tergiversatio

(171 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] (wörtl. etwa “das den Rücken Wenden”). Im röm. Recht die Abwendung des privaten Anklägers im Strafverfahren ( accusatio , delatio nominis ) von der durch ihn eingeleiteten Verfolgung des Angeklagten. Die t. führte seit dem SC Turpillianum (61 n. Chr.) zu einem Strafverfahren gegen den Ankläger selbst. Bei ungerechtfertigtem Rücktritt wurde die t. mit einer Geldbuße bestraft (Dig. 47,15,3,3). Darüber hinaus erlitt der private Ankläger den Verlust der Amtsfähigkeit und bürgerlichen Ehre ( infamia , Dig. 48,16,2). Der vom (zurückgetret…

Urteil

(88 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Das U. aufgrund gerichtlicher Verfahren wurde in der griech. und röm. Ant. ganz durch die vorangehende Klage oder Anklage bestimmt, z. B. in Athen von díkē [2] (Zivilklage) und graphḗ [1] (Strafklage). Zur Findung des U. war dann nichts zu begründen; nur die Stimmen im Entscheidungsgremium waren auszuzählen. Der “Urteiler” ( iudex ) im röm. Recht hatte im wesentlichen nur Beweise zu erheben. Die rechtliche Würdigung war vorweggenommen mit der Zulassung der Klage ( actio [2]), v. a. durch den Praetor. Prozeßrecht; Strafe, Strafrecht Schiemann, Gottfried

Vermächtnis

(72 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] Der t.t. V. des mod. Rechts ist geprägt durch das röm. legatum , dessen wörtliche Übers. “V.” ist. Das röm. Recht unterschied bei der testamentarischen Regelung der Vermögensnachfolge nach dem Tod zw. der Einsetzung zum vollgültigen Rechtsnachfolger als Erbe ( heres, s. dazu Erbrecht III.) - bzw. mehrere Erben - und Zuwendung einzelner Gegenstände als V. Andere ant. Rechte enthalten keine vergleichbare Konstruktion. Fideicommissum; Testament [2] IV. Schiemann, Gottfried

Soldatenlehen

(240 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English version] ist der vielleicht besser als “Soldatengüter” zu bezeichnende Landbesitz, an den sich mil. Pflichten knüpften: sei es der Waffendienst des Inhabers, seien es die Stellung und Ausrüstung von Soldaten (gleichsam als Stellvertreter des Inhabers). S. in diesem Sinne kamen insbes. im Alten Orient vor. Sie sind relativ gut überl. für das Perserreich der Achaimenidai [2] (6.-4. Jh. v. Chr.) und für das Hethitische Reich (Ḫattusa II.); auch äg. Militärkolonien bestanden wohl aus aktiven …

Zivilrecht

(973 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried
[English Version] . I. Z. oder Bürgerliches Recht (sinngleich oft auch: Privatrecht) bez. denjenigen Teil des geltenden Rechts, der die Beziehungen der Bürger (und der privaten Unternehmen) untereinander regelt, nämlich die Verträge zw. ihnen, die einseitigen Akte mit Wirkung für andere (wie Testamente oder Kündigungen) und die unmittelbar gesetzlich begründeten Ansprüche, z.B. auf Unterhalt, auf die Beseitigung von Störungen der Individualsphäre oder die Wiedergutmachung von Schäden. Der Begriff Z…

Carnifex

(103 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The hangman, who in Roman society as in virtually every place and time fulfilled a despised function, to be performed beyond the pale of civic life. Execution of  capital punishment by the carnifices was supervised under the Roman Republic by the   tresviri capitales . Whether they were state slaves, as was generally supposed in the past, is entirely uncertain. In Cumae and Puteoli it was the independent undertakers, during the imperial age soldiers too, who fulfilled the duties of the carnifex. Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) Bibliography W. Kunkel, Staatsordnung …

Vindicta

(93 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In the Roman legal procedure of legis actio sacramento in rem ('legal assertion of claim'): the staff that was symbolically applied to the slave or item of property in order to give concrete expression to the plaintiff’s claim and the defendant’s counterclaim to the item. The etymology of vindicta is disputed (cf. most recently [1. 47 f.12]). The most probable connection appears to be with vim dicere ('to assert that one has - legally founded - power over the item'). Rei vindicatio Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) Bibliography 1 A. Bürge, Römisches Privatrecht, 1999.

Caelibatus

(260 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The unmarried state ( caelibatus) was a significant object of social evaluation and legal regulation in Rome. In the Republican period, perhaps following early precursors as early as 403 BC (Val. Max. 2,9,1), the censor (102, not 131 BC) Q. Caecilius Metellus Numidicus spoke out against the unmarried state and childlessness in a speech to the people (Gell. NA 1,6). Augustus took this up, expressly to justify the lex Iulia de maritandis ordinibus, in the first main piece of his legislation relating to marriage (18 BC) (Liv. 59). This law made it obliga…

Spado

(156 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The Latin term for a eunuch, but also for someone who is sterile without having been castrated ( castratio ; Ulp. Dig. 50,16,128). In Roman law, special family and inheritance rights applied to a spado: whereas we have a regulation from the 2nd cent. AD that, in general, allowed a spado to adopt (Gai. Inst. 1,103), under Justinian (6th cent. AD), a distinction was made: the earlier rule applies only to a natural s pado, not to a castrated person (Inst. Iust. 1,11,9). This corresponds to a  general trend against castration in Late Antiquity: permission to marry for a s pado, but …

Rescriptum

(223 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] (the 'reply letter') is one of the most important sources for Roman imperial law. In Gai. Inst. 1,5, the rescriptum is simply called epistula ('letter'), but classed as belonging to the constitutiones ('imperial laws'). Already in the Principate, the emperor received queries and proposals from officials and private persons on every matter imaginable. The emperor replied commensurate with the preparation in the chancellery ab epistulis with a rescriptum, a draft of which was archived. Starting with Hadrian (beginning of the 2nd cent. AD), the rescripta more and mo…

Divinatio

(235 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] Roman term for the procedure of allowing one of several litigants in a private case (  delatio nominis ) to appear before a public criminal court ( iudicium publicum); the origin of this term is unknown. What Gellius NA 2,4 has to say about the word expresses no confidence; it would therefore seem that its history was no longer known to Romans of the 2nd cent. AD. The employment of a religious term would indicate a very early origin. There is however no basis for a reconstruction. In [1] it is convincingly s…

Iactus

(175 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The technical term in Roman law for ‘jettison’, the unloading of goods at sea from a ship in distress. The so-called lex Rhodia de iactu held that in these cases a community of endangerment of all involved existed: between the damaged party, the mariner ( nauta) and the owners of the salvaged load. In fact, this lex was a customary law throughout the Hellenistic world. Specifically, the damaged party could demand his share of compensation from the mariner in a service contract suit ( actio locati), while the mariner could in turn demand a compensation from the oth…

Lending

(381 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] Handing an object to someone for use free of charge probably occurs in all societies every day. Legal conflicts hardly ever result from it. Many legal systems therefore manage without special regulations for these circumstances. It was probably generally the same in antiquity. Roman law, however, equally contains two institutions for the social phenomenon of the loan: the precarium (loan at request) and the commodatum, a binding contract by which the lender is obligated to hand over the object until the end of its usage or until the expiry of …

Libellus

(790 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Libellus in civil actions Libellus (‘small document’) was, from around the mid 5th cent. AD, the technical term for the complaint in a Roman civil action, which by this time was less ponderously arranged than in the formerly customary procedures of the litis denuntiatio . The libellus contained the facts upon which the complaint was based, without detailed explanatory statements, and a motion to summon the respondent ( postulatio ). The judge firstly addressed the legitimacy of the summons request (‘conclusiveness test’), reaching a sententia

Iurgium

(94 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] A term in the Law of the Twelve Tables ( c. 450 BC,   Tabulae duodecim ). Its significance in legal history is still very disputed. Iurgium is a milder form of dispute than the litigation before court (  lis ); otherwise a general term for a dispute. It is conceivable that iurgium meant an out-of-court settlement, perhaps with the support of the pontifices. In the classical period (1st cent. BC - 3rd cent. AD) this form of resolution had long fallen out of use. Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) Bibliography M. Kaser, K. Hackl, Das röm. Zivilprozeßrecht, 21997, 58).

Basilics

(144 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The ‘Basilics’, after the Greek term basiliká (n.pl.: ‘imperial’; sc. law books), are a compilation in Greek of the most important parts of the   Corpus iurisDigesta and   Codex (II)Iustinianus, as well as extracts from   Institutiones and   Novellae C.) from the time of the Byzantine emperor Leo(n) [9] VI (886-912). For five-and-a-half centuries the Basilics secured the continuance of Roman law in Byzantium (I. B.3). At the same time, they are an invaluable secondary source for the survival of the Corpus iuris, above all the Digesta (A.3). The Basilics also f…

Absolutio

(227 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] in Roman court proceedings is the opposite of ‘condemnation’ (  condemnatio ). In civil proceedings the formula in which the praetors set down the programme for the iudex ends stereotypically with the judicial command ... condemnato. Si non paret, absolvito. Both absolutio and condemnatio were final and absolute, in other words the decision -- apart from the special case of   appellatio -- was irrevocable, the dispute was definitively concluded and the exceptio rei iudicatae (demurrer of legal force) stood in the way of a new action. The saying omnia iudicia absolutor…

Adfinitas

(91 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] (relations by marriage). Gai. Inst. 1,63 speaks of adfinitas in connection with the statement: Item (scil. uxorem ducere non licet) eam, quae nobis quondam socrus, aut nurus, aut priuigna, aut nouerca fuit. According to this in classical Roman law (possibly since Augustus' marriage legislation) marriage to mother-in-law, daughter-in-law, stepdaughter and stepmother is forbidden. This impediment to marriage was extended in late antiquity to relations by marriage of the first degree in the collateral line (brother's wife, wife's sister) (Cod. Theod. 3,12,2). Sch…

Concussio

(159 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The Digests (Title 47,13) label cases of a forced granting of benefits to an officeholder as concussio (blackmail). Possibly, this is a further development of the reclamation procedure (  repetundarum crimen ). Punishable behaviour in office due to concussio was not prosecuted by a iudicium publicum but by extraordinaria   cognitio . Therefore, it was probably only considered an independent offence in the Imperial period (2nd cent. AD). The sources present pretending a (higher) official authority, orders of a superior and threats of an unfounded suit as means of concu…

Law [2]

(4,230 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] I. General The most important foundations of later European conceptions of law were laid in OT Judaic law, in Greek law as practical counterpart to the beginnings of philosophical reflection on justice ( Pre-Socratics; Justice), and above all in Roman law as the defining authority for the development of secular European jurisprudence since the late Middle Ages ( Reception). Law always comprises regulation on the part of a sizeable community for the settlement of conflicts between…

Paelex

(65 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] From a statement by the Roman jurist, Paul (Dig. 50,16,144) the meaning of paelex (also pelex, pellex, different in Greek pallakḗ ) is that of a female partner to whom one is not married (i.e not uxor, Marriage III.C.). The legal status of paelex was treated in Roman law mainly in the context of concubinage ( concubinatus ). Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)

Scriptura

(124 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] (literally 'that which is written down'), in the field of law, denoted all Roman documents, and (as literacy increased) from the Principate, but esp. in late antiquity, e.g. the testament, the note of hand ( cheirógraphon ), generally the contract, but also a legal opinion or a legal ruling, provided that these were given in writing. In a narrower sense, probably arising from the fact that the Roman tax farmers ( publicani ) 'marked down' transactions of relinquishment of public pasture to private (sub-)lessees, scriptura was the payment the lessee had to make for…

Diffarreatio

(51 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The actus contrarius of a   confarreatio , which dissolved a marriage joined in this form and followed the same ceremony. At the same time it effected the termination of the (former) husband's spousal powers (  manus ). Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) Bibliography 1 W. Kunkel, s.v. matrimonium, RE 14, 2277 2 Treggiari, 24.

Auctoratus, Auctoramentum

(202 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] An auctoratus is, according to Gai. Inst. 3,199, a dependent person, who is named together with the minor children and wives as well as the indentured servants ( iudicati). The position of the auctoratus probably rested on a willing subjection by oath ( auctoramentum), perhaps also on a duty of service on behalf of the   pater familias of the auctoratus to the employer. Since the end of the Republic, a free man could commit himself as auctoratus as a  gladiator, which did not protect him from the   infamia which was otherwise associated with the pos…

Concubinatus

(520 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In Roman law a permanent union between man and woman without affectio maritalis, i.e. without the intention of both parties of permanently entering a legal bond for forming a household, procreating and raising children. Since the marital laws of Augustus, the concubinatus increasingly became a form of living together if marriage was prohibited. Thus, senators and their descendants were prohibited under the l. Iulia de maritandis ordinibus from marrying a freedwoman, actress or daughter of an actor. Freeborn Romans could not enter into a marriage…

Decollatio

(197 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In Roman law the ‘simple’ death penalty by decapitation (whence also: capitis amputatio), as opposed to being burned alive (  crematio ) and crucifixion (  crux ). All three methods of execution appear in Paulus, Sent. 5,17,2 as summa supplicia (most severe punishments). Certainly from the time of Caligula capital punishment by damnatio ad bestias (animal combat in the arena) was also current practice. Decollatio was typically reserved for higher-status freemen (  honestiores ), while crematio and crux were carried out on ordinary freemen (  humiliores ) and slaves. D…

Revocatio

(161 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] ('Revocation') occurs in two special senses in Roman law: (1) as revocatio in servitutem (' revocatio into slavery'), the revocation of manumission, probably only current in Late Antiquity (cf. Cod. Iust. 6,7,2 pr.); (2) in civil actions. There, the convicted party, having already paid, could demand retrial ( restitutio ) only with the risk of being compelled to pay the claimant for the litigation a second time by revocatio in duplum (' revocatio for double the value') if the restitution failed. This applied for the formula procedure ( formula ) and…

Tergiversatio

(193 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] (literally 'to turn your back'). In Roman law, the term refers to the turning away of the private accuser in a criminal trial ( accusatio , delatio nominis ) from the case he had brought against the defendant. Beginning with the SC Turpillianum (AD 61), the tergiversatio led to a case against the accuser himself. When the withdrawal was unjustified, the tergiversatio was punished with a fine (Dig. 47,15,3,3). Beyond that, the private accuser lost his right to hold an office as well as his civic honour ( infamia , Dig. 48,16,2). The defendant who had…

Nervus

(63 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] An iron chain used to tether a debtor's feet  ( ferreum vinculum, quo pedes impediuntur, Fest. 162,1-2). According to the Twelve Tables (Lex XII tab. 3,3),  a creditor was apparently permitted to use the nervus to take the debtor into a kind of coercive detention, if the latter did not pay his debts despite having been sentenced.  Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)

Indulgentia

(284 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The technical term from the beginning of the 3rd cent. AD for a criminal law pardon by the Roman emperor (e.g. Cod. Just. 9,23,5 of the year 225). However there had long been pardons in Rome. They could happen during criminal proceedings (e.g. Mod. Dig. 48,16,17) as well as after them in order to lift the sanction imposed, and even before the initiation of any prosecution. In this way, Julius Caesar ordered the people's tribune M. Antonius to arrange a plebiscite to pardon those condemned according to Pompey's law on electoral fraud (  ambitus ) (Caes. …

Synallagma

(288 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] (συνάλλαγμα/ synállagma, literally: 'mutual exchange'). Greek expression for a (business) transaction, sometimes for any type of legal obligation regardless of its creation, be it an offence or a contract. It did not have a precise juridicial meaning. Nevertheless, the Roman jurists M. Antistius [II 3] Labeo (about the time of the birth of Christ) and Titius Aristo (late 1st cent. AD) adopted the Greek word synallagma in Latin to refer to agreements that resulted in obligations for both parties. These might be so-called innominate contracts th…

Citations, law governing

(318 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The law known in modern literature as the law governing citations is an order by the Roman emperor declaring which jurists from earlier centuries should be drawn on and cited in legal decisions. With the crisis of the Roman empire in the mid 3rd cent. AD even Roman jurisprudence (  iuris prudentia ) lost the political, social and economical conditions for productive continuation. Legal literature from the 1st cent. BC, the beginning of its ‘classical’ period, therefore changed from being a fund for a discourse o…

Tabulae nuptiales

(226 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] (lit. 'marriage tablets'). Marriage contracts in Roman law, set out in documents from the Imperial period onwards (cf. Tac. Ann. 6,45,5 on Messalina [2] and Silius in AD 48). In Roman law, marriage itself was not a (formal) contract, it was sexual communion with the intention of living a married life ( affectio maritalis). The subject of the TN, by contrast, were question of property connected with marriage, primarily the pledging of a dowry ( Dos ) to the husband for the wife's maintenance, in Late Antiquity probably also the husband's…

Repudium

(187 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In Roman law, initially the unilateral repudiation of a wife by her husband. From the literal sense (from pudor, 'shame', 'chastity'), repudium would have had serious misconduct (especially adultery, adulterium ) by the wife as a prerequisite. According to the Twelve Tables, as reported by Gai. Dig. 24,2,2,1, for repudium, the man had to call upon the woman to leave ( baete foras) and to take her things with her ( tuas res tibi habeto). As early as the 3rd cent. BC, repudium was possible without any fault committed by the woman (cf. Gell. NA 4,3,1 f.); no late…

Compensatio

(709 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] Compensatio (charging to account) was a rather complicated institution in Roman law. The basic idea, however, is simple: when two parties involved in a court case have claims against each other, the claims are not treated separately, but are offset one against the other -- as far as the amounts cover each other. Both claims are thereby paid off, so that the complaint becomes groundless and the defendant can no longer sue for his counter-claim. The complication in Roman law resulted from the different legal procedures connected to the different reasons leading to claims. Ga…

Partus ancillae

(220 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The offspring of a slave which, according to Roman law - similar to the young of a domestic animal which belonged to the owner of the female animal - were born as slaves of the dominus of their mother. This was in accordance with the general principle that a child acquired the status of its mother (Gai. Inst. 1,81f.). No legal relationship with the father existed. Only in the time of Justinian [1] (AD 527-565) attempts were made, regarding a (freed or freeborn) father and child to allow them the legal consequences in terms of succession accorded to illegitimate offspring ( natura…

Imaginarius

(208 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] (literally: ‘imaginary’) in Roman law the term for a legal transaction which expressed something other than what the parties actually intended. The most graphic example is the  mancipatio nummo uno, a transfer against, and by payment of, a merely symbolic copper coin ( aes). Its outward appearance was that of a cash purchase; its actual effect, however, was to enable transfer for any purpose, it could thus be ‘abstract’ - an imaginaria venditio (Gai. Inst. 1,113). In early Roman law, surety meant subjugation to the power of seizure vested in the creditor. Release ( solutio…

Dispensator

(169 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] ( ab aere pendendo, Varro, Ling. 5,183). In earlier times the dispensator would presumably weigh unminted precious metals for his master or the state. The post developed into that of bookkeeper, cashier and steward, much like the Greek oikonómos. It is frequently encountered in Roman inscriptions. Many dispensatores were slaves or freedmen. In Gaius Inst. 1,122 they are distinguished as a special type of slaves: servi, quibus permittitur administratio pecuniae, dispensatores appellati sunt (‘slaves entrusted with the management of money are called dispensatores…

Anquisitio

(149 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] is a part of Roman criminal proceedings of the republican period in crimes against the state. The comitia passed judgement on them in a iudicium publicum. The anquisitio preceded this: first of all the peoples' tribunes, as the magistrates responsible, pleaded the intended charge three times before the assembled people (  contio ). Contrary to the opinion of Mommsen [1], the comitia were not just a pardoning body which decided after a   provocatio against the sentence previously passed by the magistrate. As Brecht [2] and Kunkel [3] discovered from their studies, the anqu…

Nomen

(61 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] (pl. nomina). In Roman law, the term for debts. Gai. Inst. 128-133 distinguishes between ‘cash debts’ ( nomina arcaria), which arose e.g. from loans ( mutuum , see also condictio ), and ‘ledger debts’ ( nomina transscripticia), which arose by an entry in the ‘ledger’ of the creditor as an obligation from a litterarum obligatio . Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)

Instrumentum

(362 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The term instrumentum (an object that has been ‘erected’ or ‘set up’) has widely differing meanings in Roman legal terminology: 1. in the Imperial period, especially in late antiquity, instrumentum was the document recorded by a document writer (  Tabellio ) concerning a civil legal transaction or (as instrumentum publicum) by an authority regarding a private or public matter. The instrumentum publicum and the instrumentum of the document writer, which was attested as authentic by three witnesses and also by the tabellio in writing, had full status as proof in…

Lex, leges

(2,519 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Concept Lex (‘law’, pl. leges) in Roman law denotes stipulation by a private individual, an office-bearer or a legislative body. The etymology is obscure. A derivation from legere (‘to read out’), referring to the method of stipulation by way of a ceremonial formula (cf. B. below on nuncupatio) remains speculative. Crucial to the lex is its mandatory character. On the other hand, in the original use of the term it lacks the ‘abstract’ (claiming general validity) and ‘general’ (directed at a large number of people) character of mod…

Naturales liberi

(370 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] (also known as liberi naturales ). In Late Antiquity, ‘natural children’ were the issue of an illegitimate union ( concubinatus ). Compared to other children of illegitimate descent ( spurius ), they were privileged in many respects. Thus, the possibility of a legitimation, that is the eventual acquisition of the legal status of legitimate offspring ( legitimi), existed only for NL. In what was probably initially intended as an incentive to contract marriage with one's partner in concubinage, the parents' marriage brought about the ful…

Communio

(722 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
Joint ownership of an object in Roman law. [German version] A. Past history The most important circumstances that led to the formation of a communio entailed a community of purchasers ( societas quaestus) or a community of heirs. Regarding both, the communio did not gain acceptance until late, towards the end of the Republic. Before that, multiple heirs were joined in a community of ercto non cito (after erctum ciere: to make a division), as we know from the papyrus find of 1933, containing Gaius, Institutiones 3, 154a, b. It originally meant a community of property that exclude…

Capitatio

(111 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The poll-tax of the late Roman Imperial Age from Diocletian (AD 297). As capitatio plebeia, it was probably levied on the urban population. With regard to the taxation of the rural population, it is disputed whether the capitatio was raised independently or was -- as an indicator of income -- only an important unit in the calculation of the land-tax ( iugatio). Widows and orphans, soldiers and veterans were entirely or partly exempted from the capitatio.  Annona;  Iugum Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) Bibliography W. Goffart, Caput and Colonate: Towards a Histo…

Abortio

(196 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] also partus abactio, is  abortion in late Roman law. For a long time abortion in Rome was apparently not punishable, any more than it was in Greek law (  amblosis ). This was consistent with a legal system which even allowed abandonment of children. It is possible, though, that the censor made sure there was effective social control with regard to evident abuses. Not until a rescript of Sept. Severus and Caracalla (cf. Marcianus Dig. 47,11,4) was exile imposed on married and divorced women w…

Deportatio

(214 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] Banishment to an island or a desert oasis was a capital punishment in Roman law; in the Principate (at the latest from Trajan's time, soon after AD 100), it replaced the   aqua et igni interdictio , which had replaced the death penalty for upper-class citizens towards the end of the Republic. The aqua et igni interdictio and deportatio involved lifelong loss of citizenship rights and property. As the offender had not escaped penalty by voluntary flight into exile, banishment ─ generally to a quite specific location (Dig. 48,22,6,1) ─ bec…

Nuptiae

(178 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] (from nubere, ‘to cloak oneself, to put on a veil’) refers to marriage in Roman society (Marriage III.B.). A title of the Digesta (23,2: De ritu nuptiarum) with 68 fragments is devoted to wedding customs (III.). This indicates that Roman jurists gave close attention to the requirements for a legal marriage ( iustum matrimonium ). Since fulfilling the matrimonial requirements at the time of the nuptiae was of critical importance for legal recognition of the marriage, the term nuptiae eventually came to be used as a synonym for matrimonium in referring to marriage in g…

Institutiones

(404 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The Roman jurists were probably the first who derived institutiones as a title for elementary textbooks from the term institutio (teaching course) in the 2nd cent. The significance of this Roman genre for European legal history extends far beyond what one might expect of ancient introductory didactic works: when the work of codifying Roman juristic law in the form of the  Digesta had advanced to a point that their success seemed certain, in AD 533 emperor Justinian commissioned his minister of justice  Tribonianus as well as the Byzantine l…

Notary

(88 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] ( notarius). In legal cultures favouring the written record of acts of law, a notary is needed as an officially appointed scribe. This function was held, in Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt for example, by the agoranómoi , and in the Roman Imperial period and especially in Late Antiquity, the tabellio (documentary scribe). The Latin technical term notarius designates in Late Antiquity a senior official or officer with a special imperial mission, and also the secretary of the consistorium (as tribunus et notarius). Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)

Criminal procedure

(366 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] From a historical perspective it is only possible to speak of a criminal procedure (CP) in the technical sense if we can distinguish a field of criminal prosecution in the public (state) interest ( Punishment; Criminal law) from legal prosecution in the civil interest (including any civil law penalties, Lat.   poena ). The fact, for example, that private  revenge is channelled via the obligation to conduct a judicial procedure still does not constitute a CP: to protect public peace and state authority, only the …

Carmen famosum

(180 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The carmen famosum (CF) (according to Paulus, Sent. 5,4,6) or malum carmen (defamatory poem) is a criminal offence like the   occentatio placed beside each other in the Tabulae duodecim (8,1). It is possible that this crime was only barely comprehensible even for ancient writers (e.g. Cic. Rep. 4,12), particularly because of the extremely severe penalty for mere defamation: probably  death penalty. It was a matter of private punishment, though, so it was barely more than a legally p…

Litis contestatio

(653 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Term In Roman legal language, lis is the expression for a dispute, in particular when it is taken to court. Litis contestatio (LC) thus refers to the ‘witnessing’ of such a dispute (Fest. p. 34,50 L.). The instigation of a claim (action) and defence (repudiation of action) in front of witnesses determined the course of a (civil) law suit. Until the predominance of the imperial cognitio procedure around AD 300, LC was the crucial point [1. 77] in the entire proceedings. Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) [German version] B. Legis actio procedure The necessity of summonin…

Vincula

(309 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] (literally 'chains'). In legal provisions as early as the Twelve Tablets (Tab. 3,3; Tabulae Duodecim ) a creditor could place a debtor in vincula for the purpose of legal enforcement. In this way a culpability was established. Initially its goal was to force the payment of a debt by the debtor himself or a third party, but was also a transitional stage in taking control, after the expiry of a deadline, of the person of the debtor in order to sell him e.g into slavery or to have him work off the amount he was convicted of in bonded labour. This former function of vincula is alluded t…

Contumacia

(299 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] Derived from contemnere (to despise; this meaning of the word survives today in the contempt of court of British law). In Roman law the contumacia meant above all the defendant's failure to obey a legal summons in the exercise of extraordinaria  cognitio . No similar use of the word contumacia is encountered before the introduction of this procedure in the Principate and of the contumacia, probably under Claudius. Admittedly a comparable function existed in earlier civil proceedings after the XII Tables (5th cent. BC) in a judge's ruling for o…

Verdict

(105 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In Greek and Roman Antiquity, the verdict was determined entirely by the preceding complaint or charge, e.g. in Athens by dike [2] (civil complaint) and graphe [1] (criminal charge). For a verdict to be pronounced, there then remained nothing further to be established; it was merely a question of counting the votes of the deciding committee. The function of the ‘judge’ ( iudex ) in Roman law was essentially confined to hearing evidence. The legal judgement was anticipated by the admission of the complaint ( actio [2]), in particular by the praetor . Pro…

Elogium

(352 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Roman honorary inscription for deceased men An honorary inscription placed by the Romans on the tombs of deceased men of rank, on statues and wax masks within buildings or on public places. Most of the elogia on public display were removed by the censors of 158 BC. Most extant material dates from the Imperial period, where it was at times employed in the exalted reconstruction of times long since past. This also applies to the most important and best known examples of elogia, i.e. the inscriptions on the marble statues of the Mars temple on the Forum Augustu…

Querela non numeratae pecuniae

(189 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] 'Claim owing to failure to make monetary payment', in Roman law a development of the corresponding exception ( exceptio ). With this querela, the debtor could annul the validity of an abstract promise to pay ( stipulatio ), if he had entered into the stipulatio in the expectation of a loan payment, but the monetary payment had then not been made. The QNNP was, like the exceptio non numeratae pecuniae from the end of the 2nd cent. AD, among the easements accorded to debtors by the Roman emperors in the proceedings of the cognitio extraordinaria (cf. Cod. …

Mores

(457 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The plural of mos ( mos maiorum , ‘custom of the ancestors’) describes an entire complex of normative requirements in Roman society. While the ideological value of tradition and conservatism stands in the foreground with the word mos, until the early Imperial period mores invoked in the first place a concrete system of norms and sanctions that is most clearly recognizable in the ‘moral jurisdiction’ ( regimen morum) of the censors ( censores ). The censor's reprimand ( nota censoria ) and the censor's harsh sanction of down-grading politica…

Manumission

(1,306 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Early legal systems The manumission of slaves is not attested for all ancient legal systems. Thus the Mesopotamian statutes of Eshnunna and Hammurabi make no such stipulations [1. 161]. In Hittite law too, nothing is known of manumission. The existence of manumission is, however, assumed for Egypt, although categorisation of the unfree (or rather, not entirely free) ‘bondsmen’ as slaves as such is disputed [2. 147]. This circumstance suggests that the legal systems of Greece and Rome also did not know of manumission from their beginnings. Schiemann, Gottfried (Tü…

Ius

(4,952 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
A. Historical Overview [German version] 1. Ius in ancient Rome Ius, the Roman expression for law, went through considerable changes during the thousand-year history of the Roman state. Ius was originally the criterion by which the permitted exercise of liberty, particularly the legitimate exercise of power (over people and things) was distinguished from the disruptive exercise of force ( vis). Ius in modern terminology was thus subjective law. It attested its legal character ‘by observing a generally known and practised ritual’ [1. 253] in the way it was…

Verbera

(152 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] (literally 'strokes, lashes'), e.g. with a stick ( ferula) or a whip ( flagella), were a means of punishment ( castigatio) in Rome. They occurred as an independent (police) punishment primarily for slaves and members of the lower classes ( humiliores, see Honestiores ) in the framework of the policing powers of the magistrates ( Coercitio ), in particular of the Tresviri [1] capitales in the Republican period, then of the emperor and his agents and of the provincial governors. In Roman penal law - as is known from the flagellation of Jesus - verbera were also an 'additiona…

Coitio

(165 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In Roman criminal law, a type of criminal association, e.g. between thieves and publicans, as mentioned by Ulpia (Dig. 4,9,1,1), but in particular, the punishable election alliance (a defined case of election fraud,   ambitus ). Election alliances between candidates were probably regarded as harmless as long as only personal relationships, friendships and clientele connections were combined for common success in an election. Distinctly different was the joint bribing of electors on a large scale, against which the lex Licinia by Crassus (55 BC) was directed,…

Ampliatio

(130 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] An ampliatio (continuation of the case at another date) happened in Roman criminal proceedings if part of the jury (e.g. according to the l. Acilia it had to be a third) by special declaration or withdrawing of vote in the question of guilt made it clear that they did not yet regard the case as ripe for judgement ( non liquet). Ampliatio should be distinguished from   comperendinatio , legally prescribed in certain cases. Republican legislation had, it seemed, already tried to oppose the proliferating use of ampliatio by threatening fines against the judges in the c…

Ignorantia

(193 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] An old Roman legal rule deals with ignorantia, also ignoratio (ignorance). According to Paulus (3rd cent. AD, Dig. 22,6,9 pr.) it reads: iuris ignorantia nocet, facti vero ignorantia non nocet (‘ignorance of the law is harmful, but not ignorance of the facts’). The preferred term since the Middle Ages is error. For the Romans error and ignorantia were probably synonymous. Error in law neither prevents responsibility for individual behaviour (under criminal and civil law), nor the effectiveness of the   consensus in legal transactions inter vivos or in declarations…

Petitio

(325 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The word petitio ('request') referred to a specific form of action used in the Roman formulary procedure ( formula ), for example for the actio (action), which arose out of a specific object or a specific sum of money (Dig. 12,1), or the action of the true heir against the possessor of an inheritance ( hereditatis petitio, Dig. 5,3; Cod. Iust. 3,31). Besides these, claims arising from the cognitio procedure ( cognitio ) were mostly referred to as petitio. A strong conceptual distinction between actio, petitio and persecutio (prosecution) did not exist in Roman legal…

Patria potestas

(908 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The PP, which continued to exist as paternal power in the German Civil Code was only replaced in Germany following an interim stage of parental power with effect from 1.1.1980 by paternal care, in Rome referred to the extensive right of control which the pater familias exerted over the family. Originally the PP, like the manus over the wife (Marriage III.C.), probably had no legal boundaries, but merely moral and religious ones. The transgression of these could, for example lead to a loss of honour or an exclusion from the nobility or the equites. In Imperial times the PP…

Condictio

(1,036 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Type of suit in the ius civile Sentencing to a particular payment could be achieved with the   legis actio per condictionem after the 3rd cent. BC: certa pecunia based on a lex Silia, other certae res based on a lex Calpurnia (cf. Gai. Inst. 4,17 b-19). The condictio (‘announcement’) is merely a procedural designation: the court date was not granted immediately but only after the expiry of an ‘announced’ term of 30 days to allow the debtor the option of compliance without court procedure. The certum in this suit is, in the first place, a payback guarantee for an …
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