Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Schmale, Wolfgang" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Schmale, Wolfgang" )' returned 7 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Court society

(1,769 words)

Author(s): Schmale, Wolfgang
1. ConceptThe term court society was definitively coined (as “ Höfische Gesellschaft”) by Norbert Elias. His book  Die Höfische Gesellschaft (1933/1969 [6]) exerted a seminal influence on the study of early modern society. He defined court society as follows: “At a certain stage in the development of European societies, individuals are bound together in the form of courts, and thereby given a specific stamp” (“Individuen werden auf einer bestimmten Entwicklungsstufe europäischer Gesellschaften in der Form von Höfen zusamme…
Date: 2019-03-20

Bourgeois society

(2,301 words)

Author(s): Schmale, Wolfgang
1. French Revolution and bourgeois society “What is the third estate? Everything. What has it been until now in the political order? Nothing. What does it ask? To become something in the political order” [2].  The catchy words of Abbé Sieyès in his political pamphlet  Qu’est-ce que le tiers-état? (1789; “What Is the Third Estate?”) can be understood as the founding manifesto of bourgeois society and the revolutionary elimination of the estates (Estates, society of). Much more that the earlier so-called bourgeois revolutions (Netherlands 16th c…
Date: 2019-03-20

Inequality

(3,383 words)

Author(s): Schmale, Wolfgang
1. Class and statusEarly modern society was intrinsically characterized by inequality. In social contexts and everyday life, inequalities arise almost inevitably, even when discrimination of all kind is prohibited and the principles of equality and non-discrimination are established as legal norms, as in the European Union today. In the early modern period, inequality did not arise just through social, economic, and religious interaction; it was an integral component of the social order and the law.In brief, inequality was based on the assumption of inherent diffe…
Date: 2019-03-20

Feudal society

(2,271 words)

Author(s): Schmale, Wolfgang
1. History of terminology and scholarship Early modern society did not call itself feudal or a feudal society but a society of estates (Estates, society of). It was labeled a feudal society in the French Revolution (1789), a term that also served to characterize the break with the society of the  ancien régime [6]. Feudal society represented the polemical and ideological antithesis of the revolution that produced bourgeois society, which was to supersede feudal society (see fig. 1). In historiography the term  feudal society was given a prominent place by the French histori…
Date: 2019-03-20

Consumer society

(2,245 words)

Author(s): Schmale, Wolfgang
1. Concept and researchThe term consumer society was introduced into economic and social history in the 1980s and later found its way into cultural history too. Rapidly increasing production and consumption in 18th-century Britain were interpreted as symptomatic of the emergence of a consumer society in the United Kingdom [10]; similar arguments were made in respect of Austria in the 18th and 19th centuries [13]. The scholarly debate has since moved on in two directions. One current identifies the beginnings of the consumer society in Renaissance Italy an…
Date: 2019-03-20

Food riots

(1,150 words)

Author(s): Schmale, Wolfgang
1. England, France, Germany In the early modern era, food riots were closely connected to actual food shortages (Famine and food riots), but were also partly driven by rumor and reactions to it. Fundamentally, rioting was mostly over bread, but there were also general food riots over price rises or shortages of various grocery items (Food). To a certain extent, these riots were a part of everyday life in the early modern era, although there were significant differences between individual regions suc…
Date: 2019-03-20

Identity

(3,798 words)

Author(s): Jarzebowski, Claudia | Schmale, Wolfgang | Leppin, Volker
1. Introduction A universally valid definition of identity is as elusive for the early modern period as for the late. The concept derives from two distinct traditions of research. Anglophone social psychology characterizes identity as a characteristic of the modern individual [6], whereas German ethnology prefers the term Identität in clear rejection of the older and ideologically explosive term  Volksgeist (“folk spirit”) [2]. The concept of identity is disputed among historians [14]. From an actor-centered perspective in particular, doubts are articulated ov…
Date: 2019-03-20