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(409 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Günter R.
1. The word “didactics” comes from Lat. (ars) didactica, which is based on Gk. didaktikē technē (the art of teaching). Baroque pedagogy popularized it, especially the famous Didactica magna of J. A. Comenius (Czech 1632, Latin 1657). Most of the languages of western Europe use a cognate (e.g., Fr. didactique), though English prefers to speak of “educational psychology” or “instructional theory” for the formal and methodological aspects of teaching, and “curriculum (development)” for content. The art of teaching originally comprised rules…


(334 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Günter R.
[English Version] (Ratichius), Wolfgang (18.10.1571 Wilster – 27.4.1635 Erfurt), bez. sich selbst als »didacticus« und erstrebte wie später sein Bewunderer J.A. Comenius eine umfassende Neugestaltung der Gesellschaft durch päd. Reformen. Nach philos. und theol. Studien in Rostock betrieb er in Amsterdam orientalische Sprachen und dachte über polit. und päd. Fragen nach. 1612 legte er dem Reichstag zu Frankfurt ein »Memorial« vor, das zeigen sollte, »wie im gesamten dt. Reich eine einträchtige Sprac…

Ratke, Wolfgang

(376 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Günter R.
[German Version] (Ratichius; Oct 18, 1571, Wilster – Apr 27, 1635, Erfurt) described himself as a didacticus, and worked for a comprehensive restructuring of society through educational reforms, as, later, did his admirer J.A. Comenius. After studying philosophy and theology in Rostock, he worked in Amsterdam on oriental languages, and reflected on political and educational questions. In 1612 he submitted to the Reichstag in Frankfurt a Memorial intended to show how a harmonious language, a harmonious government, and, finally, a harmonious religion were to be …


(5,698 words)

Author(s): Otto, Eckart | Reeg, Gottfried | Sänger, Dieter | Strohm, Christoph | Andersen, Svend | Et al.
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Judaism – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Dogmatics and Ethics – VI. Practical Theology I. Old Testament The designation Decalogue (“ten words”) for the series of ten commandments derives from the Greek translation of the Hebrew ʾaśeret haddebārîm (δεκάλογος “ten words”). It is employed in late deuteronomic theory in Deut 10:4 for the Decalogue, in Deut 5:6–21 and by the post-dtr. redaction of the …


(13,283 words)

Author(s): Alles, Gregory D. | Reventlow, Henning Graf | Gebauer, Roland | Förster, Niclas | Wallmann, Johannes | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Prayer is one of the most frequent and important religious acts in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It also appears in other religions – for example the indigenous religions of America. But it does not appear to be universal. Some Buddhist traditions, for example, are atheistic, and in them there is no prayer in the strict sense; these traditions often allow their adherents to pray to gods (e.g. Hindu gods), but they value the goals of such prayer less than enl…