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(127 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich
[English Version] Roth, Karl Johann Friedrich v. (23.1.1780 Vaihingen, Württemberg – 21.1.1852 Steinach bei Erlangen). Nach dem Studium der Rechtswiss. in Tübingen schlug R. eine Verwaltungslaufbahn in Bayern ein. 1817 wurde er Ministerialrat und 1828–1848 war er Präsident des Oberkonsistoriums der Prot. Kirche in Bayern. R. war ein Förderer der Erweckungsbewegung in Bayern. Seit 1811 Mitglied der bayerischen Akademie der Wiss., Hist. Klasse, übernahm R. 1835–1850 die Schriftleitung für die Gelehrten Anzeigen der Akademie. Ulrich Schwab Bibliography E. Teufel, Der Brie…

Raumer, Karl von

(266 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich
[German Version] (Apr 9, 1783, Wörlitz – Jun 2, 1865, Erlangen), studied jurisprudence and mineralogy in Göttingen, Halle, and Freiburg. In 1811 he became professor of mineralogy at Breslau University, but left the university in 1819 for political reasons. In 1827 he became professor of natural history and mineralogy at Erlangen University. Here he worked with C. Krafft in the Awakening movement (Revival/Revival movements: I, 7), and in 1824 founded a rescue center for boys in Nuremberg (the Veilhof). He was joint editor of E.W. Hengstenberg’s church newspaper and of the Erlangen Zeits…

Salomon, Alice

(152 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich
[German Version] (Apr 19, 1872, Berlin – Aug 20, 1948, New York), studied in Berlin from 1902 to 1906, earning her doctorate in economics. Since 1900 she had been a board member of the Bund Deutscher Frauenvereine, and she became secretary of the International Council of Women in 1909. In 1908 she founded the Soziale Frauenschule in Berlin, which she headed until 1925, when she founded the Deutsche Akademie für soziale und pädagogische Frauenarbeit, which she headed until 1933. Because of her Jewi…

Roth, Karl Johann Friedrich

(137 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich
[German Version] (Jan 23, 1780, Vaihingen, Württemberg – Jan 21, 1852, Steinach, near Erlangen). After studying law in Tübingen, Roth embarked on an administrative career in Bavaria. In 1817 he was made an assistant secretary; from 1828 to 1848 he served as president of the supreme consistory of the Protestant Church in Bavaria. Roth was a promoter of the revival movement in Bavaria. Made a member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences, Historical Section, from 1835 to 1850 he served as editor of the academy’s Gelehrte Anzeigen. Ulrich Schwab Bibliography ¶ E. Teufel, “Der Briefwechsel d…

Cordier, Leopold

(256 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich
[German Version] (Jul 14, 1887, Landau, Palatinate – Mar 1, 1939, Gießen). After studies in Halle, Berlin and Heidelberg Cordier gained his Dr. phil. and Lic. theol. From 1911 he was military chaplain in Karlsruhe, in 1914 parish minister in Eschelbronn (Baden), in 1917 in Frankfurt am Main, and in 1922 in Elberfeld. From 1925 he lectured in Bonn, where he was awarded an honorary doctorate by the faculty of theology in 1926. In the same year he was appointed ordi…

Neuwerk (New Work Movement)

(206 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich
[German Version] The Neuwerk movement was one of the free associations within the Protestant German Jugendbewegung at the beginning of the 20th century. It was formed in 1920 by young people from the Deutsche Christliche Studentenvereinigung, the Freideutsche Jugend, and the Religious Socialists. The early ideas of the movement reflected the influence of Junge Saat (1921), a work edited by E. Arnold and Norman Körber, giving a christocentric interpretation of the Jugendbewegung as a whole. The Neuwerk movement (also called Schlüchterner Jugend after the site of its first mee…

Youth Chaplain

(526 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich
[German Version] The appointment of Karl Neeff as youth pastor in Stuttgart on Nov 1, 1863, marks the beginning of Protestant youth ministry in Germany. His initial assignment was spiritual care of young people in general (Youth/Adolescence), but he soon concentrated on apprentices. In 1867 Neeff opened the first Protestant youth club in Stuttgart. Though clergy had long since engaged in youth work (e.g. Carl August Doering in Elberfeld, Theophil Passavant in Basel, F.L. Mallet in Bremen), Neeff w…

Wyneken, Gustav Adolf

(196 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich
[German Version] (Mar 19, 1875, Stade – Dec 8, 1964, Göttingen). After passing his theological examination in Hanover in 1897, Wyneken received his Dr.phil. from Greifswald in 1898. In 1899 he passed the state examination qualifying him for secondary education. In 1900 he became a teacher at the first German private boarding school, founded by Hermann Lietz (Progressive education) in Ilsenburg. In 1906 he and Paul Geheeb opened the Freie Schulgemeinde Wickersdorf. In 1910 he had to leave Wickersdo…

Redenbacher, Wilhelm

(145 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich
[German Version] (Jul 12, 1800, Pappenheim – Jul 14, 1876, Dornhausen) studied Protestant theology at Erlangen from 1819 to 1823 and became a pastor in Bavaria, where he wrote numerous short works and popular tales. From 1830 to 1834 he edited the Nördlinger Sonntagsblatt. In 1843 he was suspended from office on account of his appeal to Protestant soldiers during the so-called kneeling controversy (over an order requiring them to kneel before the Catholic consecrated host). Redenbacher moved to Saxony as a pastor but was able to return to a pastorate in Bavaria in 1852. Ulrich Schwab Biblio…

Stählin, Wilhelm

(252 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich
[German Version] (Sep 24, 1883, Gunzenhausen – Dec 16, 1975, Prien am Chiemsee). After studying Protestant theology in Erlangen, Rostock, and Berlin, Stählin served as a pastor in Bavaria. He received his doctorate from Würzburg in 1913 with a dissertation on the metaphorical language of the New Testament. In 1914 he founded the Gesellschaft für Religionspsychologie in Nuremberg. After 1918 he was one of the leading theologians in the Jugendbewegung. From 1922 to 1932 he was a leader in the Bund Deutscher Jugendvereine. In 1923 he helped establish the Berneuchen …

Youth Work

(888 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich
[German Version] I. Terminology Chapter VIII of the German Social Security Code ( SGB) defines youth work ( Jugendarbeit) a services offered to young people to promote their self-determination and to motivate them to social responsibility and engagement. The older term Jugendpflege (“youth cultivation”) from the 1911 Prussian decree on youth cultivation and the National Youth Welfare Law of 1922 ( RJWG) is no longer used. In the RJWB, youth cultivation and youth care ( Jugendfürsorge) were the twin pillars of youth welfare. Today youth work and youth social work are pa…

Dehn, Günther Karl

(260 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich
[German Version] (Apr 18, 1882, Schwerin – Mar 17, 1970, Bonn). After studying in Berlin, Halle, and Bonn, Dehn was employed from 1907 on as a parish priest in Berlin and worked from 1911 to 1931 in the labor district of Moabit. During these years, he concerned himself with the relationship between the church and workers. In 1926, the University of Münster awa…


(304 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich
[German Version] 1. Christian Heinrich (Mar 29, 1779, Hohenentringen, near Tübingen – May 28, 1860, Beuggen, near Basel) studied law in Tübingen from 1796 to 1800. From 1801 to 1819, he worked as a private tutor in Augsburg and Sankt Gallen; during this period, he came into contact with the revival movement (Revival/Revival movements). Influenced by the ideas of J.H. Pestalozzi, in 1820 he founded a training institute for charity school teachers in Beuggen Castle near Basel, along with a refuge for p…


(241 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich
[English Version] Raumer, Karl v. (9.4.1783 Wörlitz – 2.6.1865 Erlangen). In Göttingen, Halle und Freiburg studierte R. Rechtswiss. und Mineralogie. 1811 wurde er Prof. für Mineralogie an der Universität Breslau, die er 1819 aber aus polit. Gründen verließ. 1827 übernahm er eine Professur für Naturgesch. und Mineralogie an der Universität Erlangen. Hier wirkte er zus. mit Ch. Krafft in der Erweckungsbewegung (: I.,7.) und gründete 1824 in Nürnberg eine Rettungsanstalt für Knaben (Veilhof). R. war Mi…


(229 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich
[English Version] Stählin, Wilhelm (24.9.1883 Gunzenhausen – 16.12.1975 Prien am Chiemsee). Nach dem Studium der Ev. Theol. in Erlangen, Rostock und Berlin trat S. in den bayerischen Pfarrdienst. Er promovierte 1913 in Würzburg mit einer Arbeit über die Bildersprache des NT. 1914 gründete er in Nürnberg die Gesellschaft für Religionspsychologie. Nach 1918 wurde S. einer der führenden Theologen in der Jugendbewegung. 1922–1932 war er Bundesleiter des Bundes Dt. Jugend (Bund deutscher Jugendvereine);…


(135 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich
[English Version] Salomon, Alice (19.4.1872 Berlin – 30.8.1948 New York). S. studierte 1902–1906 Nationalökonomie in Berlin und schloß das Studium mit einer Promotion zum Dr. phil. ab. Schon seit 1900 war sie Vorstandsmitglied des Bundes Dt. Frauenvereine und seit 1909 Schriftführerin des International Council of Women. 1908 gründete sie die Soziale Frauenschule in Berlin und übernahm die Leitung dieser Einrichtung bis 1925. 1925–1933 erfolgte die Gründung und Leitung der Dt. Akademie für soziale u…


(186 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich
[English Version] . Die Neuwerkbewegung (Nb.) gehört zu den freien Vereinigungen der dt. Ev. Jugendbewegung (: II.) zu Beginn des 20.Jh. Sie entstand 1920 aus Kreisen der  Deutschen Christlichen Studentenvereinigung, der freidt. Jugend, sowie der Religiösen Sozialisten. Das frühe Gedankengut von N. spiegelte die von E. Arnold und Norman Körber hg. Schrift »Junge Saat« (1921) wider, in der die Jugendbewegung insg. als auf Christus zielend interpretiert wird. Die aufgrund ihres Tagungsortes auch Sch…


(160 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich
[English Version] , Gustav Adolf (19.3.1875 Stade – 8.12.1964 Göttingen). Nach dem theol. Examen in Hannover 1897, der Promotion zum Dr. phil. 1898 in Greifswald und der Staatsprüfung für das höhere Lehramt 1899 wurde W. 1900 Lehrer am ersten Dt. Landerziehungsheim in Ilsenburg bei Hermann Lietz (Reformpädagogik). 1906 eröffnete er mit Paul Geheeb die »Freie Schulgemeinde Wickersdorf« (Freie Schulen). 1910 mußte er Wickersdorf verlassen, kehrte 1919/20 noch einmal kurz als Leiter zurück und blieb d…


(127 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich
[English Version] Redenbacher, Wilhelm (12.7.1800 Pappenheim – 14.7.1876 Dornhausen). R. studierte 1819–1823 in Erlangen ev. Theol. und wurde bayerischer Pfarrer. Er vf. eine Vielzahl kleiner Schriften und volkstümlicher Erzählungen. 1830–1834 gab er das Nördlinger Sonntagsblatt heraus. 1843 wurde er wegen eines Aufrufs an ev. Soldaten im Zuge des sog. Kniebeugestreits (Befehl zum Niederknien vor dem kath. Sanktissimum) vom Amt suspendiert. R. ging als Pfarrer nach Sachsen, konnte jedoch 1852 wieder in den bayerischen Pfarrdienst zurückkehren. Ulrich Schwab Bibliograph…


(247 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich | Stahlberg, Thomas
[English Version] 1.Christian Heinrich , (29.3.1779 Hohenentringen bei Tübingen – 28.5.1860 Beuggen bei Basel). Z. studierte 1796–1800 in Tübingen Jura. 1801–1819 war er als Hauslehrer in Augsburg und St. Gallen tätig und kam in dieser Zeit in Kontakt zur Erweckungsbewegung. Beeinflußt von den Ideen J.H. Pestalozzis, gründete er 1820 eine Armenschullehreranstalt mit einer Rettungsherberge für arme, verwahrloste Kinder in Schloß Beuggen bei Basel (Fürsorgeerziehung, Kinderfürsorge). Hier bot er den …


(4,230 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich | Barz, Heiner | Bucher, Anton
[German Version] I. Definition Adolescence (or youth) is the stage of human development between childhood and adulthood. Today the adoption of styles associated with youth culture begins at the end of elementary school and remains relevant far beyond the age of 25. Even among adults, some elements of youth cultures are still a coveted attribute. Section 7 of the German Child and Youth Welfare Act (ch. VIII of the Social Security Code) defines a child as a person below the age of 14, an adolescent as…


(4,764 words)

Author(s): Herrmann, Ulrich | Schwab, Ulrich | Tzscheetzsch, Werner | Gängler, Hans | Petzolt, Martin | Et al.
[German Version] I. History and Signifiance – II. The Jugendbewegung and the Protestant Church – III. The Catholic Jugendbewegung – IV. Young Workers' Movement – V. The Orthodox Youth Movement – VI. The Jewish Youth Movement I. History and Signifiance 1. Historical context Jugendbewegung (“youth movement”) is the name by which a distinctive middle-class youth movement in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland chose to call itself. It was the focal point of a variety of youth movements extending from the end of the 19th century to the en…
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