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Pluralism

(4,777 words)

Author(s): Gantke, Wolfgang | Haigis, Peter | Schweitzer, Friedrich | Nipkow, Karl Ernst | Bornhauser, Thomas | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Pluralism arises from the ineradicable diversity (Unity and diversity) of the world, whereas monism presupposes the unity of the world and views this diversity as nothing more than an illusion or an antecedent stage on the road to “ultimate” unity. Classical phenomenology of religion, following R. Otto, considered religious pluralism to reflect diverse manifestations of the singular Holy in various religions (Otto; Gantke, Begriff). This form of religious pluralism presupposes a common basis of all religions. Today’s plural…

Psychology of Adolescence

(1,677 words)

Author(s): Kim, Hye-On | Schweitzer, Friedrich
[German Version] I. General It is generally recognized today that not just our everyday talk of “adolescence” and “youth” but also our concept of adolescent psychology involves a “social construct.” Psychology no longer views its specialized knowledge as a direct, veridical representation of the world. Psychologists are increasingly taking into account the fact that the “latest scientific conclusions” reflect a variety of assumptions in the particular underlying social and cultural circumstances an…

Time

(10,035 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen | Koch, Klaus | Frey, Jörg | Zachhuber, Johannes | Mesch, Walter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. General. The words for time denote in different languages, according to their etymological derivation and symbolic semantic field, different ways of dividing natural and cultural forms of progression and sequences of events into parts separated and distinguished from one another. The German word for time, Zeit, comes from Old High German zīt; “divide (up)”, from the root *dāi, “divide,” and implies the general dividing function of ideas of time, as factors in ordering experience of the world. Different ideas of time …

Example

(1,226 words)

Author(s): Schweitzer, Friedrich | Lachmann, Rainer
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics – III. Education I. Dogmatics “Example” is not a term commonly used in dogmatics. It is probably most often used negatively in the context of Christology in order to preclude a merely ethical interpretation of the work of Christ (exemplary Christology): the “ salvific work” of Jesus Christ is at variance with every attempt to see him as a mere “ethical example” (Härle, 315). This remains true even though we find that…

Obedience

(2,323 words)

Author(s): Gantke, Wolfgang | Beutler, Johannes | Slenczka, Notger | Schweitzer, Friedrich | Sieckmann, Jan-R.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Bible – III. Dogmatics – IV. Education and Ethics – V. Law I. Religious Studies Emphasis on the phenomenon known as obedience varies among religions, but wherever human beings are understood as hearers of a divine or sacred word obedience plays an important role as the claim of a higher, transhuman power on human beings. The religious will to obey presupposes prevailing over one’s own self-will for the sake of God or what is holy. The Enlighten-¶ ment, which calls human beings to autonomy, led to a crisis of the religious concept of o…

Behavioral Research

(1,507 words)

Author(s): Schweitzer, Friedrich | McLean, Margaret R.
[German Version] I. Concept, History of Doctrine – II. Science – III. Behavioral Research and Ethics, Practical Theology and Pedagogy I. Concept, History of Doctrine Today, behavioral research or ethology, which also includes behaviorism, represents an increasingly ramified field of research that is particularly determined by biology and evolutionary concepts (Evolution). Sub-disciplines include: behavioral physiology (neurological and endocrinological), behavioral…

Education/Formation

(5,784 words)

Author(s): Zenkert, Georg | Preul, Reiner | Schweitzer, Friedrich | Leschinsky, Achim
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. History – III. Philosophy – IV. Philosophy of Religion, Dogmatics, Ethics – V. Practical Theology and Education – VI. Social History I. Terminology This article deals with formative education, corresponding to the German term Bildung (cf. Fr. formation). (The related article education deals with the subject area of Erziehung, covering education and training. Bildung or formation may be considered more general, with cultural overtones, while Erziehung places more emphasis on schooling.) ¶ Even in its earliest form, OHG bildunga (“creat…

Mead, George Herbert

(192 words)

Author(s): Schweitzer, Friedrich
[German Version] (Feb 27, 1863, South Hadley, MA – Apr 26, 1931, Chicago), son of pastor and homiletics professor Hiram Mead, studied at Oberlin College (until 1883) and Harvard (1887/1888), where he had contacts with J. Royce and W. James. Subsequently, he studied in Leipzig (with W. Wundt and others) and in Berlin (with, among others, W. Dilthey). In 1891, he became a lecturer in psychology at the University of Michigan (from that time, contact with J. Dewey); in 1894, he moved to the University…

Psychology

(6,026 words)

Author(s): Heine, Susanne | Murken, Sebastian | Schweitzer, Friedrich | Fraas, Hans-Jürgen
[German Version] I. What Is Psychology? The psyche (Soul: IV) as the object of psychology is accessible only through a theory that attempts to obtain a cognitive grasp of the inner life and experience of human beings (thinking, imagining, wishing, feeling). As “citizens of two worlds” (I. Kant), human beings confront the psychophysical problem existentially and cognitively: how can they conceive of themselves – being both rational animals and cognitive subjects – as unitary persons? To be considered …

Piaget, Jean

(396 words)

Author(s): Schweitzer, Friedrich
[German Version] (Aug 9, 1896, Neuchâtel – Sep 16, 1980, Geneva). After studying largely as an autodidact, he received a doctorate in natural science in 1918 at Neuchâtel, after which he worked in various psychological laboratories in Zürich and Paris (beginning work with Alfred Binet in 1919). From 1921 he held various teaching positions and professorships (sometimes concurrent) in Geneva, Neuchâtel, and Paris in the natural sciences, psychology and sociology; he also taught within the context of…

Bollnow, Otto Friedrich

(193 words)

Author(s): Schweitzer, Friedrich
[German Version] (Mar 14, 1903, Stettin – Feb 7, 1991, Tübingen) studied in Berlin, received his doctorate in physics in 1925 from Göttingen, with further studies of philosophy with Georg Misch and H. Nohl; he taught in the Odenwald School, habilitated in philosophy in 1931, became professor of pedagogy in Gießen in 1939, in Mainz in 1946, and held a chair in …

Biography

(1,913 words)

Author(s): Jödicke, Ansgar | Barbour, John D. | Schweitzer, Friedrich
[German Version] I.  History of Religion – II.  Biography and Religion – III.  Autobiography and Religion – IV.  Practical Theology and Education I. History of Religion The term biography denotes the life history of an individual, both in regard to its external course and in regard ¶ to spiritual and mental development. In a narrower sense biography is the narrative, whether oral or written, of curricula vitae. It is not always possible to separate it from the genre of legend of more episodic structure. I…

Education, Theory of

(7,852 words)

Author(s): Nipkow, Karl Ernst | Koerrenz, Ralf | Tenorth, H.-Elmar | Schweitzer, Friedrich
[German Version] I. The Term – II. History – III. Present-Day Emphases – IV. Significance for Theology I. The Term The expression “theory of education” (or: “education theory and methodology” – Ger. Pädagogik) serves as a “collective term for all theoretical and practical endeavors in respect of education. As a theory, it refers to the essence of the teaching(s) or science(s) ‘about’ and ‘for’ education, and also to educationally significan…

Organization

(1,260 words)

Author(s): Schweitzer, Friedrich
[German Version] I. Social Sciences – II. Social Ethics – III. Practical Theology I. Social Sciences Organization in the broadest sense refers to the activity of ordering, arranging, administering, etc., and in the sense of self-organization, autopoiesis, etc. the process by which systemic structures develop, including in nature or in the field of natural science. As a sociological and economic concept, organization denotes an insti-¶ tution that is characterized by specific features or elements. Mention is frequently made of defined membership, predetermined…

Learning

(880 words)

Author(s): Schweitzer, Friedrich
[German Version] I. Concept and History – II. The Present – III. Religious Education and Theology I. Concept and History It has often been observed that the term learning is highly ambiguous, in large part because until recently it has only been used colloquially. Since ancient times, the shifting concepts of learning have derived from the concepts of teaching and instruction, as well as the concepts of education, formation (Education/Formation), ¶ and school. The concepts of knowledge and understanding (Epistemology) debated in Greek philosophy (Sophistic schoo…

School Reform

(761 words)

Author(s): Schweitzer, Friedrich
[German Version] The term school reform, or more broadly educational reform, is often limited to particular epochs, like the ambitious reforms of the 1960s. In fact the history of school reform goes back as far as the history of schools and the critique of schools: schools can and should get constantly better and are therefore permanently subject to reform. In school reform, currently age’s dominant notions of culture and education (Education/Formation) and of the life of individuals and society come to t…

Psychology of Learning

(833 words)

Author(s): Schweitzer, Friedrich
[German Version] I. The Term The psychology of learning is a subdiscipline of psychology that also developed as a science during the 20th century. It is guided by the definition of learning as an object of study that deliberately casts a wide net; from the start, it has not been limited to education, schools, or other forms of teaching and instruction. Learning refers to all changes in behavior that can be traced to experience (in contrast to maturation or growth, as well as the effects of drugs) and prove relatively long-lasting. The psychology of learn…

Vocational Education

(88 words)

Author(s): Schweitzer, Friedrich
[German Version] The theory of vocational or business education is a subdiscipline of educational theory (Education, Theory of). While its historical roots, for example in the various trades, can be traced to antiquity and above all the Middle Ages, it established itself as a scientific discipline only with the development of the vocational education system in the 20th century. Initially it focused on (trade) schools, but today it is being extended to social and operational settings. Friedrich Schweitzer Bibliography A. Schelten, Einführung in die Berufspädagogik, 1991.

Catechesis and Catechetics

(3,702 words)

Author(s): Bienert, Wolfgang A. | Fraas, Hans-Jürgen | Schoberth, Ingrid | Schweitzer, Friedrich | Phan, Peter
[German Version] I. History – II. Practical Theology – III. Latin America, Asia, Africa I. History 1. Early Church. The verb κατήχειν/ katḗchein originally denoted the oral transmission of a message in the sense of “tell, inform.” In Paul and early Christian literature it usually means “teach, instruct” (Gal 6:6; Lat. catechizare); in contrast to glossolalia, it refers to intelligible speech (1 Cor 14:19; Luke 1:4) such as instruction in the law (Rom 2:18) or in the teaching (“the way”) of the Lord (Acts 18:25). In t…

Education

(15,718 words)

Author(s): Grethlein, Christian | Zenkert, Georg | Harich-Schwarzbauer, Henriette | Fox, Michael V. | Klauck, Hans-Josef | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Philosophy – III. Greco-Roman Antiquity – IV. Bible – V. Church History – VI. Ethics – VII. Practical Theology and Pedagogy – VIII. Judaism – IX. Islam I. Concept Traditionally, “education” has denoted the intentional interaction of adults with the younger generation in order-usually-to influence them positively; whether it makes sense to speak of education when negative goals are deliberately pursued is …

Socialization

(1,371 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph | Mette, Norbert | Schweitzer, Friedrich
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The term socialization is used in various academic fields, especially sociology, (social) psychology, and the educational disciplines (Education, Theory of ). Already used by É. Durkheim in 1907, it experienced a wave of popularity in the 1960s and again in the 1980s. Initially it emphasized the formation of individuals by society; recently it has focused more on the interaction between individuals’ own activity and outside influences and between individuation and …

Development

(3,118 words)

Author(s): Elwert, Georg | Hoppe, Günter | Schweitzer, Friedrich
1. Socioeconomic Development Descriptively, the term “development” denotes historical changes made to produce the form of society desired by its members; normatively, it denotes the structural changes made toward this goal. Whether the development or its basic mechanisms represent progress in some absolute sense is immaterial. In the normative sense, socioeconomic developments are the processes that can bring a poor society closer to its desired form. Politically, various indicators stand in the fo…

Piaget

(304 words)

Author(s): Schweitzer, Friedrich
[English Version] Piaget, Jean (9.8.1896 Neucha^tel – 16.9.1980 Genf), nach weitgehend autodidaktischen Studien 1918 naturwiss. Promotion in Neucha^tel, Arbeit in verschiedenen psychologischen Laboratorien in Zürich und Paris (ab 1919 bei Alfred Binet), ab 1921 verschiedene, z.T. gleichzeitig versehene naturwiss., psychologische und soziologische Lehraufträge und Professuren in Genf, Neucha^tel und Paris sowie erziehungswiss. Tätigkeit im Rahmen der UNESCO. P. war einer der einflußreichsten Psychol…

Verhaltensforschung

(1,348 words)

Author(s): Schweitzer, Friedrich | McLean, Margaret R.
[English Version] I. Begriff, Dogmengeschichte Die V. oder Ethologie, zu der auch der Behaviorismus gezählt werden kann, stellt heute ein zunehmend verzweigtes, bes. von Biologie und Evolutionsdenken (Evolution) geprägtes Forschungsfeld dar. Als Bereiche sind u.a. zu nennen: Verhaltensphysiologie (neurologisch und endokrinologisch), Verhaltensphylogenese und -ontogenese, die Untersuchung von Lernprozessen, Soziobiologie (biologische Angepaßtheit des Sozialverhaltens), evolutionäre Psychologie. Die f…

Sozialisation

(1,301 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph | Mette, Norbert | Schweitzer, Friedrich
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich Der Begriff »S.« wird in unterschiedlichen wiss. Kontexten, v.a. in der Soziologie, (Sozial-) Psychologie und den Erziehungswiss. (Pädagogik), verwendet. Bereits 1907 von É.  Durkheim gebraucht, erlebte er in den 60er Jahren eine erste, in den 80er Jahren eine zweite Phase starker Rezeption. Während zunächst v.a. die Prägung der Individuen durch die Gesellschaft im Vordergrund stand, ist in jüngerer Zeit überwiegend von der Wechselwirkung zw. Eigenakti…

Vorbild

(1,048 words)

Author(s): Schweitzer, Friedrich | Lachmann, Rainer
[English Version] I. Dogmatisch V. ist kein geläufiger Terminus der Dogmatik. Wohl am häufigsten wird er in einem negativen Sinne im Kontext der Christologie gebraucht, um eine bloß ethische Auslegung des Christusglaubens (Vorbildchristologie) auszuschließen: Das » Heilswerk« Jesu Christi widerspricht jedem Versuch, ihn nur als »ethisches V.« zu verstehen (Härle 315). Der Befund, daß der Begriff V. im NT vielfach positiv gebraucht wird (v. Lips), ändert daran nichts. Auf positive Bedeutungen von V. verweisen auch verwandte, von e…

Zeit/Zeitvorstellungen

(8,837 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen | Koch, Klaus | Frey, Jörg | Zachhuber, Johannes | Mesch, Walter | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich 1.AllgemeinDie äquivalenten Wörter für Zeit (Z.) bez. in den unterschiedlichen Sprachen je nach etym. Herkunft und symbolischem Bedeutungsfeld verschiedene Weisen einer Einteilung der natürlichen und kulturellen Verlaufsformen und Geschehensabläufe in voneinander abgegrenzte und qualifizierte Teile. Das dt. Wort Z. leitet sich von ahd. zīt, »abteilen, aufteilen, zumessen« (von der Wurzel *dāi, »teilen«), her und impliziert die generelle Einteilungsfun…

Schulreform

(648 words)

Author(s): Schweitzer, Friedrich
[English Version] . Beim Stichwort Sch. oder, weitergehend, Bildungsreform wird häufig nur an bestimmte Epochen wie etwa die groß angelegten Reformen der 60er Jahre des 20.Jh. gedacht. Tatsächlich reicht die Gesch. der Sch. so weit zurück wie die der Schule (Bildungswesen) oder der Schulkritik: Die Schule kann und soll stets besser werden und unterliegt daher permanent der Sch. In der Sch. treten die jeweils leitenden Vorstellungen von Bildung, aber auch des individuellen und gesellschaftlichen Le…

Pluralismus

(4,388 words)

Author(s): Gantke, Wolfgang | Haigis, Peter | Schweitzer, Friedrich | Nipkow, Karl Ernst | Bornhauser, Thomas | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich Der P. geht aus von der unauslöschbaren Vielheit (Einheit/Vielheit) der Welt, während der Monismus die Einheit der Welt voraussetzt und diese Vielheit lediglich als Vorstufe auf dem Weg zur »letzten« Einheit oder als Täuschung betrachtet. Von der klassischen Religionsphänomenologie wurde der rel. P. im Anschluß an R. Otto als Ausdruck unterschiedlicher Erscheinungsformen des einen Heiligen in verschiedenen Rel. gedeutet (Otto; Gantke, Begriff). Diese F…

Organisation

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Schweitzer, Friedrich
[English Version] I. Sozialwissenschaftlich. Im weitesten Sinne bez. O. die Tätigkeit des Ordnens, Anordnens, Einrichtens, Regelns usw. sowie, im Sinne von Selbstorganisation, Autopoiesis usw., den Prozeß der Herausbildung systemischer Strukturen auch in der Natur bzw. im Bereich der Naturwiss. Als soziologischer und ökonomischer Begriff meint O. eine Institution, die durch bestimmte Merkmale oder Elemente gekennzeichnet ist. Häufig genannt werden definierte Mitgliedschaft, festgelegte Ziele bzw. L…

Psychologie

(5,339 words)

Author(s): Heine, Susanne | Murken, Sebastian | Schweitzer, Friedrich | Fraas, Hans-Jürgen
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff Die Seele (: IV.) als Gegenstand der P. ist immer nur von einer Theorie her zugänglich, die versucht, die Erfahrung des Menschen mit seinem Innenleben und -erleben (denken, vorstellen, wollen, fühlen) kognitiv zu erfassen. Als »Bürger zweier Welten« (I. Kant) steht der Mensch existentiell und kognitiv vor dem Psycho-Physischen Problem und der Frage, wie er sich, zugleich leibliches Sinnenwesen und geistiges Subjekt, als personale Einheit denken kann. Seelentheorien …

Pädagogik

(6,572 words)

Author(s): Nipkow, Karl Ernst | Koerrenz, Ralf | Tenorth, H.-Elmar | Schweitzer, Friedrich
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff »Pädagogik« dient als »Sammelbegriff für alle theoretischen und praktischen Bemühungen um die Erziehung und Bildung. Dabei meint man mit Päd. als Theorie den Inbegriff der Lehre(n) bzw. Wissenschaft(en) ›von‹ der und ›für‹ die Erziehung und Bildung aber auch der päd. bedeutsamen Wirklichkeit (im umfassenden Sinne). Unter Päd. als Praxis versteht man das Insgesamt der Tätigkeiten und Vorgänge, durch die Erziehung und Bildung realisiert und optimiert werden« (Weber 12)…
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