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Sodales

(392 words)

Author(s): Sehlmeyer, Markus (Jena)
[German version] Originally members of an association (Associations) in the broadest sense: the suodales of Poplios Valesios, which appear in an inscription from Satricum ( c. 500 BC; CIL I2 4,2832a), could be companions, politically or religiously like-minded people [7; 8]. The majority of the evidence, however, relates to Rome in the Republican and Imperial Periods. In the Roman tradition the institution of s. is ascribed to Romulus [1] (Sempronius Tuditanus fr. 3 Beck-Walter) or Numa (for Salii and Fetiales : Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,70-72). The following s. can be seen as religio…

Praefatio

(18 words)

Author(s): Sehlmeyer, Markus (Jena)
[German version] see Authors; Circles, literary; Dedication  Muse, acclamation of the; Prooemium III. Sehlmeyer, Markus (Jena)

Dipolieia

(100 words)

Author(s): Sehlmeyer, Markus (Jena)
[German version] (τὰ Διπολίεια sc. ἱερά; tà Dipolíea hierá, also Dipolia/Διπόλια), an Attic festival for  Zeus Polieus, central to which was the sacrifice of a bull (flight ritual of the  Bouphonia). The Greeks derived the aetiological explanation for this from the myth of  Diomus, a priest of Zeus. The dipolieia were celebrated in high summer on the 14th of the month of Skirophorion; they were no longer customary in the Hellenistic period.  Poplifugia;  Regifugium Sehlmeyer, Markus (Jena) Bibliography W. Burkert, Homo necans (Engl. edition), 1983, 136-143 Deubner, 158-174 H. W. P…

Ubertas

(106 words)

Author(s): Sehlmeyer, Markus (Jena)
[German version] Personification of fertility and abundance; evidence only from 249 AD (on coins as Uberitas). In the form of a standing woman with a purse and cornucopia she embodies the expectation of economic benefits, which the emperor (until Constantinus [2] II, 337-340 AD), as a ruler with the prerogative of minting coins, guaranteed. There is no evidence of a cult of U. in contrast to Felicitas. Copia Sehlmeyer, Markus (Jena) Bibliography A. Arnaldi, Il motivo dell'Uberitas (U.) Augusti nella monetazione tardo-imperiale, in: Riv. Italiana di Numismatica e Sci…

Poplifugia

(276 words)

Author(s): Sehlmeyer, Markus (Jena)
[German version] Festival in the city of Rome on 5 July (Fast. Antiates maiores, Fast. Amiterni, Fast. Maffeiani; cf. InscrIt 13,2,476 f.), whose original significance ceased to be clear already to Varro: "The day seems to have been called P. because on it the people (populus) fled (fugerit) into sudden uproar" (Varro Ling. 6,18; Regifugium). Calpurnius Piso (fr. 34 Forsythe) saw its origin in the flight before the Etruscans and a subsequent Roman victory, which was celebrated by a vitulatio . The festival may have represented the reflex of a lustratio of the army…

Tonitrualia

(113 words)

Author(s): Sehlmeyer, Markus (Jena)
[German version] (Greek βροντολόγια/ brontológia). Thunder-books, usually organised according to signs of the zodiac, used for interpreting thunder in divination [3. 1162], e.g. for harvests and war. The surviving tonitrualia are contained either in Lydus [3], De ostentis [1. 105-113; 4] or in astrological MSS, and in the Middle Ages exercised great influence, primarily in Anglo-Saxon areas [5]. Clodius [III 4] Tuscus; Cornelius [II 19] Labeo; Fonteius [I 9]; Vicellius Sehlmeyer, Markus (Jena) Bibliography 1 M. Maas, John Lydus and the Roman Past, 1992 2 E. Rawson, Intel…

Regifugium

(250 words)

Author(s): Sehlmeyer, Markus (Jena)
[German version] Roman civic festival, recorded in several Fasti, held on 24 February (InscrIt 13,2 p. 65, 73, 165, 241, 265), consisting of a sacrifice by the rex sacrorum on the comitium and his subsequent flight (Plut. Quaest. Rom. 63; [3. 197]). Ovid (Fast. 2,685-852) and Ausonius (Eclogae 23,13 f. p. 102 Green) interpret the festival as a commemoration of the flight of the Tarquins from Rome [1. 198 f.; 2]. However, it was probably rather a lustration ritual [5. 98 f.], which was connected with the course of the Roman ye…

Sibyllini libri, Sibyllina oracula

(414 words)

Author(s): Sehlmeyer, Markus (Jena)
[German version] In Antiquity, both the Sibyllini libri that were used by the Roman quindecimviri sacris faciundis for the state's expiatory rites during the Republican era and the oracle texts of the Imperial Period were traced back to the Sibyls (Pseudepigraphy). The Sibyl of Cumae is said to have sold the Sibyllini libri ('Sibylline books'), also termed libri fatales [1. 562-565], to king Tarquinius [11] Priscus (Lactant. Div. inst. 1,6). In accordance with a Senate resolution, the secret books, written in Greek, were consulted (documentation: [2. 2…

Brumalia

(133 words)

Author(s): Sehlmeyer, Markus (Jena)
[German version] (τὰ βρουμάλια; tà broumália). Roman and Byzantine festival, first attested in Tert. De idololatria 10,3; 14,6. The feast was on the occasion of the impending winter solstice ( bruma); it was at first celebrated on 24.11., and was associated with games and presents. Later it was extended to the whole period before the solstice, and in Byzantium took on elements of the Roman  Saturnalia as well as the celebration of the wine press in honour of  Dionysus. Justinian [1] I held brumalia, at which  Choricius gave a celebratory oration (Or. 13). In Egypt they are att…

Tutela

(1,627 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) | Sehlmeyer, Markus (Jena)
[German version] [1] Guardianship (Latin 'guardianship', from tueri, 'to protect'). Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) [German version] I. Basis and typology of guardianship Tutela occurred in Roman law as tutela over those not yet of age ( impuberes) and women ( tutela mulierum), and concerned those who were not subject to the personal power of the 'father of the family' ( pater familias ) or the husband ( manus ), and were thus persons 'in their own right' ( sui iuris). The Twelve Tables ( tabulae duodecim ; tab. 5,6, c. 450 BC) prescribed the nearest mal…