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Class, Social

(873 words)

Author(s): Sprondel, Walter M.
[German Version] Social classes are specific historical forms of social inequality particularly notable in the transition from feudalism to the modern industrial society with a capitalist economy (Capitalism). In such societies, classes derive from the separation from the means of production typical for the majority of producers. This creates an opposition between the owners of the means of production (capitalists) and the non-owners (Proletariat). This “objective” …

Vocation

(5,411 words)

Author(s): Heesch, Matthias | Klöcker, Michael | Ulrich, Hans G. | Sprondel, Walter M. | Drehsen, Volker | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology No term equivalent to vocation is found in classical Greek and Latin. An officium was exercised by virtue of a preexisting status, usually by birth. Trades (including medicine) fulfilled the conditions of a regular vocation (τέχνη/ téchnē), but had no self-awareness reflected in terminology. In the New Testament, κλῆσις/ klḗsis mostly refers to the “calling” of a Christian (1 Cor 7:20); in the national church of Late Antiquity, it referred primarily to the call to the religious life ( vocatio) in contrast to lay status. In Middle High German mys…

House/Household

(1,345 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Ulrich | Hoheisel, Karl | Osiek, Carolyn | Sprondel, Walter M.
[German Version] I. Archaeology – II. Religious Studies – III. House Church (in Early Christianity) – IV. Sociology I. Archaeology Functionally, the house was a building which, in contrast to a palace, served as a private dwelling. While circular structures have been identified in prehistoric Palestine, from the Chalcolithic to the Early Bronze Age the broad-room type of house dominated, that is, a one-room and one-floor structure with a single entrance on the long side. In addition, there were sometimes apsidi…