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Agraii

(46 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀγραῖοι; Agraíoi). Tribe in north-western Aetolia between the Amphilochi and Aperanti. Independent in the 5th cent. BC (‘kingship’, Thuc. 3,111,4); two centuries later member of the koinon of the  Aetolians. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography C. Antonetti, Agraioi, in: Dialogues d'histoire ancienne 13, 1987, 199-236.

Brattia

(48 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Βραττία; Brattía). Liburnian island, also called Brettia (Steph. Byz. s.v. B.) or Cratea (Scyl. 23), modern Bra (Croatia), dependency of  Salona (12 km to the north), known for its goats, wine and quarries.  Liburni Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969 Id., The Illyrians, 1992.

Corcyra

(1,265 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Today Corfu (Κόρκυρα, Kórkyra, Lat. Corcyra; the island of Corfu). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) [German version] A. Name The northernmost of the Ionian islands, always referred to as C. on coins and local inscriptions, but in literature and other inscriptions (IG II-III2 96; SEG 25, 354) also called Κέρκυρα, Lat. Corcyra, today officially Kérkyra. The name Corfu has been in common use since the 10th cent. and stems from the Greek word Koryphḗ (‘summit’), named after the fortress overlooking the medieval and the modern city. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) [German version] B. …

Neritum

(148 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Νήριτον; Nḗriton). Originally probably a poetic designation for ‘mountain forest’ [1. 185], the name of a forested mountain on Ithaca (Hom. Od. 9,22; 13,351). In the Homeric Catalogue of Ships (Hom. Il. 2,632) the significance is unclear: N. can be understood either as a mountain [2. 591-596] or as an island or city next to Ithaca (cf. Verg. Aen. 3,271; Ov. Met. 13,712; Mela 2,110). Other ancient authors identify N. with the town of Nericus, which they localised on Leucas (cf. Plin. HN 4,5). Hence in ancient authors and in the MSS the forms Nericus and Neritus are mixed u…

Elea

(99 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ἐλέα; Eléa). [German version] [1] Coastal town in Epirus Coastal town in Epirus at the mouth of the Acheron near modern Veliani, main settlement of the Eleatis region (wrongly Elaia/Elaiatis in Thuc. 1,46,4) in Thesprotia. Origin of the pólis before 350 BC, first minting between 360 and 335 BC. Of the 10-ha. town mainly the 1.5-km-long walls are preserved. Documents: Scyl. 30; Str. 7,7,5. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Archaeological Reports 41, 1994/5, 26 P. Cabanes, L'Épire, 1976 S. I. Dakaris, Thesprotia, 1972 P. R. Franke, Die ant. Mz. von Epirus, 1961, 300-307. …

Same

(156 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) (Σάμη/ Sámē). In Homer, an island in Odysseus' kingdom (name forms: Sámos, Hom. Il. 2,634; Sámē is more recent, Hom. Od. 1,246); in the historical period, a city in the east of the island of Cephallenia, modern Sami. In 223/2 BC, an Aetolian colony was dispatched to S. (IG IX 12,1, 2); In 189 BC, S. was besieged and destroyed by Fulvius [I 15]  (Liv. 37,50,5; 38,28,5-30,1). Quite recent excavations and (to some extent unpublished Latin) inscriptio…

Neium

(49 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Νήϊον/ Nḗïon). A woody mountain on Ithaca, mentioned only in Hom. Od.1,186 and 3,81 and after that by lexicographers. Even the ancient exegetes of Homer could not identify it (Str. 10,2,11). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography A. Heubeck, A Commentary on Homer's Odyssey, vol. 1, 1988, 100, 165.

Aperanti

(54 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀπεραντοί; Aperantoí). Tribe in northern  Aetolia, east of the Agraei, west of the Panaetolicum [2. 97 f.]; capital probably near Hagios Vasileios [1] (Pol. 20,11). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 S. Bommeljé et al. (ed.), Aetolia and the Aetolians, 1987, 105, s. v. Sidira 2 P. Cabanes (ed.), L'Illyrie méridionale et l'Epire dans l'antiquité, 1, 1987, 95-113.

Conope

(98 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia (Κωνώπη; Kōnṓpē). Place in Aetolia near modern Angelocastro at the southern edge of the Achelous plain, new foundation between 287 and 281 BC as Polis Arsinoeia in honour of Arsinoë [II 3], the wife of Lysimachus. A favourable location on a ford of the Achelous (Str. 10,2,22), member of the Aetolian koinon ( Aitoloi, map). Epigraphy: IG IX 1,131-133; SEG 17,269-272; 25,625; 34,468f.; 40,457 [1]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 G. Klaffenbach, in: SPrAW 1936, 360-364. C. Antonetti, Les Étoli…

Potidania

(65 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ποτειδανία/ Poteidanía). City in Aetolia (Aetolians, Aetolia, with map) in the lands of the Apodoti, identified with the ruins southeast of modern Kambos on the middle reaches of the Mornos river by liberation documents (SEG 41, 528) of 135/4 BC found there. Cf. Thuc. 3,96,2; Liv. 28,8,9. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Pritchett 7, 49-52  D. Strauch, Römische Politik und griechische Tradition, 1996, 301.

Anactorium

(206 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania | Colonization | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars (Ἀνακτόριον; Anaktórion). Corinthian foundation of the 7th cent. BC (Str. 10,2,8; FGrH 90 Nicolaus F 57,7), in co-operation with  Corcyra (Thuc. 1,55,1) [different in 1. 6-48, 132-148] on the south coast of the gulf of Ambracia. Ports in the gulf and the Ionic Sea near the polis sanctuary of  Actium (Scyl. 34). In 479 BC, A. fought alongside the Greeks at  Plataeae (Hdt. 9,28,5; Paus…

Ithoria

(85 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia (Ἰθωρία; Ithōría). Fortified settlement in Aetolia, destroyed in 219 BC by Philip V (Pol. 4,64,9f.). Finds within the line of the Hellenistic walls on the left bank of the  Achelous [1] on the hilltop above the modern village of Hagios Ilias date from the Mycenaean to the early Roman periods. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography S. Bommeljé (ed.), Aetolia and the Aetolians, 1987, 74 Pritchett 7, 15f. R. Scheer, s.v. I., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 284.

Callieis

(208 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Καλλιεῖς; Kallieîs). The westernmost branch of the Aetolian  Ophieis in the upper Daphnus valley (modern Mornos; Thuc. 3,96,3). Their chief place of Callion (or Callipolis, modern Kallion, formerly Velouchovo) occupied a strategic position above the right bank of the Daphnus, and, for that reason, is mentioned in connection with the campaigns of  Demosthenes [1] in 426 BC, of  Acilius [I 10] Glabrio in 191 BC, and also the raid by Gauls in 279 BC (in which the town and its inhabit…

Cassope

(280 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Κασσώπη; Kassṓpē). City in south-western Epirus near the modern Kamarina, main city of the Thesprotian tribe of the Cassopaei (Κασσωπαῖοι, Str. 7,7,1; 7,7,5 and inscriptions; Κασσωποί, Scyl. 31); they settled in an area of about 900 km2 -- very fertile in its southern parts -- between the Gulf of Ambracia, the Ionian Sea and the Acheron (map: [6. 116]). Within this tribal territory lay the Elean colonies of Buchetium, Elatria, Pandosia, and Batiae (localization…

Ptychia

(46 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Πτυχία/ Ptychía). Island between Corcyra [1] and the mainland (Thuc. 4,46,3); probably modern Vido to the north of the modern town of Kerkyra. Recorded also at Ptol. 3,13,9 and Plin. HN 4,53. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography E. Kirsten, s. v. P., RE 23, 1893 f.

Atintani

(139 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀτιντᾶνες, Ἀτιντανοί; Atintânes, Atintanoí). The localization is controversial because of contradictory details supplied by ancient authors: according to App. Ill. 7, an Illyrian, according to Str. 7,7,8; Scyl. 26, an Epirotic tribe. [1] therefore identifies two tribes: the Atintani east of Epidamnus (Polyaenus, Strat. 4,11), in 229 BC in alliance with Rome (Pol. 7,9), after 205 belonging to Macedonia (Liv. 27,30; 45,30; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀκαρνανία); the Atintanes, by contrast, north…

Cephallenia

(929 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Κεφαλληνία; Kephallēnía). The largest of the Ionian islands west of Greece, with an area of about 761 km2, a length of 50 km with a north-south orientation and a maximum width of 25 km. Because of the contour of the island and the high limestone mountains (modern Enos, Efmorfia, Agia Dinati), several separate settlement areas existed which only in modern times were linked by roads. From the main body of the island to the north protrudes the Erisos peninsula, while in the west, the latter is link…

Pharos

(177 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Lighthouse Lighthouses Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) [German version] [2] Island in the Adriatic ( Pharia, Plin. HN 3,152). 68 km long island in the Adriatic Sea off the Dalmatian coast (Scyl. 23; Str. 2,5,20), modern Hvar (Croatia). According to Pol. 5,108,7, the island was called ὁ Φάρος/ ho Pháros, while the city was called ἡ Φ./ hē Ph. (ruins near Stari Grad, cf. [1]). Since 385/4 BC (Diod. Sic. 15,13,4), Ph. was a colony of Paros (Ephor. FGrH 70 F 89), since 229 BC, it was part of the Illyrian kingdom of Agron [3] and Teuta, then i…

Tecmon

(49 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Τέκμων; Tékmōn). Fortified township of the Molossi in Epirus, probably at modern Kestritza to the south of the modern Lake of Ioannina. T. was conquered by the Romans in 167 BC (Liv. 45,26,4). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography P. Cabanes, L'Épire, 1976, 506  N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967, 527.

Paxos

(65 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Παξός; Paxós). P. and Antipaxos, collectively known as the Paxoi Islands, 13 km south of Corcyra , still known as P. In 229 BC, they were the theatre of a naval battle during the 1st Illyrian War (Pol. 2,10,1-7). There are a few remains of early Christian churches. Cf. Plin. HN 4,52; IG IX 1, 966. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 2, 456-459.

Tomarus

(74 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Τόμαρος/ Tómaros, also Τμάρος/ Tmáros). A sacred mountain (1972 m elevation) to the west of Dodona (Str. 7,7,11; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 319; Plin.  HN 4,2), now again Tómaros (formerly Olytsika). Derived from T. are Τμάριος/ Tmários, Τομαριάς/ Tomariás and Latin Tomarius as epithets of Zeus and the sacred oak in Dodona, and probably the term τομοῦροι/ tomoûroi for oracle priests [1. 368 f.] Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967. Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 2, 1, 86 f.

Aetolians, Aetolia

(2,622 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Αἰτωλοί, Αἰτωλία; Aitōloí, Aitōlía). [German version] A. Topography Largest region (4500 km2), most important tribe of central Greece. Existing sources only allow a limited definition of area where the Aetolians first settled, and of the phases of their early expansion. Tribes of the Aetolian ethnic group lived between the mountain ranges of Mount Vardousia and Mount Gkiona in the east (modern administrative district of Phocis), Mount Thymphrestus in the north (height 2319m, modern district of Evritania),…

Cassiope

(160 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Κασσιόπη; Kassiópē, Lat. Cassiope). Port on the north-eastern coast of  Corcyra (Korfu), modern Kassiopi. From Hellenistic times onwards (founded by Pyrrhus?) important staging point for the crossing to Italy, as used by Cicero in 50 BC (Cic. Fam. 16,9,1) and Nero in AD 66 (Suet. Nero 22,3). Zeus Kasios was venerated in C. (Plin. HN 4,52), as evident from coins [2] and inscriptions (ILS 4043; SEG 23, 395; 477) [1]. His temple was later built over with a three-naved basilica in the early Christian period [3; 4]. In late antique itineraries, C. ( Cassiape, Cassiope) is used…

Thyamis

(83 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Θύαμις; Thýamis). River, today also T. (formerly Kalamas), and promontory, modern Akra Kalamas, in Epirus. The T. flows in two branches into the Ionios Kolpos opposite Corcyra [1] and forms the border between Thesprotia (Thesproti) in the south and Cestrine in the north (Thuc. 1,46,4; Str. 7,7,5; Plin.  HN 4,4). Pomponius [I 5] Atticus had an estate on the T.  (Cic. Att. 7,2,3; Cic. Leg. 2,7). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967, 186 f.; 669 f.  Philippson/Kirsten 2, 38 f.; 87-90; 93-99.

Celadussae

(37 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Dalmatian archipelago (Plin. HN 3,152) opposite  Iader. Some of the islands (i.a. the modern Ugljan and Pašman) were included in the centuriation of that colony. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 208f.

Pronni

(134 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Athenian League (Second) (Πρῶννοι; Prônnoi). One of the four cities on Cephallenia, in the south east of the island on a rocky eminence to the south of the present-day village of Póros. In 375 BC, P. joined the second Athenian League (StV 257); it was besieged in vain by Philip V (Philippus [I 7]) in 218 BC during the Social Wars [2] (Pol. 5,3,4). The area has been intensively investigated by archaeologists since the discovery of a rich princely gr…

Amphilochi, Amphilochia

(306 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀμφίλοχοι, Ἀμφιλοχία; Amphílochoi, Amphilochía). Region and tribe east of the Gulf of  Ambracia, mainly mountainous, only a narrow coastal plain, bordering to the east on the   Agraei, to the south on  Acarnania. Str. 7,7,1; 7,8 ranked them amongst the Epirotes, but generally, they were considered to be a separate ‘Barbarian’ tribe (Dionysius Calliphontus 46 f.; Str. 9,5,1; Thuc. 2,68; [2. 351 f.]). According to older tradition, the main town of Argos Amphilochicum was founded by  A…

Thesproti, Thesprotia

(207 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Θεσπρωτοί/ Thesprōtoí, Θεσπρωτία/ Thesprōtía). One of the three main tribes of Epirus with an area of settlement between the river Thyamis in the north, the Gulf of Ambracia as far as the river Aphas (modern Louros) in the southeast and the Adriatic (Ionios Kolpos) in the west. In Hom. (Od. 14,314-320; 16,425-427), the T. are mentioned, particularly the oracle of the dead, nekyomanteíon, of Ephyra [3]; the coastal city of Buthrotum is described by Hecat. FGrH 1 F 105 as a pólis . Ancient authors (Str. 7,7,11; Hdt. 2,56) describe the T. as …

Apsyrtides

(70 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀψυρτίδες; Apsyrtídes). Liburnian group of islands east of Istria; linked in Theopompus (FGrH 115 fr. 130; cf. Str. 2,5,20; 7,5,5) with the Argonaut myth ( Argonauts); in the north of the largest island of Crepsa (today Cres, Croatia) Crexa/Crexi, in the south Asporus (Plin. HN 3,140); both of them   municipia from the time of Tiberius.  Liburni Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 196 f. Id., The Illyrians, 1992.

Actium

(808 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (τὸ Ἄκτιον; tò Áktion, Actium). Flat, sandy promontory (medieval: Punta) opposite the modern Preveza at the entrance to the Ambracian Gulf (Str. 10,2,7; [9]), in ancient times belonging to  Anactorium; location of the decisive battle between Octavianus ( Augustus) and  Antonius [9]. It was also the location of the sanctuary of  Apollo Actius, founded by the Corinthian settlers of Anactorium in about 600 BC; its great age is confirmed by archaeological finds (kouroi of the early 6th c…

Bomies

(43 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Βωμιεῖς; Bōmieîs). North-eastern district of the Aetolian  Ophieis on the upper course of the  Evenus: Thuc. 3,96; Str.10,2,5. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography W. Woodhouse, Aetolia, 1897, 70f. C. Antonetti, Problemi di geografia storica del territorio etolo-acarnano, in: P. Janni (ed.), Γεωγραφία, 1985, 11-24.

Oricus

(147 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture (Ὤρικος/ Ṓ rikos, also Ὠρικός/ Ōrikós, Ὠρικόν/ Ōrikón). Port in Epirus, at the southern curve of the gulf of the same name (today the Gulf of Vlorë in Albania). According to legend, it was founded by Euboeans (Euboea) on their return from Troy. It is mentioned as early as the 6th cent. BC in Hecat. FGrH 1 F 106. It had close ties with Corcyra [1], from the 4th cent. BC on and probably earlier. The city, which lay …

Phoetiae

(138 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Φοιτίαι/ Phoitíai, also Φυτία/ Phytía). City in Acarnania (Acarnanians), 4 km to the northwest of modern Bambini. In a strategically favourable location P. dominated a fertile plateau in the interior of Acarnania and was one of the leading cities of the Acarnanian Koinon. During the division of Acarnania in the 3rd century BC P. remained Aetolian until conquered by Philip  [7] V in 219 BC. A plan of P. can be found in [1]. Cf. IG IX 12 2, 389, 602; mentions in theorodokoi lists: IG IV2 95 Z. 11; SEG 36, 3…

Agrinium

(95 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Acarnanians, Acarnania (Ἀγρίνιον; Agrínion). Originally an Acarnanian town, in 314 BC under Cassander   synoikismos of the  Derieis in A., then, after capture by the  Aetolians (Diod. Sic. 19,67 f.), it became a member of the Aetolian koinon (several strategoi hailed from A.). Remains of the town (walls, stoa, houses) localized near Megali Chora, 3 km north-west of the modern A. (regional museum).  Acarnania;  Strategos Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography C. Antonetti, Les Étoliens, 1990, 23…

Curictae

(86 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (also Curica, Tab. Peut.; Κυρικτική, Str. 2,5,20). Island off the Dalmatian coast (now Krk, Croatia) with two towns: Curictae (Κούρικον, Ptol. 2,16,13) near what is today the town of Krk and Fertinates (Φουλφίνιον, Ptol. loc.cit.) near modern Omisalj. Contested by the armies of Pompey and Caesar (Caes. B Civ. 3,10,5), since Augustus part of Illyricum. Claudius awarded the residents the ius Italicum (Plin. HN 3,139, tribus Claudia). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography G. Alföldy, Bevölkerung und Gesellschaft in [...] Dalmatien, 1965 J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1…

Phanote

(67 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Φανότη; Phanótē). Fortified city in the north of Epirus, in the border region between Thesprotia and Molossia, mentioned only in the context of the third Macedonian War (172-168 BC)  (Pol. 27,16,4; Liv. 43,21,4; 45,26,2f.). P. was probably in the  Thyamis valley, near either modern Raveni or modern Doliani. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography P. Cabanes, L'Épire, 1976, 296  N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967, 186f., 628f., 676.

Alyzeia

(151 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Ἀλύζεια, Ἀλυζία; Alýzeia, Alyzía). City (of Corinthian origins?) on the Acarnanian west coast, near to today's Kandila. Allied with Athens in the  Peloponnesian War (Thuc. 7,31,2). In 375 BC near A., Athenian victory at sea in the battle against the Spartan hegemony (Xen. Hell. 5,4,65 f.); in the Roman imperial period dependent on  Nicopolis (Str. 10,2,2); way station of the   cursus publicus (Geogr. Rav. 5,13: (H)Alissa). Harbour, Heracles sanctuary (Scyl. 34; St…

Acarnanians, Acarnania

(2,460 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀκαρνᾶνες, Ἀκαρνανία; Akarnánes, Akarnanía). Tribe and region in the west of central Greece, between the Ionian Sea, the Ambracian Gulf and the Gulf of Patras; in the 3rd cent. BC, the  Achelous [1] marked its eastern border to the  Aetolians (in the 4th cent. BC, the A. also settled east of the river: Agrinion, Aeolis). A. is divided by four valleys, running from north to south [17. 368-373]: the easternmost (Stratike or Akarnanikon Pedion) along the Achelous, east of the Lykovitsi…

Onchesmus

(62 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὀγχεσμός/ Onchesmós). Port in Epirus, today's Sarandë (Hagioi Saranda) in Albania. O. served as harbour for Phoenice, the main city of the district of Chaonia. In Roman times, O. was the ferry port between Epirus and Italy (Cic. Att. 7,2,1; Str. 7,7,5; Ptol. 3,14,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,51,2). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography P. Cabanes, L'Épire, 1976  N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967.

Nericus

(83 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Νήρικος; Nḗrikos). Hom. Od. 24,377 mentions a place named N. on the mainland (ἀκτὴν ἠπείροιο), described in Str. 10,2,8 as a predecessor settlement of the town of Leucas. Besieged in vain by Athens in 426 BC (Thuc. 3,7,5). Location probably near the modern Hagios Georgios on the mainland opposite the ancient town of Leucas. Further evidence: Str. 1,3,18; Plin. HN 4,5. Neriton Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography M. Fiedler, Zur Topographie der Polis Leukas, in: P. Berktold (ed.), Akarnanien, 1996, 159f.

Hylli

(127 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὕλλοι; Hýlloi). Illyrian tribe, first mentioned in the 4th cent. BC among the bárbaroi (Scyl. 22); other spellings Hylleîs (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὑλλεῖς) and Hyllaîoi (Ὑλλαῖοι, Ptol. 2,16,5). Their settlement area has been located approximately between the rivers Titius (modern Krka) and Nestus (modern Cetina). Like other smaller Illyrian tribes, the H. were absorbed by the  Dalmatae after the 4th cent. BC, so that, in the Roman period, only the designation of the coast south of Šibenik as the peninsula Hyllica/ Hyllis (Plin. HN 3,141; Scymn. 405) recalled the H.…

Derieis

(48 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Δεριεῖς; Derieîs). Tribe and district in the east of Acarnania, destination of the Peloponnesian ceremonial emissaries (IG IV2 96, l. 61ff.; SEG 36,331, l. 41ff.). In 314 BC synoikismós in  Agrinium (Diod. Sic. 19,67,4). Capital not located. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Pritchett, vol. 8, 81-85.

Zacynthos

(656 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (ἡ Ζάκυνθος; hē Zákynthos). The southernmost of the Ionian islands (401 km2; approximately 37 km in length, 19 km in width); the southeastern coast is 16 km from the mainland (Elis [1] in the Peloponnesus). Three zones cross Z. from northwest to southeast: in the west a broad almost uninhabited limestone mountain range (Vrachionas, up to 756 m high) with a steep harbourless coast, …

Colentum

(46 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Dalmatian island (today known as Murter, Croatia), which belonged to the conventus of  Salona; Plin. HN 3,140; Ptol. 2,13,3; Geogr. Rav. 408,13. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 487 S. Čače, Colentum insula (Plinio Nat. Hist. 3,140), in: Diadora 10, 1988, 65-72.

Molossi

(516 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Μολοσσοί/ Molossoí). One of the main tribes of Epirus, with many small tribes. They originated in northern Pindus. From the 5th cent. BC, the tribes of the M. populated the basin of modern Ioannina, which originally belonged to the Thesproti, with the sanctuary of Dodona (Str. 7,7,8; 11). The borders in the north were the upper part of the Thyamis (modern Kalamas), and in the south-east the Arachthus. In the early 4th cent., part of the northern bank of the Ambracian Gulf also bel…

Leucimme

(51 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Λευκίμμη/ Leukímmē, Dorian Λευκίμμα/ Leukímma). A low promontory (‘white cape’) protruding to the north, on the south-east coast of Corcyra, modern Lefkimi. Thuc. 1,30,1; 4,47,2; 51,4; 3,79,3; Str. 7,7,5; Ptol. 3,17,11. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography A. W. Gomme, A Historical Commentary on Thucydides 1, 1945, 183 Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 2, 445f.

Aeginium

(140 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Αἰγίνιον; Aigínion). Town in Tymphania, originally taken as belonging to Epirus (Str. 7,7,9), but from 191 BC belonging to Macedonia, from 167 BC to the Thessalonian Hestiaiotis. Strategically important location in the upper valley of the Peneius (impregnable according to Liv. 32,15,4), destroyed by the Romans in the Third Macedonian War in 167 BC (Liv. 45,27). Its localization close to the modern Kalambaka [3. 121-123; 1. 898] (medieval Stagoi [4. 262 f.]) seems to be certain, de…

Tymphaea

(163 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Τυμφαία; Tymphaía). Region in Epirus, to the east of Mount Tymphe (2497 m high, modern Mavrovouni) in the Pindus [1]. T. extended in the northeast from the source rivers of the Veneticus to the basin region of the upper Haliacmon as far as modern Grevená, in the south as far as the area of the source of the Peneius around modern Kalabáka. The Tymphaei were originally considered as Epeirotae (Arr. An. 1,7,5; Str. 7,7,8f.; Plin. HN 4,6), and from the time of Philippus [4] II (cf. [1…

Amaltheum

(45 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀμαλθεῖον; Amaltheîon). An unlocated country estate of T.  Pomponius Atticus in the Roman province of  Epirus, on the coast near Buthrotum (Cic. Leg. 2,3,7; Att. 1,13; 16,15). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography P. Cabanes (ed.), L'Illyrie méridionale et l'Epire dans l'antiquité 1, 1987, 245-254.

Chaones, Chaonia

(126 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Χάονες, Χαονία; Cháones, Chaonía). Important people to the north of Epirus, between the Aous and the Acroceraunia, opposite Corcyra (Str. 7,7,5; Ptol. 3,14,7). Although originally based on village settlements (Scyl. 28), in the 6th cent. BC C. contained the cities of  Buthrotum,  Onchesmus and  Phoenice (main centre), and later Chimera and  Antigonea [4]. Mentioned in connection with the Peloponnesian and Macedonian Wars: Thuc. 2,80f.; Liv. 32,5; 43,23. Inscriptions: SEG 15, 397; 24, 448; 38, 468; 38, 470; IG IV2 95 l. 29; IG IX 12, 2, 243. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bi…

Pale

(77 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) (Πάλη/ Pálē). Town west of Cephallenia on the Paliki peninsula north of modern Lixuri. Hdt. 9,28,5 confuses Παλέες/ Palées with αλεῖοι/ Waleíoi, 'citizens of Elis', when mentioning the involvement of the troops of P. in the battle of Plataeae in 479 BC. There are hardly any ancient remains. Inscriptions: IG IX 1, 645f.; Coins: BMC, Gr (Peloponnese) 84-88. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)

Campylus

(35 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Καμπύλος; Kampýlos). One of the tributaries of the Achelous in Aetolia (Diod. Sic. 19,67,3); its location cannot be determined more closely. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography H. v. Geisau, s.v. K., RE 10, 1844.

Echinades

(222 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἐχινάδες, Ἐχῖναι; Echinádes, Echînai). Archipelago off the SW coast of Acarnania and the mouth of the Achelous; today, it belongs to the nomos Cephallenia. The islands were largely uninhabited, but they were exploited economically (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,51). Already in antiquity it was observed that the islands became joined to the mainland due to the  Achelous [1] depositing debris into the area (Hdt. 2,10; Thuc. 2,102; Scyl. 34; Str. 1,3,18; 10,2,19 [1; 2]). This phenomenon was a…

Aegilips

(68 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Αἰγίλιψ; Aigílips). In Homer's catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,633) listed as a place under Odysseus' rule, its exact location controversial even in antiquity (Str. 10,2,10: on  Leucas; Steph. Byz. s. v. Κροκύλειον; Krokýleion: on  Ithaca; Suda s. v. A.: on  Cephallenia), modern searches concentrate on Ithaca. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography E. Visser, Homers Katalog der Schiffe, 1997 R. H. Simpson, J. F. Lazenby, The catalogue of ships, 1970, 103 f.

Leucas, Leucadia

(1,280 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine (Λευκάς, Λευκαδία; Leukás, Leukadía; Lat. Leucas, Leucadia). [German version] A. Geography One of the central Ionian islands with a city of the same name, separated from the Acarnanian coast by only a shallow strait, with an extent of c. 295 km2 and 31 km long ( Acarnanians, Acarnania, map). The interior of L. consists of a central mountain massif (S…

Strophades

(93 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Στροφάδες; Strophádes). Two small, flat, barren, uninhabited islands belonging to Cyparissia [1] (Str. 8,4,3) located 44 km south of Zacynthos in the open sea, with the original name of Plotae (Mela 2,110; Plin. HN 4,55), Strophadia ever since the Roman Period (Hierocles, Synecdemus 648,10). According to legend, the sons of Boreas turned about there during their pursuit of the Harpies (aition for the place name in Apoll. Rhod. 2,285-297). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon, 1980, 5f.  Philippson/Kirsten, 541-545  L. Ro…

Portunata

(60 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Island and city of the same name in the sinus Flanaticus, the bay to the east of Histria (Plin. HN 3,140). Identified, but not beyond doubt [1], with Dugi Otok (in Croatia) [2]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 E. Polaschek, s. v. P., RE 22, 400 2 J. Chapman, The Changing Face of Dalmatia, 1996, Index s.v. Dugi Otok.

Ceraunian Mountains

(131 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Κεραύνια ὄρη; Keraúnia órē). The most northern of the coastal ranges of Epirus (Str. 7,5,8; 7,6,1; 7,7,5), modern Rëza e Kanalit (or Karaburun) in Albania. It starts in the south at the Çikë range (2045 m) and ends in the north in the far protruding Cape  Acroceraunia. The rugged limestone heights (up to 1593 m) are much feared because of their frequent thunderstorms, after which they were named ‘Thunder Mountains’. Only in the south were ancient landings or settlements found: Kemar…

Thyrrheum

(263 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Θύρρειον/ Thýrrheion, Θύριον/ Thýrion, Θούριον/ Thoúrion). City in northern Acarnania, 5 km to the south of the Gulf of Ambracia, at a height of 420 m, modern Thyrion. Still autonomous in the 4th cent. BC (Xen. Hell. 6,2,37), no later than the 3rd cent. T. was a member of the Acarnanian Koinón (IG IX 12, 1, 23); in 269 BC with the partition of the Koinón it fell to Epirus and from 238 to 232 and again c. 211 BC was Aetolian (Aetolians; the treaty of alliance between Rome and Aetolia was found i…

Torybea

(75 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Τορύβεια/ Torýbeia, Τύρβειον/ Týrbeion). City in the interior of Acarnania (Acarnanes) above modern Komboti, mentioned only in a few lists of theorodokoi (cf. IG IV2 1, 95, 18; FdD III 3, 203). The city was systematically laid out in the 4th cent. BC (orthogonal streets, insulae; Insula ). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Pritchett 8, 104-108  D. Strauch, Römische Politik und griechische Tradition, 1996, 305 f.

Medion

(132 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Μεδιών/ Mediṓn; Μεδεών/ Medeṓn, Thuc. 3,106). City in central Acarnania, south of the modern village of Katouna, on the important route from the Gulf of Ambracia to the central plain between Aetolia and Acarnania. In 231 BC, the city was unsuccessfully besieged by the Aetolians (Pol. 2,2f.), in 191 it supported Antiochus III (Liv. 36,11,10-12,12). Mentioned repeatedly in lists of theōrodokoi. (IG IV 12, 95 l. 13; [1. 157 Z. 2]; SEG 36, 331 l. 44-46). Inscriptions: IG IX 12,2, 387f.; SEG 25, 633; [2. …

Lyncon montes

(64 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Mountain massif in the Epirote part of the Pindus, up to 2,249 m high, whose northern foothills are directed towards Macedonia and whose southern ones towards Thessaly source area of the Aous (modern Viotsa). According to Liv. 32,13,2f., thickly wooded with wide tablelands and perennial springs. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967, 280f. Philippson/Kirsten 2, 69-76.

Limnaea

(133 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Λιμναία; Limnaía). Harbour town on a bay in the south-east of the Gulf of Ambracia near modern Amphilochia, from which a hollow of the valley leads into the Achelous plain (Pol. 5,5,14). In the 5th cent. an unfortified village (Thuc. 2,80,2; 3,106,2), in the 4th cent. the destination of the theorodokoi (IG IV2 1,95 l. 8; SEG 36,331 l. 31-33), member of the Acarnanian League (IG IX 12,2, 588 l. 9). The fortified acropolis was connected to the harbour by ‘long walls’. There are no clues tha…

Ionios Kolpos

(217 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἰόνιος κόλπος; Iónios kólpos), Adria (ὁ Ἀδρίας, Mare Adriaticum or s uperum), Ionian Sea. In contrast with the modern view, the Ionios Kolpos (IK) was seen by Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 91f.) as starting from Istria, by Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 4) from the mouth of the Spines. In the south the name is occasionally transferred to the Sicilian Sea (Mela 2,37; 48; 110). Originally, Adria only referred to the innermost corner of the Adriatic Sea at the mouth of the Po and the settlement area of the Veneti, from the name of whose town  Atria, the name Adria a…

Arachthus

(72 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἄραχθος; Árachthos). Greatest river of southern  Epirus (also Ἄραθθος, Ἄρατθος; Áraththos, Áratthos CEG 1,145; BMC Corinth 107; Str. 7,7,8; Dionysius Calliphontus 42); rises near the Molossi on the Lacmon (Pindus); navigable from its mouth on the Gulf of Ambracia to  Ambracia. Shifting river-bed in its lower reaches from ancient times [1]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 P. N. Doukellis, É. Fouache, in: BCH 116, 1992, 375-382 2 N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967 3 Philippson/Kirsten 2, 115-121.

Palaeste

(46 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Παλαίστη/ Palaíst ē). Town in Acroceraunia on the coast of Epirus, modern Palasë in Albania, where Caesar landed his troops during his Dyrrhachium campaign on 4 January 48 BC (Caes. B. Civ. 3,6,3; Luc. 5,460). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967, 125f.

Athamania

(176 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀθαμανία; Athamanía). Region in the south-east of Epirus, in the Pindus range (Str. 7,7,8), bordering on Thessaly in the east (later counted as Thessalian: Str. 9,5,11; Steph. Byz. s.v. A.). During the 4th cent. BC, the Ἀθαμᾶνες ( Athamânes) joined the League of Corinth and Second Athenian Confederacy (Diod. Sic. 14,82; Nep. Tim. 2), and in the 3rd cent. BC, it was a member of the Epirote League. Under the rule of kings Theodorus and  Amynander (Pol. 4,16; Str. 9,4,11; [1]), A. became particularly important in the Macedonian Wars [2].   Koinon in the…

Carnus

(66 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Κάρνος; Kárnos). [German version] [1] Epithet of Apollo and Zeus see  Carnea Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) [German version] [2] Island on the Acarnanian west coast Island on the Acarnanian west coast of Alyzeia, identified as the modern Calamus. Documentation: Scyl. 34; Plin. HN 4,53; Artem. in Steph. Byz. s.v. C. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography W. M. Murray, The Coastal Sites of Western Akarnania, 1982 Philippson/Kirsten 2, 390-392.

Arba

(53 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] One of the Liburnian  Mentores Islands (today Rab, Croatia), with a town of the same name.   Municipium from the time of Augustus; belonged to the tribus Sergia (Plin. HN 3,140; Ptol. 2,17,13).  Liburni Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography G. Alföldy, Bevölkerung und Ges. in der röm. Prov. Dalmatien, 1965 J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969.

Cranii

(66 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Athenian League (Second) (Κράνιοι). City west of  Cephallenia, east of the main city today named Argostoli. It supported Athens in the  Peloponnesian War: Thuc. 2,30; 33; 5,35; 56; Str. 10,2,13. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography P. Kalligas, Ἱερὸ Δήμητρας καὶ Κόρης στὴν Κράνη Κεφαλλονιᾶς, in: ArchE, 1978, 136-146 R. Speich, Korfu und die Ion. Inseln, 1982, 263-265.

Cestrine

(90 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Κεστρίνη; Kestrínē). Region in Epirus opposite Corcyra north of the Thyamis, nowadays in the Albanian-Greek border region. According to Hecataeus (in Thuc. 1,46,4; [3. 446f.]) belonging to the  Chaones, from the 4th cent. BC (?) to the territory of the Thesproti. A coastal settlement by the name of Cestria is mentioned in Plin. HN 4,4; [2. 111f.; 3. 677f.]. C. was famous for its cattle (Hsch. s.v. Κεστρινικοὶ βόες). Inscriptions: [1. 126, 137, 586]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 P. Cabanes, L' Épire, 1976 2 S. I. Dakaris, Thesprotia, 1972 3 N. G. L. …

Aous

(127 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀῶος, Ἄωος; Aôos, Áōos). River in northern  Epirus (the modern Viosa, Albanian Vijosë); also called Aias (FGrH 1 Hecat. F 102b; Plin. HN 3,26). Sources on the Lacmon in the Pindus; on the upper reaches in the territory of the Molossi a bridge (Pol. 27,16; [2. 280, 628]); on the middle reaches the Paravaea (Arr. Anab. 1,7,5); here west of Tepelena (as a river border [1. 115 f.]) the gorge at the river's entry onto the plain (Liv. 32,5,11; 10,2). The A. was navigable from Apollonia [1] to its mouth (Plut. Caesar 38); here an asphalt spring with  nymphaeum and oracle [1. 494]. St…

Trichonium

(206 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia (Τριχόνειον/ Trichóneion, literary Τριχώνιον/ Trichṓnion). Aetolian city (Aetoli) to the south of Lake Trichonis (modern Limni Trichonida) on the northern slopes of the Aracynthus mountains (modern Zygos) near modern Gavalu. T. was the most significant city of central Aetolia, supplied most of the strategoi (cf. Stratēgós ) of the Aetolian League, but is mentioned in historiographic literature only in the context of Philippus [7] V's campaign to Thermus …

Coronta

(90 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Κόροντα, Κορόνται; Kóronta, Koróntai). City in  Acarnania near modern Chrysovitsa, with finds dating to Mycenaean times, mentioned only at Thuc. 2,102,1, member of the Acarnanian Koinon, destination of the Peloponnesian theorodokoi (SEG 36, 331 l. 49-51). Inscriptions: IG IX 12, 2, 427-433; 603f.; AD 25 B 2, 1970, 297; 26 B 2, 1971, 321; 40 B, 1985, 140; SEG 29. 473. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Pritchett, vol. 8, 102f. D. Strauch, Röm. Politik und Griech. Tradition, 1996, 274.

Issa

(187 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἴσσα; Íssa). Island and city off the Dalmatian coast, modern Vis, Croatia. The settlers who came from Syracuse to I. in the late 4th cent. BC (Scymn. 413f; Diod. Sic. 15,14,2) [3; 4] established colonies in their turn: Tragurium, Epetium and a settlement on Corcyra Melaina (SEG 43, 348) [3]. Elevated by Rome in 230/229 BC to a civitas libera et foederata [1. 100], in 167 BC I. was declared exempt from taxes. In 56 BC a legation from I. went to Caesar (SEG 43, 350). From the 1st cent. BC part of the administrative region of  Salona [1. 106f…

Pullaria

(59 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Island in the  Ionios Kolpos off the southern extremity of  Histria (Plin. HN 3,151; Tab. Peut. 5,39; Geogr. Rav. 5,24). P. can be identified either with modern Lošinj (in Croatia) or with the Brioni Islands to the northwest of ancient Pola. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 4, 196  Id., The Illyrians, 1992, 185.

Stratos

(246 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Aetolians, Aetolia | Acarnanians, Acarnania | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (ὁ or ἡ Στράτος/ Strátos (m/f)). The most important city of Acarnania (Thuc. 2,80; Acarnanians, Acarnania, with map); on the right bank of the Achelous [1], upstream of the modern Stratos; chief city of the Acarnanian confederacy in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. After the partition of Acarnania in 260 BC, S. became Aetolian; with the foundation of Nicopolis [3] in 30 BC, …

Ithaca

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Persian Wars (Ἰθάκη; Ithákē, Lat. Ithaca). [German version] A. Geography One of the central Ionian islands west of Greece, nowadays also known as Thiaki; it is 23 km long and c. 6 km wide, with a total area of c. 94 sq km, east of the island of  Cephallenia and separated from the latter by a 2-5 km wide sound. I. is divided into a larger northern half with Mt. Neriton (808 m), and a southern half with Mt. Merovigli (671 m); they are joined by a narrow isthmus (600 m wide) with Mt. Aetus…

Chaones, Chaonia

(119 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Χάονες, Χαονία). Bed. Stamm im Norden von Epeiros zw. dem Aoos und den Akrokeraunia, gegenüber Korkyra (Strab. 7,7,5; Ptol. 3,14,7). Trotz urspr. dörflicher Siedlungsweise (Skyl. 28) existierten im 6.Jh. v.Chr. in Chaonia die Städte Buthroton, Onchesmos, Phoinike (Hauptort), später Chimera und Antigoneia [4]. Erwähnt im Zusammenhang mit dem Peloponnesischen Krieg und den Maked. Kriegen: Thuk. 2,80f.; Liv. 32,5; 43,23. Inschr.: SEG 15, 397; 24, 448; 38, 468; 38, 470; IG IV2 95 Z. 29; IG IX 12, 2, 243. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography F. Prendi, La Chaonie p…

Apsyrtides

(63 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Ἀψυρτίδες). Liburnische Inselgruppe östl. von Istrien, bei Theopompos (FGrH 115 fr. 130; vgl. Strab. 2,5,20; 7,5,5) mit dem Argonautenmythos (Argonautai) verbunden; auf der größten Insel Crepsa (h. Cres, Kroatien) im Norden Crexa/Crexi, im Süden Asporus (Plin. nat. 3,140); beide Orte seit Tiberius municipia . Liburni Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 196 f.  Ders., The Illyrians, 1992.

Curictae

(82 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (auch Curica, Tab. Peut.; Κυρικτική, Strab. 2,5,20). Insel an der dalmatischen Küste (h. Krk, kroat.) mit zwei Städten: C. (Κούρικον, Ptol. 2,16,13) beim h. Ort Krk und Fertinates (Φουλφίνιον, Ptol. l.c.) beim h. Omisalj. Zw. den Truppen des Pompeius und Caesar umkämpft (Caes. civ. 3,10,5), seit Augustus zu Illyricum gehörig. Claudius erteilte den Bewohnern das ius Italicum (Plin. nat. 3,139, tribus Claudia). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography G. Alföldy, Bevölkerung und Gesellschaft in [...] Dalmatien, 1965  J.J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969.

Elea

(95 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ἐλέα). [English version] [1] Küstenstadt in Epirus Küstenstadt in Epirus an der Mündung des Acheron beim h. Veliani, Hauptort der Landschaft Eleatis (fälschlich Elaia/Elaiatis bei Thuk. 1,46,4) in Thesprotia. Entstehung der pólis vor 350 v.Chr., erste Mz. zw. 360 und 335 v.Chr. Erh. sind von der 10 ha großen Stadt vor allem die 1,5 km langen Mauern. Belegstellen: Skyl. 30; Strab. 7,7,5. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Archaeological Reports 41, 1994/5, 26  P. Cabanes, L'Épire, 1976  S.I. Dakaris, Thesprotia, 1972  P.R. Franke, Die ant. Mz. von Epirus, 1961, 300-307. …

Amaltheion

(43 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Ἀμαλθεῖον). Nicht lokalisiertes Landgut des T. Pomponius Atticus in der röm. Prov. Epirus, an der Küste nahe Buthroton (Cic. leg. 2,3,7; Att. 1,13; 16,15). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography P. Cabanes (Hrsg.), L'Illyrie méridionale et l'Epire dans l'antiquité 1, 1987, 245-254.

Orikos

(119 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Bildung | Makedonia, Makedones (Ὤρικος, auch Ὠρικός, Ὠρικόν). Hafenstadt in Epeiros, im südl. Winkel des gleichnamigen Golfs (h. Golf von Vlorë in Albanien). Der Sage nach von Euboieis (Euboia) auf der Heimfahrt von Troia gegr., bereits im 6. Jh.v.Chr. bei Hekat. FGrH 1 F 106 genannt. Spätestens seit dem 4. Jh.v.Chr. bestanden enge Beziehungen zu Korkyra [1]. Die Stadt, auf einer Halbinsel gelegen, verfügte über einen geschützten Hafen und wa…

Kallieis

(177 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Καλλιεῖς). Der westlichste Teilstamm der aitolischen Ophieis im oberen Tal des Daphnos (h. Mornos; Thuk. 3,96,3). Ihr Hauptort Kallion (oder Kallipolis, h. Kallion, ehemals Velouchovo) besetzte die strategische Position oberhalb des rechten Ufers des Daphnos und wird deshalb bei den Kriegszügen des Demosthenes [1] 426 und des Acilius [I 10] Glabrio 191 v.Chr. sowie dem Galliereinfall 279 v.Chr. (Vernichtung von Stadt und Einwohnern, vgl. Paus. 10,22,3-7) erwähnt. Der Siedlungspl…

Agrinion

(86 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Aitoloi, Aitolia | Akarnanes, Akarnania (Ἀγρίνιον). Urspr. akarnanische Stadt, 314 v. Chr. unter Kassandros Synoikismos der Derieis in A., dann Eroberung durch die Aitoloi (Diod. 19,67 f.) und Mitglied im Aitolischen Koinon (mehrere Strategen aus A.). Stadtanlage (Mauer, Stoa, Häuser) bei Megali Chora 3 km nordwestl. des modernen A. (Mus. der Region) lokalisiert. Akarnania; Strategos Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography C. Antonetti, Les Étoliens, 1990, 236 f.  S. Bommeljé (Hrsg.), Aetolia, 1987, 96  Lauffer…

Kassiope

(142 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Κασσιόπη, lat. Cassiope). Hafen an der NO-Küste von Korkyra (Korfu), h. Kassiopi. Seit hell. Zeit (Gründung durch Pyrrhos?) wichtiger Überfahrtshafen nach Italien, den Cicero 50 v.Chr. (Cic. fam. 16,9,1) und Nero 66 n.Chr. (Suet. Nero 22,3) nutzte. Hier wurde Zeus Kasios verehrt (Plin. nat. 4,52), von dem Mz. [2] und Inschr. (ILS 4043; SEG 23, 395; 477) zeugen [1]. Über seinem Tempel wurde in frühchristl. Zeit eine dreischiffige Basilika errichtet [3; 4]. In spätant. Itinerarien erscheint K. ( Cassiape, Cassiope) als Bezeichnung für die Insel Korkyra. Weit…

Aitoloi, Aitolia

(2,354 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Αἰτωλοί, Αἰτωλία). [English version] A. Topographie Größte Landschaft (4500 km2), bedeutendster Stamm in Mittelgriechenland. Eine exakte Bestimmung des Siedlungsgebietes und der Phasen der frühen Ausbreitung der A. ist mit den vorhandenen Quellen nur bedingt möglich. Die zum Ethnos der A. zählenden Stämme lebten zwischen den Gebirgen Vardousia und Gkiona im Osten (h. Verwaltungsbezirk Phokis), dem 2319 m hohen Thymphrestos im Norden (h. Bezirk Evritania) und dem Acheloos [1] im Westen (h. Bezirk Aitoloa…

Arba

(46 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] Eine der liburnischen Mentores-Inseln (h. Rab, Kroatien) mit gleichnamiger Stadt. Municipium seit Augustus, gehörte zur tribus Sergia (Plin. nat. 3,140; Ptol. 2,17,13). Liburni Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography G. Alföldy, Bevölkerung und Ges. in der röm. Prov. Dalmatien, 1965  J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969.

Karnos

(63 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Κάρνος). [English version] [1] Beiname des Apollon und Zeus s. Karneia Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) [English version] [2] Insel an der akarnanischen Westküste Insel an der akarnanischen Westküste vor Alyzeia, identifiziert mit dem h. Kalamos. Belegstellen: Skyl. 34; Plin. nat. 4,53; Artem. bei Steph. Byz. s.v. Κ. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography W.M. Murray, The Coastal Sites of Western Akarnania, 1982  Philippson/Kirsten 2, 390-392.

Molossoi

(414 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Μολοσσοί). Einer der Hauptstämme von Epeiros mit vielen Kleinstämmen. Ihre Ursprünge liegen im nördl. Pindos; seit dem 5. Jh.v.Chr. besiedelten die Stämme der M. das urspr. den Thesprotoi gehörende Becken des h. Ioannina mit dem Heiligtum von Dodona (Strab. 7,7,8; 11). Grenzen im Norden waren der obere Teil des Thyamis (h. Kalamas), im SO der Arachthos. Im frühen 4. Jh. gehörte auch ein Teil des nördl. Ufers des Ambrakischen Golfs zu den M. [2. 130-133]. Der Hauptort Passaron lag nordwestl. von Ioannina bei der Akropolis von Gardaki [3. 71-73]. Die M. sind in Sp…

Koronta

(83 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Akarnanes, Akarnania (Κόροντα, Κορόνται). Stadt in Akarnania beim h. Chrysovitsa mit bereits myk. Funden, nur bei Thuk. 2,102,1 gen., Mitglied im Akarnanischen Koinon, Ziel der peloponnesischen Theorodoken (SEG 36, 331 Z. 49-51). Inschr.: IG IX 12, 2, 427-433; 603f.; AD 25 B 2, 1970, 297; 26 B 2, 1971, 321; 40 B, 1985, 140; SEG 29, 473. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Pritchett, Bd. 8, 102f.  D. Strauch, Röm. Politik und Griech. Trad., 1996, 274.

Medion

(105 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Akarnanes, Akarnania (Μεδιών; Μεδεών, Thuk. 3,106). Stadt im Inneren von Akarnania, südl. des h. Dorfes Katouna, an der wichtigen Verkehrsverbindung vom Ambrakischen Golf zur aitolisch-akarnanischen Binnenebene. 231 v.Chr. vergeblich von den Aitoloi belagert (Pol. 2,2f.), 191 auf Seiten Antiochos' III. (Liv. 36,11,10-12,12). Mehrfach in Theorodokenlisten gen. (IG IV 12, 95 Z. 13; [1. 157 Z. 2]; SEG 36, 331 Z. 44-46). Inschr.: IG IX 12,2, 387f.; SEG 25, 633; [2. 229]. Mz.: [3]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliogr…

Ithake

(921 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Dunkle Jahrhunderte | Perserkriege (Ἰθάκη, Ithaca). [English version] A. Geographie Eine der mittleren Ion. Inseln im Westen Griechenlands, h. auch Thiaki gen., 23 km lang und etwa 6 km breit, ca. 94 km2 groß, östl. der Insel Kephallenia und von dieser durch einen 2-5 km breiten Sund getrennt. I. teilt sich in eine größere Nordhälfte mit dem Berg Neriton (808 m) und eine Südhälfte mit dem Merovigli (671 m); die Verbindung stellt der nur 600 m breite Isthmos mit dem Berg Aetos (380 m…

Lyncon montes

(52 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] Bergmassiv im epeirotischen Teil des Pindos, bis 2249 m hoch, dessen nördl. Ausläufer nach Makedonia, die südl. nach Thessalia gerichtet sind; Quellgebiet des Aoos (h. Viotsa). Nach Liv. 32,13,2f. dicht bewaldet, mit weiten Hochebenen und perennierenden Quellen. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967, 280f.  Philippson/Kirsten 2, 69-76.

Paxos

(49 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Παξός). P. und Antipaxos, zusammengefaßt als Paxoi-Inseln, 13 km südl. von Korkyra, auch h. noch P., waren 229 v.Chr. Schauplatz einer Seeschlacht im 1. Illyrischen Krieg (Pol. 2,10,1-7). Wenige Reste frühchristl. Kirchen. Vgl. Plin. nat. 4,52; IG IX 1, 966. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 2, 456-459.

Alyzeia

(134 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Akarnanes, Akarnania (Ἀλύζεια, Ἀλυζία). Stadt (korinth. Gründung?) an der akarnanischen Westküste, nahe beim h. Kandila. Im Peloponnesischen Krieg mit Athen verbündet (Thuk. 7,31,2). 375 v. Chr. bei A. Seesieg der Athener im Kampf gegen die spartanische Hegemonie (Xen. hell. 5,4,65 f.); in der röm. Kaiserzeit von Nikopolis abhängig (Strab. 10,2,2); Straßenstation des cursus publicus (Geogr. Rav. 5,13: (H)Alissa). Hafen, Heraklesheiligtum (Skyl. 34; Strab. l.c.). Stadtanla…

Neion

(47 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Νήϊον). Nur bei Hom. Od. 1,186 und 3,81 und danach bei den Lexikographen genannter waldiger Berg auf Ithake, den schon die ant. Homererklärer nicht identifizieren konnten (Strab. 10,2,11). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography A. Heubeck, A Commentary on Homer's Odyssey, Bd. 1, 1988, 100, 165.

Leukas, Leukadia

(1,080 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Ägäische Koine | Akarnanes, Akarnania | Attischer Seebund | Getreidehandel, Getreideimport | Kolonisation | Makedonia, Makedones | Peloponnesischer Krieg | Perserkriege | Punische Kriege (Λευκάς, Λευκαδία, lat. Leucas, Leucadia). [English version] A. Geographie Eine der mittleren Ion. Inseln mit gleichnamiger Stadt, nur durch eine seichte Meerenge von der akarnanischen Küste getrennt, ca. 295 km2 groß und 31 km lang (Akarnanes, Karte). Das Innere von L. besteht aus einem zentralen Bergmassiv (am höchsten …

Nerikos

(73 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Νήρικος). Hom. Od. 24,377 erwähnt einen Ort N. auf dem ‘Festland’ (ἀκτὴν ἠπείροιο), von Strab. 10,2,8 als Vorgängersiedlung der Stadt Leukas bezeichnet. 426 v.Chr. von Athen vergeblich belagert (Thuk. 3,7,5). Lage wohl beim h. Hagios Georgios auf dem Festland gegenüber der ant. Stadt Leukas. Weitere Belege: Strab. 1,3,18; Plin. nat. 4,5. Neriton Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography M. Fiedler, Zur Top. der Polis Leukas, in: P. Berktold (Hrsg.), Akarnanien, 1996, 159f.
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