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Augustus [2]

(305 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Αὔγουστος; Aúgoustos, Σεβαστός; Sebastós). From the time of its first bestowal as a honorific on 16 January AD 27 ( Feriale Cumanum, R. Gest. div. Aug. 34) on  Octavianus, and its bequeathal by him to  Tiberius [1], the title of A. (‘the Sublime’) became an established titular component of the imperial name, but without at the same time bestowing any legal powers. Elevation to A. by the Senate, in the 3rd cent. often by the army ( Soldier emperors), marked the official installation ( dies imperii) of the Roman ruler; the praenomen Imperatoris was added to the title as …

Cetrius

(52 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] C. Severus C., tribune of the praetorians; in AD 69, together with Subrius Dexter and Pompeius Longinus, he came out in support of  Galba to oppose the incipient rise of  Otho (Tac. Hist. 1,31). He is probably the beneficiarius from ILS 2073. PIR C 703. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Dorimachus

(206 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Δωρίμαχος; Dōrímachos). Aetolian from Trichonion, son of Nicostratus, was victorious as stratēgós of the Aetolian league in 221-20 BC with  Scopas against Messenia (Pol. 4,10-13). In 220-19 he plundered Epirus and set the temple of Zeus in Dodona on fire (Diod. Sic. 26,4,7; Pol. 4,67). He turned against Thessaly in order to withdraw Philipp V from the siege of Pale (Pol. 5,5,1), then heard of Philipp's invasion in Aetolia, from where on his arrival the Macedons had already withdrawn victoriously (Pol. 5,17,5-8). In 211, D., who as princeps Aetolorum (Liv. 26,24,7) h…

Licinia

(561 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Of noble descent, wife of M. Porcius Cato [1] Woman of noble descent; by marrying her in 192 or 191 BC, M. Porcius Cato [1] rose into the aristocracy [1. 54] (Plut. Cato 20,1). Her son was M. Porcius Cato Licinianus. She probably died in 155. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. Astin, Cato the Censor, 1978, 67; 105; 263. [German version] [2] In 153 BC accused of poisoning her husband In 153 BC ([1. 12]: 154 BC), she and another woman named Publicia were accused of poisoning their husbands; strangled by family members following the verdict…

Eunus

(200 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Εὔνους; Eúnous). Syrian, leader of the slave revolts in Sicily in 141-132 BC. He gathered together 400 slaves and conquered Enna; other towns joined the rebellion. Favoured by the good portent of his name (‘well disposed’) and his talent for prophecy [2. 28-29], as a result of his success he was chosen to be king in the Hellenistic manner; he called himself Antiochus (Diod. Sic. 34,2,24; [3]) and took on the traditional insignia of rule, although this indicates his desire for unit…

Diogeiton

(77 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Διογείτων; Diogeítōn). In 401/400 BC, D. was on trial because of abuse of the custody of his brother Diodotus' children and the embezzlement of his fortune. The prosecutor was one of the children of Diodotus, who had died in 409/408; he was also D.'s grandchild, since Diodotus had married the daughter of D. (Lys. or. 32, contra D.). Traill, PAA 325580. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography J. M. Moore, D.'s Dioikesis, in: GRBS 23, 1982, 351-355.

Decebalus

(299 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Δεκέβαλος; Dekébalos). D. was the last Dacian king, reigning from c. AD 87-106. In addition to modern-day western and central Transylvania, his kingdom included the Banat and the Walachian plains. According to Cass. Dio (67,6,1-2) he was a match for Rome thanks to his excellent military skills, uniting the Dacian tribes and even persuading Sarmatian and German groups to join him against Rome. After he had conquered parts of Iazygian territory and invaded Moesia in 85/86, a war against Domi…

Bardylis

(108 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Illyrian king in the first half of the 4th cent. BC Illyrian king in the first half of the 4th cent. BC, founder of a dynasty (Theopomp. fr. 35; Cic. Off. 2,40). He played a major role in the victory over Perdiccas III in 359 BC; fell in the following year fighting against Philip II. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography P. Cabanes, Les Illyriens de B. à Genthios, 1988 N.G.L. Hammond, The Battle between Philip and B., in: Antichthon 23, 1989, 1-9. [German version] [2] Perhaps grandson of B. Perhaps grandson of B. [1], father of Bircenna, wife of  Pyrrhus of Epirus. Strothman…

Laelia

(121 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Elder daughter of C. Laelius [I 2], wife of Q. Mucius Scaevola Elder daughter of C. Laelius [I 2], born 160 BC, wife of Q. Mucius Scaevola. One of her two daughters married the orator L. Licinius [I 10] Crassus, the tutor of Cicero, who observed that L. had adopted the speaking style of her father (Cic. Brut. 211). Cicero may have been encouraged to write of L.'s father ( Laelius sive de amicitia) while in her house. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] Younger sister of L. [1], wife of the annalist C. Fannius [I 1] Younger sister of L. [1], born after 160 BC, w…

Lais

(388 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Λαίς; Laís). The ‘general acquaintance’, from λαός (‘people’) [1] or from the Semitic, ‘lioness’. Popular name for hetaerae, which makes identification difficult. [German version] [1] Hetaera from Corinth Hetaera ( Hetaerae) from Corinth. L. is described as beautiful (Ath. 13,587d), quick-witted (in conversation with Euripides in Ath. 13,582cd; he quotes her Eur. Med. 1346), discriminating and expensive; in old age, L. is said to have become impoverished and a dipsomaniac (Ath. 13,570cd). She died in 392 BC (schol. Aristo…

Bato

(348 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Dardanian king, around 200 BC Dardanian king who supported the Romans by providing reinforcements in 200 BC in the battle against  Philip V (Liv. 31,28,1-2.). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography CAH VIII, 21989, 262 Errington 187. [German version] [2] Rebelling Dalmatian, 6-9 AD Dalmatian from the tribe of Daesidiates. Leader in the Pannonian-Dalmatian revolt of AD 6-9, whose causes Cassius Dio (55,29-34; 56,11-26) and Velleius Paterculus (2,110-116) located in the tax burden and in recruitment practices. After his…

Gelimer

(229 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Grandson of  Geisericus, last of the Vandal kings (AD 530-4), took over rulership in 530 after the fall of Hildericus (Procop. Vand. 1,9,8-9; Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,3). His adamant refusal of any intervention by Justinian in internal affairs led to war (Procop. Vand. 1,9,10-24). Since G. had dispatched his troops to Sardinia against the rebellious Godas, he could not defend himself either against Pudentius, who was in revolt in Tripolitania, or against  Belisarius, who had landed in …

Cluvia Pacula

(50 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Facula in Val. Max. 5,2,1). Prostitute from Capua; by a decision of the Senate she had her property and freedom returned to her after 210 BC, for having secretly supplied food to Roman prisoners in the Second Punic War (Liv. 26,33,8; 34,1). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Cossutia

(43 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Daughter of a wealthy equestrian with whom Caesar became engaged probably for financial reasons [1. 16], but whom he divorced because of his office as priest [2. 14] (Suet. Iul. 1,1). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 G. Walter, Caesar, 1955 2 W. Will, Caesar, 1992.

Scribonia

(264 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Wife of Octavian, 1st cent. BC Born c. 66 BC, daughter of L. Scribonius Libo, sister of L. Scribonius [I 7] Libo, cos. in 34. Her third marriage was to Octavianus (Augustus; Tac. Ann. 2,27) in 40 BC, before that she was married to Cn. Cornelius [I 52] Lentulus Marcellinus, cos. 56, and P. Cornelius Scipio, the father of her son P. Cornelius Scipio (Suet. Aug. 62, but cf. the genealogy in [2], according to which S.'s second marriage was to P. Cornelius Scipio, cos. suff. in 35, son of Lentulus). At the end of 39 Octavianus divorced S. - one day after she gave …

Urgulania

(91 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Wife of M. Plautius (AE 1972,162), mother of M. Plautius [II 12] Silvanus, grandmother of Plautia [1] Urgulanilla, the wife of Claudius [III 1]. She abused her friendship with Livia [2], who ended up paying a fine (Tac. Ann. 2,34,4) after U. had refused to appear in court. Later she sent a dagger to her convicted grandson M. Plautius [II 13] (Tac. Ann. 4,21,1). Subject of  the novel  ‘Le Mystère du jardin romain by J.-P. Néraudau. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography C. M. Perkounig, Livia Drusilla - Iulia Augusta, 1995, 176 f.  PIR V 684.

Kaiser (Caesar, Emperor)

(361 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Old High German cheisar, keisar; Middle High German keiser; even in Gothic kaisar; Old Slavonic cjesari/ kesari; Russian/Slovenian cesar/ car, ‘czar’). The Gothic kaisar probably derives from the Bible translation (Lk 2,1) by Ulfila. In the Annolied (Song of Anno) (v. 271ff.) from the end of the 11th cent. AD keisere is derived from Caesar. The name ‘Caesar’ was initially a cognomen of the Iulii, but after Octavianus ( Augustus) was adopted by Julius Caesar it became Augustus' family name (cf. [3]). Starting with Claudius [III …

Apotheosis

(1,362 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] Although apotheosis as such contradicts the principle of monotheism and therefore cannot occur in Christianity, Christian society from the time of Constantine found ways to maintain the elevation of the ruler above the mortal plane and into the sphere of divinity. In addition, individual forms of apotheosis can be observed again and again, intended either to correspond precisely to this need or to exemplify Christ’s ascension. A type of the latter, which shows Christ being wafted…

Vir egregius

(210 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (literally approximately 'outstanding man'). First encountered under Marcus [2] Aurelius as a general term for the members of the ordo equester [1.28] ( Equites Romani ), from 180/183 recorded as an official non-inheritable title of office (CIL VIII 10570, col. IV, l. 10). In the 3rd cent. AD its significance declined; in his decree of 317, Licinius [II 4] recognizes four grades of equestrian rank: perfectissimus vir, ducenarius vir, centenarius vir, and egregius vir as the lowest (Cod. Theod. 12,1,5, l. 5). The inferiority of the title was due to the…

Pomponia

(291 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Mother of P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio Africanus Mother of P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio Africanus, whom she (according to Liv. 26,19,6; Gell. 6,1,1-4) is supposed (in imitation of the history of the birth of Alexander [4] the Great) to have conceived with a snake (= Jupiter). He is also supposed to have given her an account of a dream of his, that he and his elder brother Lucius would take office as aediles, and she was very moved by this (Pol. 10,4,4-5,7); the story is incredible and fallacious (cf. [1. 200 f.]). Perhaps with its help Scipio married …

Postumia

(74 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Last member of the Postumii Albini gens. Born in c. 94, wife of the lawyer Servius Sulpicius Rufus ( cos. in 51). Her children were a son of the same name and a daughter Sulpicia. Cicero mentions P. and her son (Cic. Att. 5,21,9; cf. Shackleton Bailey ad. loc.; Cic. Fam. 4,2,1; 4,2,4; Cic. Phil. 9,5.). Suetonius (Suet. Iul. 50,1) mentions P. among the high-ranking women Caesar seduced. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

British Usurpation

(197 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Usurpation within the Roman Empire, in Britain (AD 286-296) and in the coastal region of north-west Gaul (AD 286-293). The praefectus classis Britannicae  Carausius, under threat of execution for alleged misappropriation of booty, had himself acclaimed emperor, went to Britain with his fleet, and there and on the channel coast of Gaul ( Gesoriacum) set up the British Usurpation (BU). Rulership and administration followed the Roman model; consolidation of his rule and stimulation of th…

Lutatia

(56 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Daughter of Q. Lutatius [3] Catulus ( cos. in 102 BC) and Servilia, sister of Q. Lutatius [4] Catulus ( cos. in 78), she was the first wife of the orator Q. Hortensius [7] Hortalus to whom she remained married until her death in about 55 BC (Cic. De Or. 3,228f.). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Dies imperii

(223 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] The day of assuming power, usually also the official recognition of the ruler by the Senate or the army ( Soldier emperors). The exception is  Vespasian: his dies imperii was 1 July 69 AD but the recognition by the Senate came on 21 December 69. The dies imperii is attested, for example, for Caligula in the Acta Arvalium ( quod Imperator appellatus est, Acta Arvalium, CIL VI 32347, 9c 10, see [1]). As in the Hellenistic model, the annually repeated public celebration was the most important after the dies natalis ( Birthday B.) of the   princeps [2. 1137-1145]. The dies imperi…

Fundania

(50 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Daughter of Marcius Fundanius, presumably the second wife of M. Terentius Varro, who dedicated De re rustica, bk. 1 to her in 36 BC (Rust. 1,1,1; 2, praef. 6 with comm. in [1. ad loc.]. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 D. Flach, Gespräche über die Landwirtschaft, 1996 and 1997.

Imperium Galliarum

(223 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] The IG (SHA Tyr. Trig. 5,5: imperium Galliarum; Zon. 12,26) was founded in AD 260 by Postumus [3] and included Gaul, Britain, northern Spain and probably parts of Raetia (AE 1993, 1231). Postumus succeeded in binding the regional leadership class and the population to himself and establishing rule after Roman model, with capitals in Cologne (Colonia Agrippinensis) and Trier (Augusta [6] Treverorum). When Postumus was slain by his own soldiers in 269 after victories over Gallienus, Aureol…

Iunia

(552 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Daughter of D. Iunius [I 30] Silanus and Servilia Daughter of D. Iunius [I 30] Silanus and Servilia, the niece of Cato, wife of M. Aemilius [I 12] Lepidus (Cic. Phil. 13,8; Vell. Pat. 2,88,1). In 30 BC she was accused of knowing of her eldest son's attack on Octavian, but was acquitted (App. B Civ. 4,50). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] I. Tertia Sister of I. [1], half-sister of M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus (Suet. Iul. 50,2; Cic. Brut. 3,3; also known as I. Tertulla: Cic. Att. 14,202; 15,11,1), sister of I. [1], half-sister of M. Iunius [I 1…

Hermenericus

(79 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] see Ermanaric see  Ermanaric Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] Son of Flavius Ardabur [2] Aspar, consul 465 AD Youngest son of Flavius Ardabur [2] Aspar (Candidus FHG 4, 135), cos. AD 465 (Chron. min. 3,535 Mommsen). When his father was murdered, he was able to save himself, possibly with the help of Zeno, whose daughter he married, by fleeing to Constantinople. He later returned (Theophanes a. 5964). PLRE 2,549 (Herminericus). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Papiria

(41 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Daughter of C. Papirius [I 17] Maso, consul 231 BC, first wife of L. Aemilius [I 32] Paullus. Their sons were Q. Fabius [I 23] Maximus (Aemilianus) and P. Cornelius [I 70] Scipio Aemilianus (Plut. Aemilius Paulus 5,1-4). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Magia Polla

(46 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (also Maia). Mother of the poet Vergilius, of lowly birth. Her dream of the birth of Virgil in Suetonius (Suet. De viris illustribus, Vergilius 1-3). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography G. Brugnoli, Phocas, Vita di Vergilio, 1984 Id. (ed.), Vitae Vergilianae antiquae, 1997.

Dellius

(211 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(handwritten also Deillius, Deillios). [German version] Q.D. (Name in Cass. Dio 49,39,2), referred to by Messalla Corvinus as desultor bellorum civium, as in 43 BC he defected from P. Cornelius [I 29] Dolabella to C. Cassius [I 10], the next year to Mark Antony and finally, shortly before the battle of Actium, to the camp of Octavian, with important information about Antony's troops (Sen. Suas. 1,7). Octavian held him in high regard (Sen. Clem. 1,10,1; Horace dedicated Carm. 2,3 to him). Between 41 and 31 he undert…

Lucilia

(98 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Niece of the poet C. Lucilius [I 6], mother of Cn. Pompey Magnus Daughter of Manlius Lucilius, niece of the poet C. Lucilius [I 6], wife of Cn. Pompey Strabo ( cos. in 89 BC), from a senatorial family. She was the mother of Cn. Pompeius Magnus and of a daughter (Vell. Pat. 2,29,2). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] Probably the sister of L. [1] Probably the sister of L. [1], mother of M. Attius [I 1] Balbus. His daughter Atia [1] was the mother of Augustus (Suet. Aug. 4,1). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Paulina

(67 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Of noble origin, adherent of Isis, wife of Sentius Saturninus, and desired by Decius [II 3] Mundus. The latter finally seduced her in AD 19, purportedly as the god Anubis and with the help of the priests of Isis. Her husband reported the deception to the emperor Tiberius, who had those involved severely punished (Ios. Ant. Iud. 18,66-77). PIR2 P 168. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Caesar

(180 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Καῖσαρ/ Kaîsar). At first a   cognomen of the gens Iulia; after the adoption of Octavian ( Augustus) by  Caesar it became established, in the style of a gentilicium as a component -- from Claudius [III 1] (from the gens Claudia) onwards not inherited -- of the names of all Roman rulers, with the exception of Vitellius [II 2] ( recusatio, ‘repudiation’, of the C. name: Tac. Hist. 1,62,2; 2,62,2; 3,58,3; Suet. Vit. 8). The individual designated C., usually a son or adoptive son, was thereby named successor [1. 24]. Under the tetrarchy (  Tetrárchēs IV)…

Minucia

(34 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Vestal priestess (Vestals), who was convicted for incest after being denounced by a slave. She was buried alive at the Porta Colline in 337 BC (Liv. 8,15,7). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Hernac

(71 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἠρνᾶς; Ērnâs, Ἠρνάχ; Ērnách). Youngest son of Attila (Priscus fr. 8 = FHG 4, 93), after the defeat of the Huns in AD 455 settled with his retinue in the north of the province of Scythia (Iord. Get. 266). Because of a peace treaty, in 466/7 he and  Dengizich sent envoys to Leon I (Priscus fr. 36 = FHG 4, 107). PLRE 2, 400f. (Ernach). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Lucilla

(172 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Annia Aurelia Galeria L., born on 7 March AD 148/9 (IGR 1, 1509), daughter of Marcus [2] Aurelius and Faustina [3] (SHA Aur. 7,7; 20,6f.; SHA Lucius Verus 2,4; 10,1), sister of Commodus. In 161 engaged to be married to L. Verus, marriage (SHA Lucius Verus 7,7) and elevation to the rank of Augusta in 164 (SHA Aur. 20,7); in 166 birth of a daughter. In 169, L. was married against her will to Ti. Claudius [II 54] (Cass. Dio 72,4,4) and in 170 or later she gave birth to a son Clau…

Conventus

(413 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Pl. -us; literally ‘get-together’; Greek διοίκησις/ dioíkēsis, αγορά/ agorá, σύνοδος/ sýnodos). In the Roman provinces conventus civium Romanorum describes both court districts with their respective main seats as well as the court assemblies that were held there on fixed days with the governor presiding ([1. 470; 12. 22227]; regarding conventus in general cf. Str. 13,628; regarding the conventus order in the Augustan period, Plin. HN 5,105-126; on the procedure of a conventus in Apameia [2] Dion. Chrys. 35,15; IGR 4,1287, cf. [2. 101]; on archivin…

Gainas

(235 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Tervingian Goth of low birth, Arian. Recruited by Theodosius I in AD 378, he led eastern troops to support Arcadius in Constantinople as comes rei militaris (for his military career, see Socr. 6,6,2; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 8,4,1), at the order of  Stilicho, after Theodosius' victory over Eugenios in 394. As Stilicho's confidant, he was involved in the death of  Rufinus in 399 ([1. 107,99], Zos. 5,7,4; Philostorgius 11,3, Iohannes Antiochenus 190 FHG 4,610). In 399, he was elevated to magister utriusque militiae, and was sent by  Eutropius to Phrygia against the r…

Terentia

(500 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Wife of Cicero Of a prominent family, she married M. Tullius Cicero between 80 and 77 BC. The union produced M. Tullius [I 10] Cicero and Tullia [2]. T. intervened in political life, e.g. in the trial of the supporters of Catilina in 63 BC (Cass. Dio 37,35,4; Plut. Cicero 20,2) and in the proceedings against Clodius [I 4] in 61 (Plut. Cicero 29,2), which brought her difficulties during her husband's exile (Cic. Fam. 14,2,2; Cic. Cael. 50). She lobbied for his return and acted independently as a wife sui iuris. Nor was her personal fortune confiscated as her husban…

Censorius Niger, C.

(101 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Perhaps from Solva in Noricum [1. 80]; after AD 132 procurator in Mauretania Tingitana [2. 49 n. 79, 80]; after 135 procurator in Noricum (CIL III 5174; 5181). He was a close friend of  Fronto (Fronto, Ad Ant. Pium 3, p. 157 van den Hout), and at first of the praef. praetorio Gavius Maximus, whom he then insulted in his will (Fronto, Ad Ant. Pium 4, p. 159). PIR2 C 658. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 G. Alföldy, Noricum, 1974 (sources for C. 244) 2 G. Winkler, Reichsbeamte von Noricum ..., 1969, no. 10. Pflaum 1, 226-229, no. 97 b, 201 Text 13.

Gauda

(70 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Son of the Numidian king Mastanabal, grandson of Massinissa, brother of  Jugurtha, claimed rule despite his mental and physical debility during the war between Rome and Jugurtha. After the war in 105 BC he succeeded his uncle Micipsa with the support of Marius and obtained eastern Numidia (Sall. Iug. 65,1-4). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography CAH 9 21994, 30 V. Werner, Quantum bello optimus, tantum pace pessimus, 1995, 35.

Pater patriae

(527 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (‘Father of the Fatherland’). The title PP was officially conferred to Roman emperors from Augustus to Theodosius. The corresponding female title mater patriae is documented for Livia [2] (cf. [1. 98]) and Iulia [12] Domna [2. 67-70; 3]. The titles parens and pater were originally bestowed to equate the role of a benefactor with that of a father. Both M. Furius [I 13] Camillus (Liv. 5,49,7: parens patriae) and Fabius [I 30] Cunctator were referred to as parentes, because they  had liberated the patria from its enemies.  The title parens (or respectively pater) ob civ…

Perioche

(57 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (περιοχή/ periochḗ, 'summary of contents'). Periochaí are - in contrast to the often editorially reworked and thematically arranged epitomḗ - summaries of the contents of historical prose works, for the purposes of rapid orientation. On the perioch to Livy's [Livius III 2] History, cf. [1. 190-193]. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. L. Schmidt, in: HLL 5, 1989.

Hermericus

(62 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] AD 419-438 king of the Suebi, who in 419 fought unsuccessfully against the Vandals in Spain (Hydatius Lemiensis 71). After pillaging Gallaecia in 430 and 433 (ibid. 91; 100), he made peace. In 438, already suffering from illness, he handed his throne to his son Rechila; he died in 441 (ibid. 114; 122). PLRE 2,546f. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Tanusia

(47 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Daughter of the equestrian L. Tanusius, well acquainted with Octavia [2], the sister of Augustus. She and the freed slave Philopoemen rescued her proscribed husband T. Vinius in 43 BC (Suet. Aug. 27,2; Cass. Dio 47,7,4 f.; App. B Civ. 4,44). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Lucilia

(87 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Nichte des Dichters Lucilius [I 6] Mutter des Cn. Pompeius Magnus Tochter des Manlius Lucilius, Nichte des Dichters C. Lucilius [I 6], Frau des Cn. Pompeius Strabo ( cos. 89 v.Chr.), aus senatorischer Familie. Sie war die Mutter des Cn. Pompeius Magnus und einer Tochter (Vell. 2,29,2). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [English version] [2] Wahrscheinlich Schwester von L. [1] Wahrscheinlich Schwester von L. [1], Mutter des M. Attius [I 1] Balbus. Seine Tochter Atia [1] war die Mutter des Augustus (Suet. Aug. 4,1). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Iunia

(519 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Tochter des D. Iunius [I 30] Silanus und der Servilia Tochter des D. Iunius [I 30] Silanus und der Servilia, der Nichte Catos, Frau des M. Aemilius [I 12] Lepidus (Cic. Phil. 13,8; Vell. 2,88,1). 30 v.Chr. wurde sie angeklagt, vom Anschlag ihres ältesten Sohnes auf Octavian gewußt zu haben, aber freigesprochen (App. civ. 4,50). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [English version] [2] I. Tertia Schwester der I. [1] Halbschwester des M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus (Suet. Iul. 50,2; Cic. Brut. 3,3; auch I. Tertulla genannt: Cic. Att. 14,202; 15,11,1), Schwester der I…

Cetrius

(49 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] C. Severus C., Tribun der Prätorianer, der sich im Jahr 69 n.Chr. zusammen mit Subrius Dexter und Pompeius Longinus gegen den beginnenden Aufstieg des Otho für Galba einsetzte (Tac. hist. 1,31). Er ist wahrscheinlich der beneficiarius aus ILS 2073. PIR C 703. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Gelimer

(214 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] Enkel des Geisericus, letzter Vandalenkönig (530-4 n.Chr.), übernahm 530 nach dem Sturz des Hildericus die Herrschaft (Prok. BV 1,9,8-9; Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,3). Seine scharfe Zurückweisung jeden Eingriffs des Iustinianus in innere Angelegenheiten führte zum Krieg (Prok. BV 1,9,10-24). Da G. seine Truppen gegen den aufständischen Godas nach Sardinien gesandt hatte, konnte er sich weder gegen den in Tripolitania revoltierenden Pudentius noch gegen den 533 in Sizilien gelandeten Bel…

Hermericus

(54 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] 419-438 n.Chr. König der Suebi, kämpfte 419 erfolglos gegen die Vandalen in Spanien (Hydatius Lemiensis 71). Nach Plünderungen der Gallaecia 430 und 433 (ebd. 91; 100) schloß er Frieden, trat erkrankt 438 die Herrschaft an seinen Sohn Rechila ab und starb 441 (ebd. 114; 122). PLRE 2,546f. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Censorius Niger, C.

(100 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] vielleicht aus Solva in Noricum [1. 80], nach 132 n.Chr. Prokurator in Mauretania Tingitana [2. 49 Anm. 79, 80], nach 135 Prokurator in Noricum (CIL III 5174; 5181). Er war eng mit Fronto befreundet (Fronto, Ad Ant. Pium 3, p. 157 van den Hout), zunächst auch mit dem praef. praetorio Gavius Maximus, den er dann in seinem Testament beleidigte (Fronto, Ad Ant. Pium 4, p. 159). PIR2 C 658. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 G. Alföldy, Noricum, 1974 (Quellen zu C. 244) 2 G. Winkler, Reichsbeamte von Noricum ..., 1969, Nr.10. Pflaum 1, 226-229, Nr. 97 bis, 201 T…

Diogeiton

(70 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] (Διογείτων). Im Jahr 401/0 v.Chr. stand D. wegen des Mißbrauchs des Sorgerechts für die Kinder seines Bruders Diodotos und der Veruntreuung seines Vermögens vor Gericht. Ankläger war eines der Kinder des 409/8 verstorbenen Diodotos, zugleich Enkel des D., da Diodotos die Tochter des D. geheiratet hatte (Lys. or. 32, contra D.). Traill, PAA 325580. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography J.M. Moore, D.'s Dioikesis, in: GRBS 23, 1982, 351-355.

Papiria

(45 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] Tochter des C. Papirius [I 17] Maso, Consul 231 v.Chr., erste Frau des L. Aemilius [I 32] Paullus. Aus der Ehe gingen die Söhne Q. Fabius [I 23] Maximus (Aemilianus) und P. Cornelius [I 70] Scipio Aemilianus hervor (Plut. Aemilius Paulus 5,1-4). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Dorimachos

(186 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] (Δωρίμαχος). Aitoler aus Trichonion, Sohn des Nikostratos, siegte als strategós des aitolischen Bundes 221/20 v.Chr. mit Skopas gegen Messenien (Pol. 4,10-13). 220/19 plünderte er Epirus und steckte den Zeustempel in Dodona in Brand (Diod. 26,4,7; Pol. 4,67). Er wandte sich gegen Thessalien, um Philipp V. von der Belagerung von Pale abzuziehen (Pol. 5,5,1), erfuhr dann von dessen Einfall in Aitolien, das er erst erreichte, als die Makedonen bereits siegreich abgezogen waren (Pol. 5,17,5-8). 211 versuchte D., der ein Jahr zuvor als princeps Aetolorum (Liv. 26,2…

Minucia

(26 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] Vestalin, 337 v.Chr. von einem Sklaven angezeigt, wegen Inzest verurteilt und bei der Porta Collina lebendig begraben (Liv. 8,15,7). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Cluvia Pacula

(43 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] (Facula bei Val. Max. 5,2,1). Prostituierte aus Capua; sie erhielt auf Senatsbeschluß nach 210 v.Chr. Eigentum und Freiheit zurück, da sie im 2. Punischen Krieg heimlich röm. Gefangene mit Lebensmitteln versorgt hatte (Liv. 26,33,8; 34,1). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Dellius

(201 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(handschriftlich auch Deillius, Deillios). [English version] Q.D. (Name bei Cass. Dio 49,39,2), von Messalla Corvinus als desultor bellorum civium bezeichnet, da er 43 v.Chr. von P. Cornelius [I 29] Dolabella zu C. Cassius [I 10], im Jahr darauf zu M. Antonius und schließlich kurz vor der Schlacht von Actium mit wichtigen Informationen über die Truppen des Antonius in das Lager Octavians wechselte (Sen. suas. 1,7), bei dem er in hohem Ansehen stand (Sen. clem. 1,10,1; Horaz widmete ihm carm. 2,3). Für Antonius un…

Fundania

(50 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] Tochter des Marcius Fundanius, vermutlich zweite Ehefrau des M. Terentius Varro, der ihr im J. 36 v.Chr. de re rustica, B. 1 widmete (rust. 1,1,1; 2, praef. 6 mit Komm. bei [1. ad loc.]. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 D. Flach, Gespräche über die Landwirtschaft, 1996 und 1997.

Bardylis

(98 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Illyr. König in der ersten H. des 4.Jh. v.Chr. Illyr. König in der ersten H. des 4.Jh. v.Chr., Dynastiegründer (Theop. fr. 35; Cic. off. 2,40). Er hatte großen Anteil am Sieg über Perdikkas III. 359 v.Chr.; fiel im Jahr darauf gegen Philipp II. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography P. Cabanes, Les Illyriens de B. à Genthios, 1988  N.G.L. Hammond, The Battle between Philip and B., in: Antichthon 23, 1989, 1-9. [English version] [2] Vielleicht Enkel von B. [1] Vielleicht Enkel von B. [1], Vater der Birkenna, der Frau des Pyrrhos von Epirus. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Helenus

(45 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] Freigelassener Octavians griech. Herkunft. Er besetzte 40 v.Chr. Sardinien für Octavian, wurde aber dort von Menodoros verdrängt (App. civ. 5,277), gefangen und an Octavian zurückgeschickt (Cass. Dio 48,30,1; 48,45,5). Zu seinen Ehren ILS 6267 (= CIL X 5808). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Gainas

(212 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] Terwingischer Gote niederer Abkunft; Arianer. Von Theodosius I. 378 n.Chr. rekrutiert, führte er nach dessen Sieg über Eugenios 394 als comes rei militaris (zur mil. Karriere Sokr. 6,6,2; Soz. 8,4,1) im Auftrag des Stilicho östliche Truppen aus Thessalien dem Arcadius nach Konstantinopel zu. Am Tod des Rufinus 399 war er als Vertrauter Stilichos beteiligt ([1. 107,99], Zos. 5,7,4; Philostorgios 11,3, Iohannes Antiochenus 190 FHG 4,610). 399 zum magister utriusque militiae erhoben, schickte ihn Eutropius nach Phrygien gegen meuternde Greuthungen u…

Gauda

(71 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] Sohn des Numiderkönigs Mastanabal, Enkel des Massinissa, Bruder des Iugurtha, erhob trotz geistiger und körperlicher Debilität während des Krieges zwischen Rom und Iugurtha Anspruch auf die Herrschaft. Nach Beendigung des Krieges 105 v.Chr. wurde er mit der Unterstützung des Marius Nachfolger seines Onkels Micipsa und erhielt Ost-Numidien (Sall. Iug. 65,1-4). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography CAH 9 21994, 30 V. Werner, Quantum bello optimus, tantum pace pessimus, 1995, 35.

Postumia

(68 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] Letzte Angehörige des Geschlechts der Postumii Albini. Um 94 geb., Frau des Juristen Ser. Sulpicius Rufus ( cos. 51). Kinder waren ein gleichnamiger Sohn und eine Tochter Sulpicia. Cicero erwähnt P. und ihren Sohn (Cic. Att. 5,21,9; vgl. Shackleton Bailey z.St.; Cic. fam. 4,2,1; 4,2,4; Cic. Phil. 9,5.). Suetonius (Suet. Iul. 50,1) nennt P. unter den hochgestellten Frauen, die Caesar verführt habe. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Cossutia

(41 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] Tochter eines reichen Ritters, mit der sich Caesar wohl aus finanziellen Gründen verlobte [1. 16], aufgrund seines Priesteramtes aber wieder scheiden ließ [2. 14] (Suet. Iul. 1,1). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 G. Walter, Caesar, 1955 2 W. Will, Caesar, 1992.

Hernac

(60 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] (Ἠρνᾶς, Ἠρνάχ). Jüngster Sohn Attilas (Priscus fr. 8 = FHG 4, 93), siedelte nach der Niederlage der Hunnen 455 n.Chr. mit seiner Gefolgschaft im Norden der Prov. Scythia (Iord. Get. 266). Wegen eines Friedensvertrages schickten er und Dengizich 466/7 Gesandte zu Leon I. (Priscus fr. 36 = FHG 4, 107). PLRE 2, 400f. (Ernach). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Laelia

(108 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Ältere Tochter des C. Laelius [I 2], Gattin des Q. Mucius Saevola Ältere Tochter des C. Laelius [I 2], geb. 160 v.Chr., Ehefrau des Q. Mucius Scaevola. Eine ihrer beiden Töchter heiratete den Redner L. Licinius [I 10] Crassus, den Lehrer Ciceros, der bemerkte, daß L. den Sprachstil ihres Vaters übernommen habe (Cic. Brut. 211). Im Haus der L. erhielt Cicero vielleicht Anstöße zur Schrift über ihren Vater ( Laelius sive de amicitia). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [English version] [2] Jüngere Schwester von L. [1], Frau des Annalisten C. Fannius [I 1] Jüngere Schweste…

Decebalus

(258 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] (Δεκέβαλος). D. war der letzte König der Daker von ca. 87-106 n.Chr. Sein Reich umfaßte neben dem heutigen West- und Zentralsiebenbürgen das Banat und die walachischen Ebenen. Nach Cass. Dio (67,6,1-2) ein ebenbürtiger Gegner Roms mit herausragendem mil. Geschick, einigte er die dakischen Stämme und gewann zudem sarmatische und german. Gruppen gegen Rom. Nachdem er Teile des Iazygengebietes erobert hatte und 85/86 in Moesien eingefallen war, kam es zum Krieg mit Domitian, der jed…

Paulina

(57 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] Vornehmer Herkunft, Isis-Anhängerin, Frau des Sentius Saturninus, wurde von Decius [II 3] Mundus begehrt, der sie 19 n.Chr. nur mit Hilfe der Isis-Priester als vermeintlicher Gott Anubis verführen konnte. Ihr Mann zeigte den Betrug bei Kaiser Tiberius an, der die Beteiligten hart bestrafen ließ (Ios. ant. Iud. 18,66-77). PIR2 P 168. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Lutatia

(53 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] Tochter des Q. Lutatius [3] Catulus ( cos. 102 v.Chr.) und der Servilia, Schwester des Q. Lutatius [4] Catulus ( cos. 78), war die erste Frau des Redners Q. Hortensius [7] Hortalus, mit dem sie bis zu ihrem Tode ca. 55 v.Chr. verheiratet war (Cic. de orat. 3,228f.). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Licinia

(499 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Von vornehmer Herkunft, Gattin des M. Porcius Cato [1] Frau vornehmer Herkunft; durch die Ehe mit ihr 192 oder 191 v.Chr. stieg M. Porcius Cato [1] in die Aristokratie auf [1. 54] (Plut. Cato 20,1). Ihr Sohn war M. Porcius Cato Licinianus. Sie starb wahrscheinlich 155. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. Astin, Cato the Censor, 1978, 67; 105; 263. [English version] [2] 153 v. Chr. des Giftmordes an ihrem Ehemann angeklagt 153 v.Chr. ([1. 12]: 154 v.Chr.) zusammen mit einer Publicia des Giftmordes an ihren Ehemännern angeklagt, nach E…

Eunus

(177 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] (Εὔνους). Syrer, Anführer der Sklavenrevolten 141-132 v.Chr. auf Sizilien. Er sammelte 400 Sklaven und eroberte Enna, andere Städte schlossen sich an. Durch die gute Vorbedeutung seines Namens (“wohlgesinnt”) und seine Fähigkeit zur Weissagung begünstigt [2. 28-29], wurde er nach dem Erfolg in hell. Manier zum König gewählt, nannte sich Antiochos (Diod. 34,2,24; [3]) und nahm die traditionellen Herrschaftsinsignien an, was aber vielmehr auf den Wunsch nach Einheit als auf eine na…

Pater patriae

(464 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] (“Vater des Vaterlandes”). Der Titel p.p. wurde den röm. Kaisern von Augustus bis Theodosius offiziell beigelegt; der entsprechende Titel mater patriae ist für Livia [2] (vgl. [1. 98]) und Iulia [12] Domna [2. 67-70; 3] belegt. Die Benennungen parens und pater dienten urspr. dem Vergleich eines Wohltäters mit dem eigenen Vater; schon M. Furius [I 13] Camillus (Liv. 5,49,7: parens patriae) und Fabius [I 30] Cunctator wurden als parentes bezeichnet, weil sie die patria von Feinden befreiten. Auch Marius [I 1] (Cic. Rab. perd. 10,27), Sulla (Plut. Su…

Hermenericus

(76 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] [1] s. Ermanarich s. Ermanarich Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [English version] [2] Sohn des Flavius Ardabur [2] Aspar, Consul 465 n. Chr. Jüngster Sohn des Flavius Ardabur [2] Aspar (Candidus FHG 4, 135), cos. 465 n.Chr. (Chron. min. 3,535 Mommsen). Bei der Ermordung des Vaters rettete er sich, vielleicht mit Hilfe Zenons, dessen Tochter H. heiratete, durch Flucht aus Konstantinopel, kehrte aber später zurück (Theophanes a. 5964). PLRE 2,549 (Herminericus). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Lucilla

(153 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] Annia Aurelia Galeria L., geb. am 7.3.148/9 n.Chr. (IGR 1, 1509), Tochter des Marcus [2] Aurelius und der Faustina [3] (SHA Aur. 7,7; 20,6f.; SHA Lucius Verus 2,4; 10,1), Schwester des Commodus. 161 mit L. Verus verlobt, Heirat (SHA Lucius Verus 7,7) und Erhebung zur Augusta im J. 164 (SHA Aur. 20,7); 166 Geburt einer Tochter. 169 wurde L. gegen ihren Willen mit Ti. Claudius [II 54] verheiratet (Cass. Dio 72,4,4) und gebar 170 oder später einen Sohn Claudius Pompeianus (SHA Carac…

Lais

(344 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Λαίς). Die “gemeinhin Bekannte” von λαός (“Volk”) [1] oder aus dem Semit., “Löwin”. Beliebter Hetärenname, was die Identifizierung erschwert. [English version] [1] Hetäre aus Korinth Hetäre (Hetairai) aus Korinth. L. wird als schön (Athen. 13,587d), schlagfertig (im Gespräch mit Euripides bei Athen. 13,582cd, der sie Eur. Med. 1346 zitiert), wählerisch und teuer beschrieben; L. sei im Alter zur mittellosen Trinkerin geworden (Athen. 13,570cd). L. starb 392 v.Chr. (schol. Aristoph. Plut. 179, [1. Bd. 1, 491]), auch durch ihren Lebenswandel (so Athen. 13, 587e; Philetairos, Kyn…

Bato

(312 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Dardanischer Fürst um 200 v. Chr. Dardanischer Fürst, der 200 v.Chr. die Römer im Kampf gegen Philipp V. mit Hilfstruppen unterstützte (Liv. 31,28,1-2.). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography CAH VIII, 21989, 262  Errington 187. [English version] [2] Aufständischer Dalmatier 6-9 n. Chr. Dalmatier aus dem Stamm der Daesidiaten. Anführer im pannonisch-dalmatischen Aufstand 6-9 n.Chr., dessen Ursachen Cassius Dio (55,29-34; 56,11-26) und Velleius Paterculus (2,110-116) in Steuerlast und Rekrutierungsmaßnahmen sehen. B…

Pomponia

(265 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Mutter des P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio Africanus Mutter des P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio Africanus, den sie (nach Liv. 26,19,6; Gell. 6,1,1-4) von einer Schlange (= Iuppiter) empfangen haben soll (in Anlehnung an die Geburtsgesch. von Alexandros [4] d.Gr.). Ihr soll er auch von seinem Traum, er werde zusammen mit dem älteren Bruder Lucius das Aedilenamt übernehmen, berichtet haben, was sie sehr bewegte (Pol. 10,4,4-5,7); die Gesch. ist unglaubwürdig und irrig (vgl. [1. 200 f.]). Vielleicht durch ihre Verm…

Magia Polla

(44 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] (auch Maia). Mutter des Dichters Vergilius, von niederer Abkunft. Ihr Traum von der Geburt Vergils bei Sueton (Suet. de viris illustribus, Vergilius 1-3). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography G. Brugnoli, Phocas, Vita di Vergilio, 1984  Ders. (Hrsg.), Vitae Vergilianae antiquae, 1997.

Timandra

(159 words)

Author(s): Goldhahn, Tobias | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Τιμάνδρα/ Timándra). [German version] [1] Daughter of Tyndareus and Leda Daughter of Tyndareos and Leda, sister of Clytaemnestra and Helene [1], wife of Echemus [1] of Tegea (Apollod. 3,126; 3,129; Paus. 8,5,1), and with him mother of Evander [1] (Serv. Aen. 8,130). Owing to a curse by Aphrodite on the daughters of Tyndareos (according to Stesich. in Schol. Eur. Or. 249, because Aphrodite had been passed over in a sacrifice by Tyndareos), T. leaves Echemus and goes to Dulichium with Phyleus, father of her son Meges (Eust. 305,17). Goldhahn, Tobias [German version] [2] Mistress of Alci…

Gannys

(141 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Γάννυς; Gánnys). G. was raised in the house of  Iulia Maesa and had a relationship with her daughter  Iulia Soaemias, who made him the tutor of her son  Elagabalus [2] (Cass. Dio 79,6,1f. Boissevain). G. and  Valerius Comazon had the troops elevate Elagabalus to emperor in Emesa in May AD 218 (Cass. Dio 78,31,2-4). Despite a lack of military experience, G. defeated  Macrinus in June, but was eliminated in the winter of 218-219 by Elagabalus, who had toyed with the idea of marrying…

Gannascus

(97 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] A Canninefate, who deserted from Roman service and together with the Chauci laid waste to Lower Germania and the Gallic bank of the Rhine after the death of  Sanquinius Maximus, the governor of Lower Germania, in AD 47. The new governor  Domitius [II 11] Corbulo drove G. away and restored order. When he had G. murdered by a ruse, unrest again broke out among the Chauci, causing Claudius to pull the advance troops back to the west bank of the Rhine (Tac. Ann. 11,18f.). PIR2 G 73. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Dengizich

(96 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Dintzic, Greek Δεγγιζίχ, Δινζίριχος; Dengizích, Dinzírichos). Son of Attila, king of the Huns; after the latter's death D. assembled an army from the elements of the Hun empire that were still under his control, to fight the Goths. He was, however, defeated at Bassianae (Pannonia) by the Goths (probably after AD 456/57, Iord. Get. 272f.). He later conducted several wars against the Romans but was killed in 469 by the mag. mil. per Thracias Anagestes (Prisc. fr. 36 [FHG 4,107f.]; Chron. pasch. 323d Dindorf). PLRE 354f. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Boch…

Eparchia

(184 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (ἐπαρχία; eparchía). Territorial administrative unit in Hellenistic states. In the Seleucid kingdom, Antiochus [5] III especially supported the setting up of smaller provinces in order to prevent power concentrations in the areas of individual satraps, as for example  Molon (222 BC). Polybius describes their head, who evidently had military and civil power, as éparchos or stratēgós (Pol. 5,46,7; 48,14); however his terminology is misleading since from the middle of the 2nd cent. BC on, eparchia started taking on the meaning of Lat . provincia (cf. SIG3 683,55 and …

Fravitta

(133 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Fravitus). Tervingian army commander in the service of Rome, married to a Roman woman. In support of maintaining the Roman alliance with the Goths of AD 382, he killed Eriulf in 391 at the court of Theodosius I (Zos. 4,56,1-3; Eunapius fr. 60 FHG 4,41). In about 400 as the magister militum on behalf of Arcadius he prevented Gaenas from crossing the Hellespont (Zos. 5,20-21; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 8,4,19-21) and was rewarded for it in 401 with the consulate (Eunapius fr. 82 FHG 4,50). Around 403/4, however, he was accused of allowing …

Dasius

(188 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
Messapic name in Lat. form (Schulze, 39, 44; ThlL Onom. s.v. D.). Respected bearers of that name in Apulia (in particular from Arpi and Sala) were still anti-Roman during the Second Punic War. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [1] Commander of Clastidium against Hannibal D. from Brundisium, in 218 BC commander of the allied occupation forces of  Clastidium with large Roman stores which he betrayed to Hannibal after the victory at the Ticinus for 400 pieces of gold (Pol. 3,69; Liv. 21,48). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Leader of the pro-Carthaginian p…

Epigraphy

(47 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Epigraphy, from Greek ἐπιγράφειν ( epigráphein, ‘to write on something’). The term refers to ancient texts that were documented on various, mostly permanent materials (stone, bronze, etc.), as well as to the respective sub-discipline of archaeology.  Inscriptions; Epigraphy Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Porcia

(209 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Sister of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato Sister of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato, married to L. Domitius [I 8] Ahenobarbus. She outlived her husband, who was killed in 48 BC, and died a highly respected woman before August 45; on the model of M. (Terentius?) Varro and a certain Ollius, Cicero dedicated an elogy to her (Att. 13,37,3; 48,2). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [2] Daughter of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato, c. 95-42 BC Daughter of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato, c. 95-42 BC; first married to M. Calpurnius [I 5] Bibulus and in a second marriage, from c. 44 BC on, to her cousin M. Iunius …

Gildilas

(57 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Eastern Goth, comes Syracusanae civitatis in AD 526/7, commander of the province of Sicilia, known from two letters of  Athalaric (Cassiod. Var. 9,11; 14) who threatened the comes Gotharum G. with dismissal from office because of serious irregularities in the levying of taxes and in legal decisions. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Evagon

(118 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Εὐάγων / Euágōn, in MSS also as Εὐγαίων / Eugaíōn, Εὐγέων / Eugéōn). Of Samos, hailed by Dionysius of Halicarnassus as one of the earliest of the Greek historiographers (De Thucydide 5) and the first Samian historian (last third of the 5th cent. BC), the author of Hôroi Samíōn, which was still referred to by Aristotle; Thucydides, too, used it. In the course of a 2nd cent. BC territorial dispute with Priene, the Samians cited an old border agreement (early 7th cent.), mentioned by E. ─ who thus is one of the earliest local …

Ermanaric,

(184 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (H)ermanaricus (also Ermenrichus, Hermenerig). King of the East Goths who, as the first historically documented  Amal, already belongs to the 10th generation of the Amal family tree (Iord. Get. 79 from Cassiodorus). He was the youngest son of Achiulf, brother of Ansila, Ediulf and Vultuulf, and was regarded as the founder of the ‘younger’ family line which, in AD 515, rejoined the 'older' line, founded by Vultuulf, as a result of the marriage of  Eutharicus with  Amalasuntha (Iord…

Epicteta

(384 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐπικτήτα; Epiktḗta). Widow of the aristocrat Phoenix from Thera. Under the instruction of her son Andragoras, who died two years after his father, she completed the construction of a shrine to the Muses (mouseion) that Phoenix had started, as a memorial to their son Cratesilochus, but had not been able to finish. In her will (early 2nd cent. BC, preserved epigraphically: IG XII 3,330, l. 1-108), E. entrusted the mouseion to her ‘heiress’ (  epikleros ) daughter Epiteleia. In the will she provided for the setting up of an association o…

Godigisclus

(92 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Godigisel, Godegisel). Burgundian king, son of  Gundiok, lived from c. AD 474 in Geneva, always in the shadow of his older brother  Gundobad (Ennod. Vita Epiphanii 174). In 500, together with the king of the Franks, Chlodovechus ( Clovis I), he defeated Gundobad at Dijon, but in 501 he was killed by the latter when Chlodovechus had to turn against the Visigoths (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,32f; Chron. min. 2,234 Mommsen). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography PLRE 2, 516 (Godigisel 2) Stein, Spätröm. R., 2, 144 with n. 2.

Ulpia

(127 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] U. Marciana See Marciana. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [1a] U. Plotina Named in the year AD 69 on a tabula cerata from Herculaneum. She may have been a sister of M. Ulpius [12] Traianus and hence a maternal aunt of the later emperor Traianus [1] (AE 1993, 461). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] U. Severina Wife of Aurelianus [3] (SHA Aurelian. 50,2), elevated to Augusta probably in AD 274 (CIL III 472; V 29; V 3330; IX 2327; AE 1927,81; 1934,44), mater castrorum et senatus et patriae (AE 1930, 150). Daughter of Ulpius [4] Crinitus (?) …

Eutharicus, Eutharic

(142 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Grandson of Berimund of the Amal dynasty, called to Italy by Theoderic the Great in AD 515 and married to  Amalasuntha in order to secure the succession (Iord. Get. 298). He was later adopted by Justin as his son-at-arms, received Roman citizenship; at the assumption of his consulate in 519 ─ on the occasion of which Cassiodorus had written a speech (MGH AA 12,465ff.) and probably also compiled his chronicle ─, he was called Flavius E. Cillica (CIL VI 32003). When he responded rig…

Gentunis

(56 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Genzon). Son of  Geisericus, brother of Hunericus, father of Gunthamundus, Gelaridus, and Thrasamund (Procop. Vand. 1,5,11; 8,6-8; 9,6). In AD 468, he participated in the naval battle against  Basiliscus (Procop. Vand. 1,6,24), only to die in 477, preceding his father in death. PLRE 2,502-503 (Genton 1). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Calpurnia

(346 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Wife of Caesar Daughter of L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus (Suet. Iul. 21). On the Ides of March AD 44, she pleaded urgently with her husband Caesar to stay away from the Senate session (Suet. Iul. 81,3; Plut. Caes. 63,8-12; Cass. Dio 44,17,1; Val. Max. 1,7,2; Vell. Pat. 2,57,2). Caesar had married the 18-year-old for political reasons in 59 BC (Plut. Caes. 14,8; Pomp. 47,10; App. B Civ. 2,51; Cass. Dio 38,9,1, [1. 75 A.46]). Their marriage remained childless [2. 466]. After Caesar's death, C. transferred his assets to Mark Antony (Plut. Ant. 15; App. B Civ. 2,524). Stroth…

Peace, concept of

(30 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] A unified notion of peace, comparable to the modern concept, was unknown in Antiquity. Eirene; Koine Eirene; Pax. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Tullia

(610 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Daughter of the Roman king Servius Tullius [I 4] Daughter of the Roman king Servius Tullius [I 4], the son-in-law of Tarquinius [11] Priscus, she was married to her uncle Arruns. Having failed in her attempts to talk Arruns into assuming rulership, T. turned towards Arruns' brother Tarquinius (the later Tarquinius [12] Superbus), husband of her sister of the same name. After the death of Arruns and of her sister (by murder?; Liv. 1,46,9; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,30,1), T. married Tarquini…

Gesalicus

(147 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Gesalech; also Gesalecus, Gisaleicus). Illegitimate son of  Alaricus [3] II; after the latter's death at Vouillé in AD 507 he was elected king of the Visigoths, as his legitimate half-brother  Amalaricus, grandson of the Ostrogothic king Theoderic, was still a minor (Procop. Goth. 5,12,43). G. was soon forced to retreat to Spain by the Burgundians and Franks (Chron. min. 1,665f. Mommsen). When Theoderic contested his leadership on behalf of Amalaricus (Procop. Goth. 5,12,46), G. …
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