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Geier, Martin

(216 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Apr 24, 1614, Leipzig – Sep 12, 1680, Dresden), prominent exegete and preacher of Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a). After studying at Leipzig (M.A. in 1633), Strassburg, and Wittenberg, he returned to Leipzig in 1636, where he was appointed professor of Hebrew in 1639. He became deacon in 1645, archdeacon in 1657, and pastor of the Thomaskirche in 1659, gaining his doctorate in theology in the same year. In 1661 he received appointments as professor of theology and superintendent. On…

Yvon, Pierre

(212 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (1646, Montauban, Languedoc – 1707, Wiuwert, Friesland), student and closest companion of J. de Labadie. His parents took him to church as a child when Labadie was preaching and while he was still young sent him to Geneva, where he lived in Labadie’s house and studied philosophy and theology under his direction. Along with Pierre Bulignon and Jean Menuret, he became Labadie’s inseparable companion. Alongside Labadie at his later residences in the Neth…

Protestantism

(7,917 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes | Guder, Darrell | Holmes, Stephen R
[German Version] I. Church History 1. Germany and Europe. Protestantism is a synoptic term for all the Christian churches and groups with roots in the 16th-century Reformation. The term embraces the Lutheran and Reformed confessional churches (Lutheranism, Reformed churches) that emerged directly from the Reformation as well as the Anabaptist movements, the Anglican Church (with some qualifications), and the churches and Free churches associated indirectly with th…

Schurman, Anna Maria van

(177 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Nov 5, 1607, Cologne – May 14, 1678, Wieuvert, Friesland), daughter of Dutch Reformed parents, she lived in Utrecht after 1623 and was allowed to study at the university there (e.g. with G. Voetius). Her outstanding erudition and linguistic facility, coupled with artistic talent, gained her renown as the “prodigy of her time.” She corresponded with many scholars, including R. Descartes and Christian Huyghens, and defended the right of women to engage in scientific studies ( Dissertatio de ingenii muliebris ad doctrinam et meliores litteras aptitudine, 1643). Late in life, she turned her back on secular erudition, joining J. de Labadie and his group of separatists in Amsterdam in 1669; with them she moved to Herford, Altona, and Wieuvert. Her autobiographical Eukleria (1673) and correspondence with J.J. Schütz influenced nascent Lutheran Pietism. Johannes Wallmann Bibliography Works include: Eukleria seu melioris partis electio, 2 vols., 1673–1685 On Schurman: K.M. Witteven, BLGNP II, 1983, 396–399 D. Meyer, BBKL IX, 1995, 1139–1141 (bibl.) A. Deppermann, Johann Jakob Schütz und die Anfänge des Pietismus, 2002, 288–298.

Concord, The Book of

(375 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] The Book of Concord is the most widely circulated collection of Lutheran articles of faith (I). It was published (in German) under the title Concordia. Christian, Reiterated, Unanimous Confession of the Undersigned Electors, Princes, and Estates who Embrace the Augsburg Confession and of the Theologians of the Same Doctrine and Faith on Jun 25, 1580, the 50th anniversary of the proclamation of the Augsburg Confession. It contains the three major creeds (Apostles' Creed, Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, …

Rechenberg, Adam

(162 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Sep 7, 1642, Leipsdorf, Saxony – Oct 22, 1721, Leipzig). After studying philosophy, history, and theology, Rechenberg began teaching in 1665 at the University of Leipzig; in 1677 he was appointed professor of philology and history. Through his fourth marriage (1686), to P.J. Spener’s eldest daughter Susann Catharina, he had close ties with Pietism. His appointment to succeed J.B. Carpzov (2) as professor of theology in 1699 effected a reversal in the attitude of the Leipzig theological faculty, which had been hostile to Pietism. His 1700 disputation De gratiae revo…

Pietism

(6,563 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes | O’Malley, Steven | Winkler, Eberhard | Sträter, Udo | Feldtkeller, Andreas
[German Version] I. Church History 1. Germany and Europe a. Definition. Pietism was a religious revival movement in late 17th- and 18th-century Protestantism (I, 1), alongside Anglo-Saxon Puritanism (Puritans) the most significant post-Reformation religious movement. Emerging within both the Lutheran and the Reformed churches, Pietism broke with orthodox Protestantism regulated by the authorities, which it perceived as a moribund Christianity of habit, pressed for an individualized and spiritualized rel…

Osiander

(1,253 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard | Ehmer, Hermann | Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] 1. Andreas (Dec 14 or 19, 1496 or 1498, Gunzhausen – Oct 17, 1552, Königsberg [today Kaliningrad, Russia]), Reformer of Nuremberg (Nürnberg) and center of a violent controversy over his doctrine of justification. Osiander matriculated at Ingolstadt in 1515, where he learned Greek and Hebrew and was influenced by Humanism and especially by J. Reuchlin and the Kabbalah. In 1520 he was ordained to the priesthood; in the same year, he was employed to teach Hebrew by the Augustinian Herm…

Undereyck, Theodor

(266 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jun 15, 1635, Duisburg – Jan 1, 1693, Bremen). After studying from 1654 to 1658 in Utrecht (with G. Voetius), Duisburg (with Johannes Clauberg [1622–1665]), and Leiden (with ¶ J. Coccejus), Undereyck set out on an extensive study tour, visiting Switzerland, France, and England. His piety was shaped by Dutch precisianism (J. van Lodenstein). As a pastor in Mühlheim an der Ruhr from 1660 to 1668, Undereyck pressed for conversion and rebirth (Regeneration), called on people at home, and engaged in catechesis. F…

Myslenta, Cölestin

(211 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Mar 27, 1588, Kutten near Angerburg, East Prussia – Apr 30, 1653, Königsberg). Born into the Polish nobility, Myslenta learned German only in adult life. He studied theology in Königsberg, Wittenberg and Giessen (1619 Dr.theol. in Gießen). Then he studied oriental languages under T. Erpenius in Leiden and J. Buxtorf senior in Basel. For six months he pursued rabbinic and talmudic studies in the ghetto in Frankfurt am Main. From 1619 he was professor of Hebrew language and profess…

Schmidt, Johann

(179 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jun 20, 1594, Bautzen – Aug 27, 1658, Straßburg [Strasbourg]). Forced by the plague to leave Halle for Speyer in 1611, in 1612 Schmidt moved permanently to Straßburg, where he studied philosophy (M.A. in 1615) and theology. In 1617 he traveled to France and England. In 1623 he received his Dr.theol. from Straßburg and was appointed professor of theology, then church president in 1629. He led the Lutheran Church of Elsaß in the Thirty Years War. His personal example and published …

Samson, Hermann

(121 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Mar 4, 1579, Riga – Dec 16, 1643, Riga). After studying at Wittenberg (with L. Hütter) and Rostock, he was appointed preacher at St. Petri in Riga as well as superintendent of schools; later he was appointed cathedral preacher. He published attacks on the Jesuit Counter-Reformation (Baltic countries: III, 1.b). After the Swedish conquest in 1622, King Gustav II Adolf appointed him superintendent over Livonia. He strove to restore the Lutheran church and school system, turned the …

Syncretistic Controversy

(429 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] is the name given to the drawn-out controversies in the second half of the 17th century between high Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a.β) and the union efforts of G. Calixtus and the University of Helmstedt, suspected of religious “syncretism.” Repelled by the horrors of the Thirty Years War, Calixtus shifted from polemics to irenics, calling for toleration and ecclesiastical peace between the confessions on the basis of a shared doctrinal foundation from the Early Church ( consensus antiquitatis). When the Jesuits rejected his plans for a reunion of the univer…

Pfeiffer, August

(170 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 27, 1640, Lauenburg – Nov 1, 1698, Lübeck). Initially a supporter of the millenarianism of C. Hoburg from his school days in Lauenberg, Pfeiffer studied in Wittenberg (1659, M.A.) under A. Sennert, J. Deutschmann, and A. Calov; the latter cured him of his chiliastic leanings. Pfeiffer was a learned orientalist who could understand 70 oriental languages. In 1668 he became assistant professor of oriental languages in Wittenberg (1677, Dr.theol.). He held church offices in Siles…

Schade, Johann Caspar

(163 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jan 13, 1666, Kühndorf, near Meiningen – Jul 25, 1698, Berlin). While studying in Leipzig, Schade became a follower of A.H. Francke; he joined the Leipzig Collegium Philobiblicum and soon became a spokesman for the Pietist movement in Leipzig. Forced to leave Leipzig, in 1691 he became a deacon at Sankt Nikolai in Berlin, alongside P.J. Spener. There he preached revivalist sermons and led collegia pietatis. His polemic against perfunctory absolution as part of traditional penitential practice (“Beichtstuhl, Satansstuhl, Feuerpfuhl,” linking th…

Spener, Philipp Jakob

(1,012 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] ( Jan 13, 1635, Rappoltsweiler, Elsass [Ribeauvillé, Alsace] – Feb 5, 1705, Berlin), father of Lutheran Pietism (I, 1). Son of a devout middle-class family with connections at court, he was brought up on edifying Puritan literature and J. Arndt’s Wahres Christentum. At the age of 16, he entered the University of Strasbourg (II); after foundation courses in philosophy (1653 master’s disserta-¶ tion against T. Hobbes), he studied the system of Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a) under J.K. Dannhauer, a theology he remained faithful to throughout his…

Rudrauff, Kilian

(139 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jul 17, 1627, Schotten, Upper Hesse – Sep 15, 1690, Gießen), studied in Marburg and then (after the university was relocated) in Gießen, where he taught in the boarding school after 1650. In 1659 he was appointed professor of ethics at Gießen; logic and metaphysics were added in 1661. In 1675 he became professor of theology. In 1677 he was also appointed superintendent of the Alsfeld diocese and in 1683 the Marburg diocese as well in the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt. Rudrauff made outstanding contributions to catechetics. He criticized P.J. Spener’s Pia desideria an…

Lütkemann, Joachim

(207 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Dec 15, 1608, Demmin, Hither Pomerania – Oct 18, 1655, Wolfenbüttel). During his time as a student in Straßburg (Strasbourg), Lütkemann was influenced decisively by Johann Schmidt. After travels in Italy and France, he received his master's degree from the philosophical faculty at Rostock, where he was appointed professor of metaphysics and physics in 1643. Appointed deacon in the church of Sankt Jacobi in 1648, he gained a reputation as an outstanding preacher. Forced to leave M…

Hartmann, Johann Ludwig

(180 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Feb 3, 1640, Rothenburg ob der Tauber – Aug 18, 1680, Rothenburg ob der Tauber). After studying at Wittenberg under A. Calovius, in 1660 Hartmann became pastor in Spielbach, in 1661 rector of the gymnasium in Rothenburg, and in 1666 pastor of Sankt Jakobi and superintendent. After receiving his doctorate from Tübingen in 1670, he published several volumes of sermons (including Das wahre Christenthum… in einer Hertz Postill, 1671), a Biblischer Catechismus (1678), and numerous works of popular edification ( Fluchspiegel, 1673; Spielteufel, 1678; Lästerteufel, 167…

Strauch, Aegidius

(194 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Feb 21, 1632, Wittenberg – Feb 13, 1682, Danzig [Gdansk]). After studying in Leipzig and Wittenberg (with A. Calovius), he was appointed professor of philosophy in Wittenberg, receiving his Dr.theol. in 1664. In the Syncretistic Controversy, he vigorously opposed the Helmstedt theologians. In 1669 he was appointed rector of the Gymnasium in Danzig and pastor of Sankt Trinitatis. In 1673 he was removed from office on account of his anti-Catholic sermons; his removal produced an up…

Privacy

(745 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes | Kumlehn, Martin
[German Version] I. Ethics The dichotomy of social and cultural reality in public and private spheres is characteristic of the modern life-world, and is the result of modern processes of change in social structure (Modernization). It is true that in the course of functional differentiation (Society: IV; V) essential ingredients of life, for instance work and vocation, are withdrawn from the private sector and transferred to the public one, but at the same time privacy centered on the family is assi…

Knorr von Rosenroth, Christian

(246 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jul 15, 1636, Alt-Raudten, Silesia – May 4, 1689, near Sulzbach, Upper Palatinate). After studies in Leipzig, Knorr von Rosenroth traveled to the Netherlands and to England. From 1668, he was councilor, and from 1687 chancellery director in Sulzbach. He was the main authority in spiritual matters at the supra-denominational court of Count Christian August von Pfalz-Sulzbach, which attracted scholars and artists. He became friends with F.M. van Helmont, J. Schütz, and the Quaker B…

Labadie, Jean de

(465 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Feb 13, 1610, Bourg, near Bordeaux – Feb 12, 1674, Altona, near Hamburg). Labadie entered the Jesuit novitiate in 1625; in 1639, after theological studies (1636–1639) at Bordeaux and ordination to the priesthood, he obtained permission to leave the Jesuits and become a secular priest. He founded devotional communities in Paris and southern France, for a time showing some attraction to Jansenism. Soon he was struck by the idea of reforming the church after the model of the earlies…

Horb, Johann Heinrich

(199 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jun 11, 1645, Colmar – Jan 26, 1695, Schlems near Hamburg). A disciple of J.K. Dannhauer, Horb initially devoted himself to controversial theology, but became a reform-zealous Pietist under the influence of P.J. Spener, whose sister he married in 1671. Involved in conflicts with Protestant orthodoxy (II, 2) throughout his entire life, Horb was removed from office in Trarbach, where he had officiated as pastor and inspector from 1671 to 1678. From Windsheim in Franconia (superinte…

August, Duke of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel

(185 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Apr 10, 1579, Dannenberg – Sep 17, 1666, Wolfenbüttel). After studying in Rostock, Tübingen, and Strasbourg, and journeying to Italy, France, and England, August led a withdrawn, scholar's life from 1604 to 1634 in Hitzacker, where he collected books and art treasures, and corresponded with, for example, J.V. Andreae. His court preacher Heinrich Varenius lent his …

Müller, Heinrich

(230 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 18, 1631, Lübeck – Sep 13, 1675, Rostock), Lutheran author of edifying works. After study in Greifswald and Rostock (under J. Lütkemann), and academic visits to universities in northern and central Germany, in 1653 Müller became archdeacon of St. Mary's Church in Rostock and assistant professor in the philosophical faculty. In 1659 he became professor of Greek language, in 1660 Dr.theol. (Helmstedt), and in 1662 professor of theology and pastor at St. Mary's; from 1671 he was…

Heunisch, Caspar

(170 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jul 17, 1620, Schweinfurt – Oct 18, 1690, Schweinfurt) studied in Jena and was at first a private tutor in Halle an der Saale. Following his ordination in 1645, he held pastorships in and around Schweinfurt (1647: subdeacon; 1654: deacon; 1660: archdeacon; 1666: superintendent as well as professor and inspector at the Gymnasium). Heunisch not only published sermons but also numerous scholarly writings, mostly on topics of apocalypticism and its chronology. Following the Schweidnitz pastor Matthäus Hoffmann (1615–1667) and his Chronotaxis Apocalyptica (Jena, 1…

Dannhauer, Johann Konrad

(388 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Mar 24, 1603, Köndringen, Breisgau – Nov 7, 1666, Strasbourg), the most important theologian of Strasbourg's Lutheran orthodoxy in the 17th century. After studying in Strasbourg, and for one year each in Marburg, Altdorf, and Jena (with J. Gerhard), he became inspector of the seminary in 1628, professor of rhetoric in 1629, profes¶ sor of theology and preacher at the cathedral in 1633, and in addition church president in Strasbourg in 1658. Dannhauer wrote fundamental works, s…

Starck, Johann Friedrich

(183 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 10, 1680, Hildesheim – Jul 17, 1756, Frankfurt am Main), Pietist devotional writer. During his studies at Gießen, he was won over to Pietism by J.H. May. After working as a private tutor in Frankfurt am Main, in 1709 he was appointed preacher in Geneva; in 1711 he was appointed pastor in Sachsenhausen and in 1723 at the Barfüßerkirche in Frankfurt. Rejecting separatist Pietism, Starck brought “true, inward, heartfelt devotion” into the state church through his edifying and devotional writings. His Tägliches Handbuch in guten und bösen Tagen (1727; ET: Daily Hand-Bo…

Neumann, Johann Georg

(193 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (May 1, 1661, Mörz, near Belzig – Sep 5, 1709, Wittenberg). Neumann grew up in Zittau, where he studied in the Gymnasium with the influential polyhistor Christian Weise, to whom he remained attached throughout his life. After studies at Wittenberg, he was appointed adjunct on the philosophical faculty in 1681 and professor of poetics and university librarian in 1690. In 1692 he was appointed professor of theology, synodal assessor, and provost of the castle church in Wittenberg. N…

Pritius, Johann Georg

(155 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Sep 22, 1662, Leipzig – Aug 24, 1732, Frankfurt am Main). After studying in Leipzig, Pritius became Saturday preacher at the Nikolaikirche in Leipzig (1690), minister and professor at the Gymnasium in Zerbst (1698), and superintendent in Schleiz (1701). In 1705 he traveled to Holland and England; in 1708 he became pastor at the Marienkirche, Greifswald, and professor of theology there; in 1711, senior of the Lutheran Ministry of Preachers in Frankfurt am Main. At an early age he …

Schmidt, Sebastian

(129 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (bapized Jan 6, 1617, Lampertheimin Elsaß [Alsace] – Jan 9, 1696, Straßburg [Strasbourg]). After studying theology in Straßburg, Wittenberg, and elsewhere, and Near Eastern languages in Basel with J. Buxtorf the Younger, he held ecclesiastical and educational appointments in Elsaß and southern Germany. In 1653 he was appointed professor of theology and preacher in Straßburg, where he also served as church president from 1666 until his death. A shy scholar, he was the most thorough…

Veiel, Elias

(156 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jul 20, 1635, Ulm – Feb 23, 1706, Ulm). After studying in Straßburg (Strasbourg) and the Saxon universities, he was appointed preacher at the Ulm Minster in 1662 and professor of theology at the Ulm Gymnasium in 1663. In 1664 he received his Dr.theol. in Straßburg with a disputation against chiliasm under J.K. Dannhauer. In 1671 he was appointed director of the Gymnasium in Ulm and in 1678 superintendent in Ulm. He published numerous volumes of sermons and theological works. In 1…

Zimmermann, Johann Jakob

(219 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Nov 25, 1642, Vaihingen an der Enz – summer 1693, Rotterdam) began his studies at Tübingen in 1661, receiving his M.A. in 1664. In 1666 he was appointed lecturer at the Tübingen Stift, and in 1671 he became a deacon in Bietigheim, where he became an adherent of J. Böhme under the influence of L. Brunnquell, a neighboring pastor. He was valued at the Stuttgart court as a mathematician and astronomer; in his Cometo-Scopia (1681) he prophesied the rapidly approaching end of the world and the coming of the millennial kingdom. Suspended from office in 1686…

Martini, Jakob

(139 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 10, 1570, Langenstein near Halberstadt – May 30, 1649, Wittenberg). Studied in Helmstedt and Wittenberg; 1597, rector in Norden, East Friesland; 1602, professor of logic and metaphysics in Wittenberg; 1613, also of ethics; 1623, professor of theology. Jakob Martini followed C. Martini in the reestablishment of metaphysics, to which he devoted three works. In his Vernunft-Spiegel (1619; Mirror of reason), one of the first philosophical works in the German language, he combatted Ramist and anti- philosophical tendencies in Lutherani…

Habermann, Johann

(193 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Avenarius; Oct 8, 1516, Cheb [Ger. Eder], Czech Republic – Dec 5, 1590, Zeitz), who became a Lutheran between 1540 and 1542, served as pastor in several towns of Electoral Saxony (1564–1571 Falkenau, near Cheb). He was briefly a professor of theology (1571 Jena, 1576 Wittenberg); from 1576 to his death, he served as superintendent of the Stift in Zeitz. Known to his contemporaries as a Hebraist (Hebrew grammar 1571, Hebrew dictionary 1588), ¶ he was remembered by later generations as the author of a Lutheran prayer book equal in popularity to the Paradiesgärtlein of Joha…

Mayer, Johann Friedrich

(239 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Dec 6, 1650, Leipzig – Mar 30, 1712, Stettin). After his studies in Leipzig and Strasbourg, he became Saturday preacher in Leipzig in 1672, superintendent in Leisnig in 1673, superintendent in Grimma in 1678, and fourth professor of theology in Wittenberg in 1684. From 1686, he was ¶ principal pastor at St. Jakobi in Hamburg, and at the same time professor in Kiel; in 1701, he was appointed professor in Greifswald and Swedish general superintendent of Western Pomerania. Even if posterity remembers him only as the “hammerer of heretics and pietists” ( malleus haereticoru…

Löscher, Valentin Ernst

(412 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Dec 29, 1673, Sondershausen – Feb 12, 1749, Dresden). As the son of the Wittenberg professor of theology Caspar Löscher (1636–1718), Valentin Löscher also studied in Wittenberg. After a study tour (extending as far as Holland and Denmark), he received a master's degree and became an adjunct to the faculty of philosophy in 1692. He was appointed pastor and superintendent in Jüterbog (1699), superintendent in Delitzsch (1702), professor of theology in Wittenberg (1707), pastor of t…

Großgebauer, Theophil

(189 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Nov 24, 1627, Ilmenau – Jul 8, 1661, Rostock). After studying in Rostock (M.A. in 1650) Großgebauer was deacon of St. Jacobi in Rostock from 1653 onward. Imbued with the reform zeal of the Rostock orthodoxy (II, 2) and influenced by the edifying literature of England, he fought against unbelief ( Praeservativ wider die Pest der heutigen Atheisten, 1661), lamented the futility of many sermons, and devised a radical church reform agenda in his Wächterstimme aus dem verwüsteten Zion (1661). His proposals: precedence of the pastoral ministry over the preaching…

Petersen, Johann Wilhelm and Johanna Eleonora

(388 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Johann: Jul 1, 1649, Osnabrück – Jan 31, 1727, Gut Thymer bei Zerbst, Anhalt; Johanna, née Merlau, Apr 25, 1644, Frankfurt am Main – Mar 19, 1724, Gut ¶ Thymer), a couple widely read in Pietist circles (Pietism). Their views on eschatology (millenarianism, apocatastasis) define them as radical Pietists. As a student at Rostock and Gießen, Johann became a polyhistor of the Baroque and an expert on orthodox confessional polemic; in Frankfurt am Main, he was won to Pietism by P.J. Spener and J.J. Schütz. There …

Praetorius, Stephan

(218 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (May 3, 1536, Salzwedel – May 4, 1603, Salzwedel), author of Lutheran devotional books. After studying at Rostock (with D. Chyträus and Simon Pauli), he became a deacon in Salzwedel and later pastor of the Neustädische Kirche there. Despite calls from other places, he remained faithful to his home town until his death. In his view, Christians should eschew penance and asceticism, knowing only the treasures of God’s grace received in baptism ( Freudenchristentum, “joyful Christianity”). A collection of his writings was published by J. Arndt ( Von der güldenen Zeit, 1622…

Martini, Cornelius

(147 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (1568, Antwerp – Dec 17, 1621, Helmstedt) studied in Rostock under D. Chyträus and J. Caselius. In 1592 Martini became professor of logic in Helmstedt; he took part in the Regensburg Consultation on Religion (Disputations, Religious) in 1601. Presumed to be the first to teach Aristotelian metaphysics at a Protestant university, he is considered the founder of Protestant academic metaphysics ( Disputationes metaphysicae, 1604–1606), and had a decisive influence on the late-humanist shaping of the University of Helmstedt, which was not tied to…

Sandhagen, Caspar Hermann

(160 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 22, 1639, Borgholzhausen, near Bielefeld – Jul 14, 1697, Kiel). After studying at Rostock and Straßburg (Strasbourg), he was appointed assistant pastor in Bielefeld in 1665 and in 1667 headmaster of a school there; for a while he was closely associated with the Labadists (J. de Labadie) in nearby Herford. In 1672 he was appointed superintendent in Lüneburg, and in 1689 was made general superintendent for Schleswig-Holstein and senior court chaplain in Gottorf. As a painstakin…

Schelwig, Samuel

(131 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Mar 8, 1643, Leszno, Poland – Jan 15, 1715, Danzig [Gdansk]). After studying at Wittenberg with A. Calovius, in 1668 he was appointed deputy rector of the Gymnasium in Toruń; in 1673 he was appointed professor at the Danzig Gymnasium, and in 1681 deacon with the Katharinenkirche. In 1685 he was appointed rector of the Gymnasium and pastor of Sankt Trinitatis. His conflict with his Pietist colleague Konstantin Schütz turned into a literary debate with P.J. Spener that lasted for some years (e.g. Die Sektiererische Pietisterey, 1696/1697). Johannes Wallmann Bibliograph…

Prayer

(13,283 words)

Author(s): Alles, Gregory D. | Reventlow, Henning Graf | Gebauer, Roland | Förster, Niclas | Wallmann, Johannes | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Prayer is one of the most frequent and important religious acts in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It also appears in other religions – for example the indigenous religions of America. But it does not appear to be universal. Some Buddhist traditions, for example, are atheistic, and in them there is no prayer in the strict sense; these traditions often allow their adherents to pray to gods (e.g. Hindu gods), but they value the goals of such prayer less than enl…

Gerhard, Johann

(428 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 17, 1582, Quedlinburg – Aug 17, 1637, Jena) was the most important theologian of Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a). Comforted spiritually in a youthful illness by his “spiritual father” Johann Arndt, the very talented Gerhard initially studied medicine at Wittenberg, then theology at Jena, Marburg (with B. [I.] Mentzer) and again in Jena. After earning his doctorate in theology (1606), he was retained for church offices (1606 superintendent in Heldburg, 1615 general superintendent…

Molanus, Gerard Walter

(200 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 22, 1633, Hamelin – Sep 17, 1722, Hanover). After studying in Helmstedt (under G. Calixtus), Rinteln, and Strasbourg, in 1659 Molanus was appointed professor of mathematics, and in 1664 also of theology, in Rinteln. In 1671, he became a conventual in Loccum Abbey, in 1674 church director of the duchy of Calenberg (Hanover), and in 1677 abbot of Loccum. Though unimportant as a theologian, Molanus, as leader and organizer of a constantly increasing church territory ( inter alia union with Lüneburg 1705), can be considered the father of the Hanover region…

Concord, Formula of

(1,247 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] The Formula of Concord ( Formula Concordiae) of 1577 is the result of the trans-regional settlement effort conducted in protracted, tedious negotiations intended to provide a common doctrinal basis for the Lutheran state churches that had splintered through doctrinal disputes after Luther's death and had separated into various doctrinal traditions – notably that of the Philippists (adherents of Melanchthon) and the Gnesio-Lutherans. Through its inclusion in t…

Scriver, Christian

(282 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jan 2, 1629, Rendsburg – Apr 5, 1693, Quedlinburg), was a classic author of Lutheran devotional literature; like J. Arndt, he urged internalization of Christianity, but he was more focused than Arndt on Luther and his doctrine of justification; he ¶ was a brilliant stylist of immense erudition, drawing on secular sources for his writings. After studying in Rostock (with J. Lütkemann), in 1653 he was appointed archdeacon in Stendal; in 1667 he was appointed pastor of Sankt Jacobi in Magdeburg, where he served for 23 year…

Neumeister, Erdmann

(202 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (May 12, 1671, Uichteritz near Weißenfels – Aug 18, 1756, Hamburg), one of the last spokesmen for late Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a). Neumeister began his theological studies in Leipzig with V. Alberti in 1689. After a brief period of teaching, he held various ecclesiastical offices, beginning in ¶ 1697. In 1704 he was appointed senior court chaplain, consistorial counselor, and superintendent in Sorau. In 1715 he became senior pastor of Sankt Jacobi in Hamburg. Neumeister flirted with Pietism as a student, but his ideas change…

Kuhlmann, Quirinus

(230 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Feb 25, 1651, Wrocław [Breslau], Poland – Oct 4, 1689, Moscow), a chiliastic mystic. While still a student of jurisprudence in Jena, Kuhlmann came under the influence of the Lutheran mysticism of H. Müller and published a collection of poems entitled Himmlische Liebesküsse ([Heavenly love-kisses] 1671, repr. 1971). In the Netherlands, he underwent a process of transformation between 1674 and 1678, influenced by the writings of J. Böhme and the eschatological expectations of Johannes Rothe, which caused him to become a church-critical millennialist ( Neubegeister…

Misler, Johann Nikolaus

(142 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (1614, Münzenberg – Feb 20, 1683, Giessen). After studying in Marburg, he taught at the Pädagogium and was Archidiakonus there. In 1652, he became professor of Hebrew and theology in Giessen; in 1654, director of the institute for stipend recipients; in 1654, doctor of theology; in 1656, superintendent; in 1676, professor primarius. Misler wrote, in addition to numerous disputations, dogmatic ( Orthodoxia iuxta seriem articulorum Formulae Concordiae, 1669) and controversial writings ( Speculum Anti-Jesuiticum, 1660), as well as sermons. Twice (1653 and…

Fischer, Johann

(238 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Dec 13, 1636, Lübeck – May 17, 1705, Magdeburg). After studying in Rostock and Altdorf, Fischer became a candidate for pastoral office in Stade, where he came into conflict with Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a) after translating Puritanical literature (R. Baxter). In 1667–73 he was superintendent in Sulzbach/Upper Palatinate. In 1673 Charles XI appointed him superintendent in Riga; after becoming general superintendent of Livonia in 1678, Fischer, who was friends with P.J. Spener and…

Schütz, Johann Jakob

(204 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Sep 7, 1640, Frankfurt am Main – May 21, 1690, Frankfurt), founder of separatist Lutheran Pietism. After studying at Jena and Tübingen, he began to practice law in Frankfurt am Main. Schütz ascribed his awakening to reading the sermons of J. Tauler. He inspired P.J. Spener to establish the Collegium pietatis in Frankfurt, in which he played a leading role for years, until he finally separated from the unreformable “Babel” of the Lutheran state church and championed an “impartial”…

Schudt, Johann Jacob

(113 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jan 14, 1664, Frankfurt am Main – Feb 14, 1722, Frankfurt). After studying philosophy and theology in Wittenberg (1680–1684), Schudt did five years of special Near Eastern studies in Hamburg with E. Edzard. Returning to Frankfurt in 1689, he began to teach at the Gymnasium in 1691; in 1695 he became deputy rector and in 1717 rector. He was considered the outstanding expert of his time on Judaism; his many publications dealt primarily with Hebrew philology, the history of Judaism, and the Jewish way of life ( Jüdische Merkwürdigkeiten, 1714–1717). Johannes Wallmann Bibli…

Winckelmann

(388 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus | Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] 1. Johannes (1551, Homberg – Aug 13, 1626, Gießen), Protestant theologian. Although trained as a blacksmith, he began studying at Marburg in 1568. In 1573 he became head of the municipal school in Homberg/Efze. In 1576 he continued his studies at Marburg. In 1582 he was appointed court chaplain in Kassel and in 1592 professor at Marburg as well as preacher at the Marienkirche. He was removed from his position in 1607 and went to Gießen, where he was co-founder of the Pedagogium and the university. In 1607 he was appointed full professor and in 1610 superintendent. In ¶ the cont…

Lampe, Friedrich Adolf

(283 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Feb 18, 1683, Detmold – Dec 8, 1729, Bremen) was the most influential German Reformed theologian of the 18th century. Educated at the academic Gymnasium in Bremen under C. de Hase in the spirit of Reformed Precisism (G. Voetius), Lampe completed his theological studies in Franeker under C. Vitringa, who acquainted him with the chiliastically transformed covenant theology of J. Cocceius. In 1703, he became preacher in Weeze ¶ near Kleve, in 1706 parish priest in Duisburg, and from 1709 parish priest at St. Stephani in Bremen. In 1720, he became pro…

Thirty Years’ War

(2,043 words)

Author(s): Malettke, Klaus | Wallmann, Johannes
1. Historical Survey The term “Thirty Years’ War,” first used shortly after 1648, denotes the series of political and military engagements that had its focus in central Europe from 1618 to 1648 but that affected the whole of Europe in its complexity, course, and consequences. At the beginning of the 17th century France was still resisting Hapsburg encirclement, the Estates-General were battling for freedom against Spain (though there was a 12-year truce starting in 1609), and the Nordic kingdoms of…

Schudt

(100 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Schudt, Johann Jacob (14.1.1664 Frankfurt/M. – 14.2.1722 ebd.), nach dem Studium der Philos. und Theol. in Wittenberg (1680–1684) folgte ein fünfjähriges Spezialstudium der Orientalistik in Hamburg bei E. Edzard. Seit 1689 wieder in Frankfurt/M., wurde Sch. 1691 Lehrer am Gymnasium, 1695 Konrektor und 1717 Rektor. Er galt als gründlichster Kenner des Judentums seiner Zeit. und vf. zahlreiche Werke v.a. zur hebr. Philol. und zur Gesch. und gegenwärtigen Lebensweise des Judentums (»Jüd. Merkwürdigkeiten«, 1714–1717). Johannes Wallmann Bibliography H. Dec…

Prätorius

(204 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Prätorius, Stephan (3.5.1536 Salzwedel – 4.5.1603 ebd.), luth. Erbauungsschriftsteller. Nach dem Studium in Rostock (bei D. Chyträus und Simon Pauli) Diakon in Salzwedel, später Pfarrer an der Neustädtischen Kirche. Trotz auswärtiger Berufungen blieb er seiner Heimatstadt bis zu seinem Tod treu. Nach P. sollen die Christen ohne Buße und Askese sich nur der in der Taufe zugeeigneten Gnadenschätze bewußt werden (»Freudenchristentum«). Eine Auswahl seiner Traktate gab J. Arndt heraus…

Schurman

(170 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Schurman, Anna Maria van (5.11.1607 Köln – 14.5.1678 Wieuvert, Friesland); Kind niederländischer ref. Eltern, lebte seit 1623 in Utrecht, wo ihr das Studium (u.a. bei G. Voetius) erlaubt wurde. Hervorragende Gelehrsamkeit und Sprachenkunde, dazu künstlerische Fähigkeiten verschafften ihr Ruhm als das »Wunder ihres Zeitalters«. Mit vielen Gelehrten (R. Descartes, Christian Huyghens u.a.) stand sie in Briefwechsel und verteidigte das Recht der Frau zu wiss. Arbeit (Dissertatio de inge…

Orthodoxie

(10,261 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger | Hünermann, Peter | Wallmann, Johannes | Kaufmann, Thomas | Morgenstern, Matthias | Et al.
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff Der Begriff O. leitet sich aus dem griech. ο᾿ρϑο´ς/ortho´s, »gerade, recht, richtig«, und δο´ξα/do´xa, »Meinung, Absicht, Lehre«, her. Der Begriff und seine Derivate sind auch vorchristl. bezeugt (Liddell/Scott s.v.), gewannen aber ihre spezifisch rel. Bedeutung erst im Kontext des Christentums, in dem das Bekenntnis zu Jesus als dem Herrn bzw. als dem Christus eine für den rel. Vollzug konstitutive Rolle hat (Röm 10,10; Mt 10,32f.) und früh die Notwendigkeit entstand, in einer V…

Protestantismus

(7,514 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes | Guder, Darrell | Stephen, R. Holmes | Holmes, Stephen R.
[English Version] I. Kirchengeschichtlich 1.Deutschland und Europa P. ist zusammenfassender Begriff für die Gesamtheit der christl. Kirchen und Gruppen, deren Ursprünge auf die Reformation des 16.Jh. zurückgehen. Der Begriff P. umgreift die unmittelbar aus der Reformation hervorgegangenen luth. und ref. Konfessionskirchen (Luthertum, reformierte Kirchen) sowie die Täuferbewegungen (Täufer), mit Einschränkung auch die anglikanische Kirche, daneben die mittelbar mit der Reformation verbundenen, in d…

Synkretistischer Streit

(386 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] ist der Name für die langjährigen Auseinandersetzungen in der 2. Hälfte des 17.Jh. zw. der luth. Hochorthodoxie (Orthodoxie: II.,2., a, β) und den von G. Calixt und der Universität Helmstedt ausgehenden, des rel. »Synkretismus« verdächtigten kirchl. Unionsbestrebungen. Unter dem Eindruck der Schrecken des Dreißigjährigen Krieges von der konfessionellen Polemik zur Irenik übergehend, hatte Calixt Toleranz und Kirchenfrieden zw. den Konfessionen auf der Grundlage des allen gemeinsamen altkirchl. Lehr…

Spener

(863 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Spener,  Philipp Jakob (13.1.1635 Rappoltsweiler, Elsaß – 5.2.1705 Berlin), Begründer des luth. Pietismus (: I.,1.). Als Sohn einer frommen Juristenfamilie wuchs S. mit puritanischen Erbauungsbüchern und J. Arndts »Wahrem Christentum« auf. Mit 16 Jahren bezog er die Universität Straßburg (: II.), wo er sich nach dem philos. Grundstudium (1653 Magisterdiss. gegen Th. Hobbes) unter J.K. Dannhauer das System der luth. Orthodoxie (: II.,2., a) aneignete, an dem er – abgesehen von der …

Schelwig

(108 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Schelwig, Samuel (8.3.1643 Lissa, Polen – 15.1.1715 Danzig). Nach Studium in Wittenberg (bei A. Calov) 1668 Konrektor des Gymnasiums Thorn, 1673 Prof. am Danziger Gymnasium, 1681 Diakon an der Katharinenkirche, seit 1685 Rektor des Gymnasiums und Pastor an St. Trinitatis. Sein Streit mit dem pietistischen Amtsbruder Konstantin Schütz ging über in eine mehrjährige lit. Auseinandersetzung (u.a. »Die Sektiererische Pietisterey«, 1696/97) mit Ph.J. Spener. Johannes Wallmann Bibliography D. Erdmann (ADB 31, 1890, 30–36) E. Schnaase, Gesch. der ev. Kirc…

Strauch

(162 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Strauch, Ägidius (21.2.1632 Wittenberg – 13.2.1682 Danzig); nach Studium in Leipzig und Wittenberg (bei A. Calov) seit 1656 Prof. der Philos. in Wittenberg (1664 Dr. theol.). Heftiger Gegner der Helmstedter Theologen im Synkretistischen Streit. 1669 Rektor des Gymnasiums und Pastor an St. Trinitatis in Danzig. 1673 wegen antikath. Predigten Amtsenthebung, die zu Tumulten in der Stadt führte und über deren Rechtmäßigkeit u.a. Ph.J. Spener gutachten mußte. 1675 ließ ihn der Große Ku…

Pietismus

(5,905 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes | O'Malley, J. Steven | Winkler, Eberhard | Sträter, Udo | Feldtkeller, Andreas
[English Version] I. Kirchengeschichtlich 1.Deutschland und Europa a)Definition Der P. ist eine rel. Erneuerungsbewegung im Protestantismus  (: I.,1.) des späten 17.Jh. und des 18.Jh., neben dem angelsächsischen Puritanismus die bedeutendste rel. Bewegung seit der Reformation. Gleicherweise in der luth. wie in der ref. Kirche entstanden, löste sich der P. von der als totes Gewohnheitschristentum angesehenen, obrigkeitlich regulierten Gestalt des altprot. Kirchentums, drang auf Individualisierung und …

Veiel

(136 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Veiel, Elias (20.7.1635 Ulm – 23.2.1706 ebd.). Nach Studium in Straßburg und an den sächsischen Universitäten seit 1662 Prediger am Münster in Ulm, 1663 Prof. der Theol. am Ulmer Gymnasium, 1664 Dr. theol. in Straßburg mit einer Disputation gegen den Chiliasmus unter J.K. Dannhauer, 1671 Direktor am Gymnasium in Ulm, 1678 Superintendent ebd. Vf. zahlreicher Predigtbände und theol. Schriften. V. lehnte 1686 einen Ruf nach Wittenberg als Nachfolger von A. Calov ab. Befreundet und le…

Schütz

(192 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Schütz, Johann Jakob (7.9.1640 Frankfurt/M. – 21.5.1690 ebd.), Begründer des separatistischen Pietismus im Luthertum. Nach Studium in Jena und Tübingen wurde er Advokat in Frankfurt/M. Sch. verdankte der Lektüre der Predigten J. Taulers seine Erweckung. Er regte Ph.J. Spener zur Gründung des Frankfurter Collegium pietatis an, in dem er jahrelang eine führende Rolle spielte, bis er sich vom unreformierbaren »Babel« der luth. Staatskirche trennte und für ein »unparteiisches« Christen…

Scriver

(238 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Scriver, Christian (2.1.1629 Rendsburg – 5.4.1693 Quedlinburg). S. ist der klassische luth. Erbauungsschriftsteller, wie J. Arndt auf Verinnerlichung des Christentums dringend, dabei stärker an Luther und der luth. Rechtfertigungslehre orientiert, glänzender Stilist von immenser Belesenheit, auch profane Quellen für seine Schriften ausbeutend. Nach Studium in Rostock (bei J. Lütkemann) 1653 Archidiakon in Stendal; 1667 Pfarrer an St. Jacobi in Magdeburg, wo er 23 Jahre wirkte (167…

Neumeister

(167 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Neumeister, Erdmann (12.5.1671 Uichteritz bei Weißenfels – 18.8.1756 Hamburg), einer der letzten Repräsentanten der luth. Spätorthodoxie (Orthodoxie: II.,2., a). Nach Theologiestudium in Leipzig seit 1689 (bei V. Alberti) und kurzer akademischer Lehrtätigkeit war N. seit 1697 in geistl. Ämtern; 1704 Oberhofprediger, Konsistorialrat und Superintendent in Sorau, 1715 Hauptprediger an St. Jacobi in Hamburg. Als Student dem Pietismus zuneigend, wandelte sich N. in Sorau, wo er mit J.W…

Sandhagen

(122 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Sandhagen, Caspar Hermann (22.10.1639 Borgholzhausen bei Bielefeld – 14.7.1697 Kiel), nach Studium in Rostock und Straßburg 1665 Hilfsprediger, 1667 Rektor in Bielefeld, zeitweilig in enger Verbindung mit den Labadisten (J.de  Labadie) im nahen Herford, 1672 Superintendent in Lüneburg. Seit 1689 war S. Generalsuperintendent in Schleswig-Holstein und Oberhofprediger in Gottorf. Als gründlicher Exeget gab er die Bibelkomm. seines Lehrers S. Schmidt heraus. Studienaufenthalte bei ihm …

Winckler

(134 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Winckler, Johannes (13.7.1642 Golzern, Sachsen – 5.4.1705 Hamburg). Nach Studium in Leipzig und Jena zunächst Hofmeister in Tübingen, dann im Predigtamt in Homburg v.d.H. (1671), Braubach (1672), Darmstadt (1676), Mannheim (1678), Wertheim (1679), seit 1684 Hauptpastor an St. Michaelis in Hamburg, 1699 Senior ebd. Als einer der engsten Freunde Ph.J. Speners verteidigte er die Collegia pietatis und war Wortführer des Pietismus in den Hamburger Streitigkeiten, bekämpfte aber den Chi…

Pritius

(124 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Pritius, Johann Georg (22.9.1662 Leipzig – 24.8.1732 Frankfurt/M.). Studium in Leipzig, 1690 Sonnabendprediger an St. Nicolai in Leipzig, 1698 Pfarrer und Gymnasialprof. in Zerbst, 1701 Superintendent in Schleiz, 1705 Reise nach Holland und England, 1708 Pfarrer an St. Marien und Theologieprof. in Greifswald, 1711 Senior des luth. Predigerministeriums Frankfurt/M. Früh durch Ph.J. Spener für einen milden Pietismus gewonnen, hinterließ P. ein reiches lit. Werk, war unermüdlich tätig…

Petersen

(341 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Petersen, Johann Wilhelm (1.7.1649 Osnabrück – 31.1.1727 Gut Thymer bei Zerbst, Anhalt) und Johanna Eleonora, geb. von Merlau (25.4.1644 Frankfurt/M. – 19.3.1724 Gut Thymer), im Pietismus vielgelesenes Schriftstellerehepaar, durch eschatologische Anschauungen (Chiliasmus, Apokatastasis) dem radikalen Pietismus zugehörig. J.W. P., als Student in Rostock und Gießen Adept barocker Polyhistorie und orth. Konfessionspolemik, wurde in Frankfurt/M. durch Ph.J. Spener und J.J. Schütz für den Pietism…

Yvon

(199 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Yvon, Pierre (1646 Montauban, Languedoc – 1707 Wieuwert, Westfriesland), Schüler und engster Weggefährte J. de Labadies. Schon als Kind zur Kirche gebracht, wenn Labadie predigte, schickten ihn seine Eltern als Jüngling nach Genf, wo er in Labadies Haus wohnte und unter seiner Anleitung Philos. und Theol. studierte. Wurde neben Pierre Dulignon und Jean Menuret zum unzertrennlichen Weggefährten Labadies. Auf den späteren Stationen Labadies in den Niederlanden, Deutschland (Herford)…

Rudrauff

(122 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Rudrauff, Kilian (17.7.1627 Schotten, Oberhessen – 15.9.1690 Gießen). Nach Studium in Marburg und (nach Verlegung der Universität) in Gießen war er seit 1650 Lehrer am Pädagogium in Gießen, 1659 Prof. der Ethik, 1661 auch der Logik und Metaphysik, 1675 Prof. der Theol. ebd., seit 1677 auch Superintendent der Alsfelder, seit 1683 zugleich der Marburger Diözese der Landgrafschaft Hessen-Darmstadt. R. machte sich um den Katechismusunterricht verdient. Er nahm krit. zu Ph.J. Speners »…

Starck

(144 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Starck, Johann Friedrich (10.10.1680 Hildesheim – 17.7.1756 Frankfurt/M.), pietistischer Erbauungsschriftsteller. Während des Studiums in Gießen durch J.H. May für den Pietismus gewonnen, zunächst Hauslehrer in Frankfurt/M., 1709 Prediger in Genf, 1711 Pfarrer in Sachsenhausen, 1723 an der Barfüßerkirche in Frankfurt/M. Den separatistischen Pietismus ablehnend, trug S. »wahre, innerliche Herzensfrömmigkeit« in die Volkskirche durch Erbauungsschriften. Sein »Tägliches Handbuch in gu…

Undereyck

(226 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Undereyck, Theodor (15.6.1635 Duisburg – 1.1.1693 Bremen). 1654–1658 Studium in Utrecht (bei G. Voetius), Duisburg (bei Johannes Clauberg [1622–1665]) und Leiden (bei J. Coccejus), danach eine große Studienreise (Schweiz, Frankreich, England). Der niederländische Präzisismus (J. van Lodenstein) prägte seine Frömmigkeit. Als Pfarrer in Mülheim/Ruhr (1660–1668) drang U. auf Bekehrung und Wiedergeburt, sorgte für Hausvisitationen und Katechisation. Von 1668–1670 außerordentlicher Hof…

Neumann

(149 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Neumann, Johann Georg (1.5.1661 Mörz bei Belzig – 5.9.1709 Wittenberg). Aufgewachsen in Zittau, auf dem dortigen Gymnasium Schüler des einflußreichen Polyhistors Christian Weise (1642–1708), dem er zeitlebens verbunden blieb; Studium in Wittenberg, 1681 Adjunkt der philos. Fakultät, 1690 Prof. der Poesie und Bibliothekar der Universität, 1692 Prof. der Theol., Synodalassessor und Propst an der Wittenberger Schloßkirche. N. vf. zahlreiche polyhist. Dissertationen. In den pietistisch…

Schade

(131 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Schade,  Johann Caspar (13.1.1666 Kühndorf bei Meiningen – 25.7.1698 Berlin). Während des Studiums in Leipzig schloß sich Sch. an A.H. Francke an, wurde Mitglied des Leipziger Collegium philobiblicum und bald Stimmführer der Leipziger pietistischen Bewegung. Aus Leipzig ausgewiesen, wurde Sch. 1691 Diakon an St. Nikolai in Berlin an der Seite Ph.J. Speners. Sch. predigte erwecklich und hielt Collegia pietatis. Seine aus strengem Bußernst stammende Polemik gegen die routinemäßige A…

Schmidt

(117 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Schmidt, Sebastian (getauft 6.1.1617 Lampertheim im Elsaß – 9.1.1696 Straßburg). Nach dem Studium der Theol. in Straßburg, Wittenberg u.a. und der Orientalistik in Basel bei J. Buxtorf d.J. in verschiedenen elsässischen und süddt. Kirchen- und Schulämtern, 1653 Prof. der Theol. und Prediger in Straßburg, seit 1666 bis zu seinem Tod auch Kirchenpräsident. Der scheue Gelehrte war der gründlichste bibl. Exeget der luth. Orthodoxie. Zu seinen Schülern zählen Ph.J. Spener, der die von …

Schmidt

(151 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Schmidt, Johann (20.6.1594 Bautzen – 27.8.1658 Straßburg). Wegen der Pest 1611 aus Halle/Saale nach Speyer verschlagen, seit 1612 ständig in Straßburg, Studium der Philos. (1615 M.A.) und Theol., 1617 Reise nach Frankreich und England, 1623 Dr. theol. und Prof. der Theol. in Straßburg, dazu 1629 Kirchenpräsident. Leitete die luth. Kirche des Elsaß im Dreißigjährigen Krieg. Wirkte mehr durch persönliches Vorbild und Predigtbände als durch gelehrte Werke. Seine Vorschläge zur Kirche…

Pfeiffer

(150 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Pfeiffer, August (27.10.1640 Lauenburg – 11.1.1698 Lübeck). Von der Lauenberger Schulzeit anfangs dem Chiliasmus Ch. Hoburgs anhängend, studierte er in Wittenberg (1659 M.A.) bei A. Sennert, J. Deutschmann und A. Calov, der ihm seinen Chiliasmus austrieb. P. war ein gelehrter Orientalist und vermochte 70 orientalische Sprachen zu verstehen. 1668 a.o. Prof. für orientalische Sprachen in Wittenberg (1677 Dr. theol.). Nach kirchl. Ämtern in Schlesien (1671–1675) und in Meißen (1675) …

Zimmermann

(176 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Zimmermann, Johann Jakob (25.11.1642 Vaihingen/Enz – Sommer 1693 Rotterdam). Seit 1661 Studium in Tübingen (1664 M.A.), 1666 Repetent am Tübinger Stift, 1671 Diakon in Bietigheim, wo er unter dem Einfluß des Nachbarpfarrers L. Brunnquell zum J. Böhme-Anhänger wurde. Als Mathematiker und Astronom am Stuttgarter Hof geschätzt, prophezeite er in seiner »Cometo-Scopia« (1681) das baldige Weltende und den Anbruch des Tausendjährigen Reiches. 1686 wegen chiliastischer Lehre amtsenthoben,…

Rechenberg

(152 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Rechenberg, Adam (7.9.1642 Leipsdorf, Sachsen – 22.10.1721 Leipzig). Nach Studium der Philos., Gesch. und Theol. lehrte R. seit 1665 an der Universität Leipzig; 1677 Prof. für Philol. und Gesch. ebd. Durch seine vierte Ehe mit Ph.J. Speners ältester Tochter Susanna Catharina stand er seit 1686 in enger Beziehung zum Pietismus. Seine Berufung zum Prof. der Theol. 1699 als Nachfolger von J.B. II. Carpzov bewirkte einen Umschwung in der bis dahin pietismusfeindlichen Haltung der Leip…

Osiander

(1,075 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard | Ehmer, Hermann | Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] 1.Andreas (14. oder 19.12.1496 [1498?] Gunzenhausen – 17.10.1552 Königsberg), Reformator Nürnbergs und Auslöser des nach ihm benannten Streits über die Rechtfertigungslehre (Rechtfertigung). O. wurde 1515 in Ingolstadt immatrikuliert, erlernte Griechisch und Hebräisch und war vom Humanismus und bes. von J. Reuchlin und der Kabbala beeinflußt. 1520 zum Priester geweiht, wurde er im gleichen Jahr als Hebräischlehrer von den Nürnberger Augustiner-Eremiten angestellt. Spätestens hier…

Samson

(108 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Samson,  Hermann (4.3.1579 Riga – 16.12.1643 ebd.), nach Studium in Wittenberg (bei L. Hütter) und Rostock seit 1608 Prediger an St. Petri in Riga, dazu Inspektor der Schulen, später Domprediger. S. bekämpfte literarisch die jesuitische Gegenreformation (Baltische Länder: III.,1., b). Von König Gustav II. Adolf bei der schwedischen Eroberung 1622 zum Superintendenten über Livland bestellt, mühte sich S. um die Wiederherstellung des luth. Kirchen- und Schulwesens, baute das Gymnasi…
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