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Universalism and Particularism

(2,366 words)

Author(s): Figl, Johann | Rüterswörden, Udo | Wander, Bernd
[German Version] I. Religious Studies In the classical phenomenology of religion, the universalism/particularism dichotomy denotes the difference between universal religions (Typology of religion) and so-called folk religions (Folk piety); the latter are “limited to a single people,” whereas the former “spread to include many peoples” (Mensching, 286f.) and proclaim a “universal” message, addressed in principle to all humanity. The universal religions are primarily thos…

Jewish Christians

(4,088 words)

Author(s): Wander, Bernd | Paget, James Carleton | Ritter, Adolf Martin | Hermle, Siegfried
[German Version] I. New Testament – II. Early Church – III. Middle Ages and Modern Period – IV. 19th Century to the Present I. New Testament 1. Definition and sources Although the New Testament does not speak explicitly of Jewish Christians, the phenomenon is everywhere apparent. Makeshift expressions are used (Acts 9:2; 19:9, 23; 24:5; Rom 15:26; Gal 2:9, 12; note also that Christians as a designation used by outsiders is itself rare: Acts 11:26; 26:28; 1 Pet 4:16). In addition, all the NT documents except Luke-Acts were written by Jewish Christian aut…