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Fasting

(4,168 words)

Author(s): Freiberger, Oliver | Podella, Thomas | Böcher, Otto | Bieritz, Karl-Heinrich | Troickij, Aleksandr | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Old Testament – III. Christianity – IV. Ethics – V. Judaism – VI. Islam I. History of Religions “Fasting” is a universally attested cultural technique to produce an expansion of mental and social control, power, or awareness (Asceticism) by restricting the intake of food. Many different types of and reasons for fasting can be found in the history of religions, and they are combined in various ways. Several studies have been produced with regard to individual religions …

Magic, Magi

(7,505 words)

Author(s): Wiggermann, Frans (Amsterdam) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Thür, Gerhard (Graz) | Et al.
I. Ancient Orient [German version] A. General The magic of the ancient Orient and of Egypt is based on a view of the world that runs counter to that of religion. In the world-view of magic, men, gods and demons are tied to each other and to the cosmos by sympathies and antipathies, whereas in the religious world view everything is created by the gods for their own purposes; the relations between men and the cosmos are the result of deliberate actions of the gods. In the practice of religion, however, b…

Simon

(1,722 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Et al.
(Σίμων/ Símōn). [German version] [1] Sculptor in bronze from Aegina, c. 480-460 BC Sculptor in bronze from Aegina. S. participated with a horse and a charioteer in the votive offerings dedicated by Phormis at Olympia; accordingly, his period of artistic activity is around 480-460 BC. The base which belonged to it has been identified. A dog and an archer by S. (Plin. HN 34,90) probably formed a further group. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, nos. 402, 437  M. Zuppa, s.v. S. 2, EAA 7, 1966, 315  F. Eckstein, Anathemata, 1969, 43-49  E. Walter-Karydi, Die äginetische Bi…

Traum/Traumdeutung

(4,811 words)

Author(s): Birbaumer, Niels | Maier, Bernhard | Albani, Matthias | Rösel, Martin | Wandrey, Irina | Et al.
[English Version] I. Neurobiologisch und psychologischT. sind Erlebnisinhalte, die üblicherweise während des Nachtschlafs auftreten und sich von nicht-geträumten realen Erlebnisinhalten durch freie zeitliche, örtliche sowie emotionale Assoziationen auszeichnen und von erwachsenen gesunden Menschen von real erlebten Gedächtnisinhalten unterschieden werden können. Im Kleinkindalter und bei verschiedenen Erkrankungen kann der subjektive Unterschied zw. T. und Realität aufgehoben werden (z.B. in der Sch…

Dreams/Interpretation of Dreams

(5,513 words)

Author(s): Bierbaumer, Niels | Maier, Bernhard | Albani, Matthias | Rösel, Martin | Wandrey, Irina | Et al.
[German Version] I. Neurobiology and Psychology – II. Religious Studies – III. Ancient Near East and Old Testament – IV. Early Judaism – V. Greco-Roman Antiquity – VI. New Testament – VII. Church History – VIII. Fundamental Theology – IX. Practical Theology – X. Missiology – XI. Art History I. Neurobiology and Psychology Dreams are hallucinatory experiences that generally occur during sleep. Unlike real experiences, they involve associations that are temporally, spatially, and emot…

Menelaus

(2,514 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Μενέλαος/Menélaos, Attic Μενέλεως/Menéleos; Latin Menelaus). [German version] [1] Ruler of Sparta, married to Helena A significant character in the cycle of myths about the Trojan War ( Troy: Cycle of myths). A younger brother of Agamemnon, who ruled the most significant power centre in Greek myth, Mycene, by marriage to Zeus's daughter Helen ( Helene [1]; their only child was a daughter, Hermione) M. became king of a region in the Eurotas valley with its capital Sparta and Amyclae [1], which was significant…

Literature

(23,376 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Hazenbos, Joost (Leipzig) | Hose, Martin (Munich) | Et al.
[German version] I. General Literary communication is communication by means of texts - stabilized, coherent and substantial statements. These may be written or eventually put down in writing, but they may also remain oral ( Literacy). Since for earlier societies as a rule only written texts can be studied, the term ‘literature’ focusses on such sedimented media of literary communication. Nevertheless, particularly for ancient societies the mainly oral character of literary communication must be emp…

Literatur

(20,291 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Hazenbos, Joost (Leipzig) | Hose, Martin (München) | Et al.
[English version] I. Allgemein Lit. Kommunikation ist Kommunikation mit Hilfe von Texten, stabilisierten, kohärenten und umfangreicheren Äußerungen. Diese können schriftlich sein oder verschriftlicht werden, können aber auch im Bereich des Mündlichen verbleiben (Schriftlichkeit-Mündlichkeit). Da für frühere Ges. im Regelfall nur schriftliche Texte untersucht werden können, konzentriert sich der L.-Begriff auf solcherart sedimentierte Medien der lit. Kommunikation. Gerade für ant. Ges. muß gleichwohl…

Menelaos

(2,228 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basel) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Folkerts, Menso (München) | Et al.
(Μενέλαος, att. Μενέλεως; lat. Menelaus). [English version] [1] Herrscher von Sparta, Gatte der Helena Bedeutende Figur im Mythenzyklus vom Troianischen Krieg (Troia: Sagenkreis). Als jüngerer Bruder des Agamemnon, der in Mykene den myth. bedeutendsten griech. Herrschersitz innehat, wird M. durch Heirat mit der Zeustochter Helene [1] (einziges Kind ist die Tochter Hermione) König über das Gebiet im Eurotas-Tal mit seinem Hauptort Sparta und dem in vordorischer Zeit bedeutenden Amyklai [1] (Beschreibung seines…

Philo

(5,673 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλων/ Phíl ōn). [German version] [I 1] Athenian politician Athenian from Acharnae who was exiled by the Oligarchic regime in 404 BC (Triakonta). During the civil war, he lived as a metoikos (resident without Attic citizenship) in Oropos awaiting the outcome of events. Following his return, when he applied to join the boulḗ he was accused of cowardice and other misdemeanours at a dokimasia investigation (Dokimasia) (Lys. 31; possibly 398 BC). Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography Blass, vol.1, 480f.  Th.Lenschau, A. Raubitschek, s.v. P. (2), RE 19, 2526f. …

Philon

(5,071 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Köln) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (München) | Et al.
(Φίλων). [English version] [1] Athen. Politiker Athener aus Acharnai, wurde 404 v.Chr. vom oligarchischen Regime verbannt ( triákonta ) und lebte während des Bürgerkrieges abwartend als Metoike in Oropos. Nach der Rückkehr wurde er bei der Bewerbung für die bulḗ in einer Dokimasieklage ( dokimasía ) der Feigheit und anderer Verfehlungen bezichtigt (Lys. 31; viell. 398 v.Chr.). Walter, Uwe (Köln) Bibliography Blass, Bd.1, 480f.  Th.Lenschau, A. Raubitschek, s.v. Ph. (2), RE 19, 2526f. [English version] [2] Athen. Bürger und Soldat (4. Jh. v. Chr.) Athener aus dem Demos Paiania, …
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