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Hinduism and Modern Literature

(6,340 words)

Author(s): Wessler, Heinz-Werner
Shifting from Tradition to Modernity Until the 19th century, themes, motifs, and forms in the literature composed in modern languages in India were largely traditional. Artistic refinement and literary individualism were achieved through the ways and means of how given subjects were treated, and how repetition and mannerism were avoided in dealing with them. Subjects were mostly taken from the huge stock of religious imagination developed in the Sanskrit Purāṇas and in Sanskrit epic literature or from the bardic and folklore tradition.Within the framings of tradition, a hig…
Date: 2019-01-30

Theism

(2,174 words)

Author(s): Weßler, Heinz Werner | Nüssel, Friederike
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Developed during the European Enlightenment and in a Christian context, the concept of theism serves to characterize religious beliefs. While the concept of deism denies any lasting relationship between God and world, and atheism even denies the very existence of God, theism upholds the notion of an interaction between God and the world created by him, between the divine person and the individual human being. This expression, which is not only shaped by a Christi…

Theismus

(1,853 words)

Author(s): Weßler, Heinz Werner | Nüssel, Friederike
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich Der in der eur. Aufklärung und auf einem christl. Hintergrund entwickelte Begriff Th. dient der Charakterisierung von rel. Glaubensinhalten. Während der Begriff Deismus die andauernde Beziehung von Gott und Welt und der Atheismus die Existenz Gottes schlechthin leugnet, hält der Th. an der Interaktion von Gott und der von ihm geschaffenen Welt, von göttlicher Person und einzelnem Mensch fest. Auf diese vom christl. und theol. Hintergrund geprägte, aber…

Theophany

(1,673 words)

Author(s): Weßler, Heinz Werner | Jeremias, Jörg | Scriba, Albrecht
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The term theophany (“appearance/manifestation of God”) stands between the poles of revelation and epiphany (“transfiguration, illumination”) or hierophany (“manifestation of the holy”), a term often used in 20th-century phenomenology of religion. In various monotheistic and polytheistic contexts and periods, we find narratives that recount the sudden overpowering advent of God and the resulting catastrophes or terror befalling the world. As a literary genre, theoph…

Theophanie

(1,518 words)

Author(s): Weßler, Heinz Werner | Jeremias, Jörg | Scriba, Albrecht
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich Der Begriff der Th. (»Erscheinung Gottes«) steht im Spannungsfeld zw. Offenbarung und Epiphanie (»Verklärung«) bzw. dem v.a. in der Religionsphänomenologie des 20.Jh. oft verwendeten Begriffs der Hierophanie (»Erscheinung des Heiligen«). In unterschiedlichen monotheistischen und polytheistischen Kontexten und Epochen finden sich Erzählungen, die vom überwältigenden Erscheinen Gottes und den dadurch ausgelösten Katastrophen oder Schreckreaktionen der We…

Theodicy

(8,171 words)

Author(s): Weßler, Heinz Werner | Barton, John | Klaiber, Walter | Sarot, Marcel | Sparn, Walter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies In archaic cultures, the wellbeing of the community is determined by a fatal power that can be influenced by religious rituals but is ultimately incalculable. In the context of advanced early urban cultures, however, there emerged religious worldviews in which universal concepts of order played a central role. In this historical context, a “functioning world order” (Klimkeit) became the structural principle for models explaining the world. The connection between …

Theodizee

(7,284 words)

Author(s): Weßler, Heinz Werner | Barton, John | Klaiber, Walter | Sarot, Marcel | Sparn, Walter | Et al.
[English Version] I. ReligionswissenschaftlichAnders als in archaischen Kulturen, in denen das Wohlergehen der Gemeinschaft aus rel. Sicht durch rituell beeinflußbare, aber letztlich unkalkulierbare Schicksalsmächte bestimmt ist, entwickeln sich im Kontext der frühen städtischen Hochkulturen rel. Weltbilder, in denen universale Ordnungsbegriffe eine zentrale Rolle spielen. Die »funktionierende Weltordnung« (Klimkeit) wird in diesem religionsgesch. Kontext zum Strukturprinzip von Welterklärungsmode…