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Philocharidas

(139 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Φιλοχαρίδας/ Philocharídas). Spartiate, son of Euryxilaidas, co-signatory of the truce between Sparta and Athens in 423 BC (Thuc. 4,119,2) and the Peace of Nicias in 421 (Thuc. 5,19,2). With Ischagoras and Menas [1] he was supposed to instruct Clearidas to hand over Amphipolis by treaty to Athens but the latter opposed this (Thuc. 5,21). In the same year, P. took oaths to the symmachía of Sparta with Athens (Thuc. 5,24,1) and in 420 was a member of a Spartan delegation that was snubbed in Athens through intrigues on the pa…

King's peace

(132 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] Term given to the ‘General Peace’ ( koinḕ eirḗnē ) that the Persian Great King Artaxerxes [2] II in effect dictated to the Greeks (Isoc. Or. 4,175f.) in 387/6 BC; also known as the Peace of Antalcidas. The Persian demands that were conveyed to the Greeks in Sardes in the autumn of 387 (Stv II 242) contained a claim to all the poleis in west Asia Minor, Clazomenae and Cyprus. Lemnos, Imbros and Scyros were to belong to Athens ‘as before’; all other Greek states were to b…

Mindarus

(165 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Μίνδαρος; Míndaros). A Spartan, naúarchos (fleet commander) in 411/410 BC. In September 411, he set out from Miletus for the Thracian Chersonesus, in order to strike at the most important Athenian supply route, but was defeated soon afterwards at Cynossema by a smaller Athenian fleet under Thrasybulus [3] (Thuc. 8,99-107), as well as in a second battle at Abydus [1] (Oct./Nov. 411), after Alcibiades [3] unexpectedly led reinforcements to the Athenian forces (Xen. Hell. 1,1,2-7; Diod.…

Archidamus

(680 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀρχίδαμος; Archídamos). [German version] [1] II. Spartan king (ca. 475-427 BC) II., Spartan king, Eurypontid, grandson and successor of Leotychidas II, who went into exile in Tegea after a failed campaign in Thessaly (476/75 BC?) and died there in 469 (Paus. 3,7,10). It remains uncertain if A. already became king in 476/75 or only in 469. After the great earthquake of 464 he forcefully defended Sparta against an attack by the  Helots (Diod. Sic. 11,63,4-641; Plut. Cimon 16) and apparently proved himself i…

Pedaritus

(86 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πεδάριτος; Pedáritos). A Spartan, harmost in 412/1 BC (Harmostai[1]) in Chios, which had seceded from Athens and which he defended against Athenian attacks. Having brutally eliminated Athenian supporters in the process, he had an action brought against him by the Chians in Sparta (Thuc. 8,28,3; 32-33; 38-40; cf. Isocr. Or. 6,53; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 8). He fell in an attack on Athenian siege troops (Thuc. 8,55,3). His successor will presumably have been his father Leon [3]. Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Gylippus

(285 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γύλιππος; Gýlippos). Spartiate, son of Cleandridas. His education (  agōgḗ ) was perhaps (at times?) made possible by an affluent Spartan, as Aelianus (Var. 12,43) calls him mothax (‘Bastard’) [1. 434]. When Syracuse asked Sparta for help against the Athenians, he was sent to Sicily (Thuc. 6,93; 104), reached Himera in the summer of 414 BC with a small force, reinforced his army there considerably, broke through to Syracuse, organized the resistance and prevented the encircling of the city (Thuc. 7,1-7). A…

Xenias

(214 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ξενίας; Xenías). [German version] [1] Arcadian from Parrhasia, mercenary leader of Cyrus [3] the Younger, c. 400 BC Arcadian from Parrhasia; as a mercenary leader in 405/4 BC he accompanied Cyrus [3] the Younger to the court of the Persian king and later took a large number of mercenaries to him in Sardis (Xen. An. 1,1,2; 2,1-3), …

Phylarchos

(247 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(φύλαρχος/ phýlarchos, 'chief' of a phylḗ [1]). [German version] [1] Greek office In many Greek poleis the phýlarchoi were leaders of phylaí with high advisory or magisterial functions: in Epidamnus phyle leaders also formed the advisory board of the leading official ( árchōn) and were replaced in the 5th century BC in this function by a council with a broader basis (Aristot. Pol. 1301b 22f.); in Cyzicus phýlarchoi acted…

Phrourarchos

(158 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (φρούραρχος/ phroúrarchos). 'Commander' ( archós) of a 'guard' ( phrourá), commander of a garrison or fortress. In the Delian League the office involved performing both military and political functions. For example, after their intervention in Erythrae [2] in about 453/2 BC, the Athenians commissioned their phrourarchos and their epískopos [1] there to supervise the appointment of a new council. The phrourarchos was to perform this duty every year from then on in cooperation with the local council that was stepping down (IG I3 14). The term is also used as the Greek equivalent for Persian 'officers' (Xen. An. 1,1,6; Xen. Cyr. 5,3,11; 7,5,34; 8,1,6). Plato (Pl. Leg. …

Agiads

(245 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀγιάδαι; Agiádai). Royal dynasty in Sparta, which, according to Herodotus (6,51), held a higher rank than the second Spartan royal dynasty, the ( Eurypontids). However, the authority of individual kings was based on their …

Callibius

(55 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Καλλίβιος; Kallíbios). Spartan, was sent as harmost to Athens in 404/3 BC at the request of the Thirty and after the intervention of Lysander. He was courted by the rulers there and attempted to support their regime (Xen. Hell. 2,3,13f.; [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 37,2; 38,2; Diod. Sic. 14,4,4). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Areus

(225 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀρεύς; Areús). [German version] [1] Spartan king 309 - approx. 265 BC Spartan king 309 -- approx. 265 BC, Agiad, son of  Acrotatus [1], attempted in 281 to exploit the defeat of  Antigonus [2] Gonatas by  Ptolemaeus Ceraunus to liberate Hellas from Macedonian rule in alliance w…

Nicolochus

(61 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Νικόλοχος; Nikólochos). Spartan; while epistoleús (‘deputy’) of the naúarchos (‘naval commander’) Antalcidas (388/7 BC), he was surrounded by Iphicrates at Abydus [1], where Antalcidas relieved him (Xen. Hell. 5,1,6-7; 5,1,25-27; Polyaen. 2,24). As naúarchos in 375 BC, he was defeated by the Athenian Timotheus at Alyzea (Xen. Hell. 5,4,65-66; Diod. …

Isadas

(59 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἰσάδας; Isádas). Spartan, son of Phoebidas, proved himself in 362 BC at the defence of Sparta in battle against the forces of  Epaminondas (Plut. Agesilaus 34; Ael. VH. 6,3). In the writings of Polyaenos (2,9), who clearly confused the incursions of the Thebans of 370/69 and 362, erroneously given the name Isidas. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Pollis

(123 words)

Harmostai

(273 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(ἁρμοσταί; harmostaí, Ionian ἁρμοστῆρες; harmostêres: Xen. Hell. 4,8,39). [German version] [1] Spartan military commanders Spartan military commanders responsible for the supervision of certain areas. The 20 harmostai of the Lacedaemonians, mentioned in the scholia to Pindar (Ol. 6,154), cannot be identified with certainty as supervisory officials over the poleis of the perioikoi and should rather be regarded as ‘governors’ residing outside the Spartan polis area [1. 11f.; 2. 62f.]. The harmostḗs (IG V 1,937), documented in the early 4th cent. for Cythera, probably represents an exception for military reasons…

Nabis

(677 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Νάβις; Nábis). Son of Damaratus; controversial representative of the last phase of the Spartan reform movement. After the death of Machanidas (207 BC), N. - apparently a member of a branch of the Eurypontidae - first became regent of Sparta. He consolidated his power by removing the young king Pelops (Diod. Sic. 27,1) and then took the title of king himself (Syll.3 584). Polybius (13,6,1-7,11) and later authors depict N. as a cruel tyrant (Diod. Sic. 27,1; Liv. 33,44,8; 34,32,3; Plut. Titus 13; Paus. 4,29,10). At first, his rule was suppor…

Panthoedas

(65 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πανθοίδας; Panthoídas). Spartan commander who was sent to Byzantium in 403/2 BC with instructions to get rid of the Spartan ruler Clearchus [2] who had usurped power (Diod. Sic.14,12,4-7). He is probably the same person as P. the harmost (governor) who was killed in 377 BC at Tanagra in the battle against the Thebans under Pelopidas (Plut. Pelopidas 15,6). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Spartiatae

(338 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Σπαρτιᾶται; Spartiâtai). Full citizens of Sparta, who attained this status at 20 years of age, and who from the 5th cent. BC saw themselves as homoioi [II] (peers), distinct from the perioikoi , and from the hypomeiones, who enjoyed only limited rights as citizens. The conditions for assuming this status included pure Spartan blood, completion of the agoge and participation in the syssitiai (Banquet [II. B]), to which they had to contribute. Their economic basis were the klaroi ( kleros ), which were worked by helots. The notion that all o…

Ephoroi

(670 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (ἔφοροι; éphoroi). ‘Custodians’; annual officials in Sparta and a number of Peloponnesian and Dorian poleis and colonies (e.g. Thera, Cyrene, Heraclea on the Siris). The most significant institution of this kind was that of the five Spartan ephoroi, who arrived at their decisions by majority and whose chairman (Plut. Lysander 30) gave his name to his year of office. According to ancient tradition, the Spartan ephorate was held to be an institution of Lycurgus (Hdt. 1,65), and it was later ascribed to king Theopompus …

Xenelasia

(294 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (ξενηλασία; xenēlasía). 'Expulsion of aliens' (Xenoi), traditionally incorrectly represented as a measure often repeated by the Spartans to protect their city from outside influences (Xen. Lac. 14,4), traced to Lycurgus [4] in the tradition in Plutarch (Lycurgus 27,7; Agis 9; Mor. 238d) and explained by scholars e.g. by an alleged internal change in Sparta in the 6th cent. BC. The first xenelasia is supposed to have been the expulsion of Maeandrius [1] of Samos (Hdt. 3,148); however, that was not a general prohibition of residence for fore…

Gymnasiarchy

(238 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (γυμνασιαρχία; Gymnasiarchía). Supervision of a  gymnasium by a gymnasiarchus, whose functions varied in scope and importance depending on the place and time. In Athens the gymnasiarchy in the 5th and 4th cents. BC was a one-year   leitoūrgía (λειτουργία; And. 1,132; Dem. Or. 20,21), the task being to train a certain number of runners for torch competitions at the Great Panathenaea, Hephaistia, Promethia and festivals of Pan and to supply them with all their requisites. At the end of the 4th cent. the gymnasiarchy be…

Eurybiades

(130 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Εὐρυβιάδης; Eurybiádēs). Spartan commander of the fleet of the Greek confederation of 481 BC at the battles of Artemisium and Salamis in 480. After the Persians had overcome Leonidas' position at Thermopylae, E. took timely measures to lead the Greek fleet through the narrow sound of Euripus into Attic waters (Hdt. 8,4-21). At Salamis, against the vigourous protests of most leaders of the Greek naval contingents, he followed Themistocles' plan to give battle to the Persian fleet in…

Therimenes

(65 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Θηριμένης; Thēriménēs). Spartiate, in the late summer of 412 BC led a fleet taking help to the naúarchos Astyochus in Asia Minor; at Miletus he forced Athenian forces into retreat (Thuc. 8,26,1-29,2) and in the autumn negotiated for Sparta a second subsidy treaty with Persia. During his return in 411 he was killed in a shipwreck (Thuc. 8,36,2-38,1). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Ischagoras

(108 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἰσχαγόρας; Ischagóras). Spartan, was unable, in 423 BC, to carry out his task of bringing reinforcements to  Brasidas in Thrace because of countermeasures by Perdiccas of Macedonia. He managed to reach the war zone there with a few companions, and with the aid of Brasidas had Spartans installed as commanders in some of the poleis (Thuc. 4,132). Having signed the Peace of Nicias in 421 and overseen the execution of its provisions in Thrace, in the same year he gave his oath for the…

Cleora

(27 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κλεόρα; Kleóra). Spartan, wife of Agesilaus [2] II, mother of Archidamus [2] III (Xen. Hell. 3,4,29; 5,4,25; Plut. Agesilaus 19). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Agiatis

(103 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀγιάτις; Agiátis). Rich Spartan woman, heiress of the Spartan Gylippus, who died c. 241 BC. First married to the reform king  Agis [4] IV. After his death,  Leonidas II forced her to marry his still very young son, the later reform king  Cleomenes III. According to Plut. Cleom. 1,1-3; 22,1-3, who portrays her as beautiful and full of character, she is supposed to have convinced her second husband to take up Agis' reform plans by telling him stories about them. The significance of this emotional element for the initiatives of Cleomenes III is difficult to judge. Welwei, Karl…

Damaratus

(262 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Δαμάρατος, Δημάρητος; Damáratos, Dēmárētos). Spartan king, Eurypontid, son and successor (around 510 BC) of King Ariston. The turning-point in his life was brought about by the enmity with Cleomenes I, whose intention to establish a Spartan satellite regime in Athens, with the help of an army campaign in 506 he thwarted at Eleusis (Hdt. 5,74f.). We do not know whether Athenian investigations became known to the Persian satrap in Sardeis [3. 273-276]. In 491 D. plotted against Cleome…

Mamertini

(463 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] Former Oscan mercenaries, predominantly from Campania, hired by Agathocles [2] of Syracuse. After his death (289 BC), they conquered the town of Messana between 288 and 283 BC. They called themselves M. after the war god Mamers, the Oscan form of Mars (Diod. Sic. 21,18,1; Cass. Dio fr. 40,8; Fest. 150,30-35), plundering a wide area and enforcing tributes (Pol. 1,7,2-5; 8,1; Plut. Pyrrhus 23,1). After the M. had conquered wide areas of Northern Sicily (Diod. Sic. 22,13,1-2), they c…

Sthenelaidas

(123 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Σθενελαίδας; Sthenelaḯdas). Spartiate, one of the éphoroi and the leader of the apella , who in 432 BC, with reference to the complaints of Spartan sýmmachoi (Peloponnesian League) and despite the warnings of the king Archidamus [1] II, called for an active containment of the power of Athens. Unusually, he held the vote not by acclamation but by calling for those for and against to stand in separate places, and was thus able to carry through the resolution that Athens had broken the 446 BC peace treaty (…

Epitadeus

(183 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐπιτάδευς; Epitádeus). An ephor from Sparta; according to Plutarch (Agis 5), out of anger against his son, he passed a law making it permissible to give away or pass on house and   kleros at will, no doubt with the aim of increasing the number of Spartiates. Plutarch dates this  rhetra vaguely to 404 BC, but cites this law as the reason for significant differences in wealth amongst the Spartiates in c. 250 BC. Aristotle (Pol. 1270a 15-34) seems to see the deplorable state of affairs in Sparta's cosmos in the mid-4th cent. BC as a consequence of this…

Proegoros

(169 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (προήγορος/ proḗgoros, Doric προάγορος/ proágoros, 'spokesman'; from pro-agoreúein, 'speak publicly for somebody'). Spokesman of a group or legation (Xen. Hell. 1,1,27; 2,2,22; Xen. An. 5,5,7). In the Sicilian poleis of Acragas (IG XIV 952: 2nd cent. BC), Tyndaris (Cic. Verr. 2,4,85) and possibly also Tauromenium (IG XIV 423) the term for an official. In Catane even, according to Cicero (Verr. 2,4,50), the proḗgoros was the highest magistrate, though this may be exaggerated. In Sardeis , stratēgoí and proḗgoroi feature (as leading officials) in the prescri…

Dercylidas

(305 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Δερκυλίδας; Derkylídas). Spartan; regarded as a talented and cunning military commander. He won Abydus and Lampsacus in 411 BC without a battle (Thuc. 8,61f.), was harmost in Abydus in 407/6 (Xen. Hell. 3,1,9) and in 399 in Sparta's war against the Persian satrap Tissaphernes in Asia Minor he relieved the unpopular Thibron, who was unable to keep discipline in the army, including the former mercenaries (including Xenophon) of Cyrus the Younger (Xen. Hell. 3,1,8-10). In 399 in a ‘l…

Agesilaus

(675 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀγησίλαος; Agēsílaos). [German version] [1] I, legendary Spartan king (c. 900 BC) A. I, legendary Spartan king, Agiad, considered the son of Doryssus and father of Archelaus (Hdt. 7,204), ‘ruled’ according to Alexandrian chronographers 929/28-886/85 BC, for a shorter time according to Pausanias (3,2,4). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] II, Spartan king, Eurypontid (400-359 BC) A. II, Spartan king, Eurypontid, 444/43 BC. When his brother Agis [2] II died in the summer of 400 and Agis' son Leotychidas was excluded from succession, …

Melesippus

(86 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Μελήσιππος; Melḗsippos). Spartiate, son of Diacritus, member of the last Spartan delegation to Athens in 431 BC before the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War (Thuc. 1,139,3). In the same year, during the advance of the army of Archidamus [1], he was again sent to Athens for negotiations, but was turned back at the city gates. On leaving Attica, he is said to have prophesied that that day would mark the beginning of great misfortune for the Hellenes (Thuc. 2,12). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Erianthes

(90 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐριάνθης; Eríanthēs). Theban commander of the Boeotian triremes at Aigospotamoi. His statue, therefore, stood on the Spartan victory monument in Delphi (Paus. 10,9,9) [1. 14f.]. After the capitulation of Athens, his demand to destroy the city was rejected in Sparta (Xen. Hell. 2,2,19; Plut. Lys. 15). When the Thebans in 395 BC endeavoured to form an alliance with Athens, they attempted to interpret the action by E. as having been carried out by him without authority (Xen. Hell. 3,5,8). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 J.-F. Bommelaer, Lysandre de S…

Pasiteilidas

(47 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πασιτειλίδας; Pasiteilídas). Spartiate, son of Hegesander and harmost under Brasidas in Torone, where he was taken prisoner in 422 BC during the Athenians' capture of the city under Cleon [1]. From there he was presumably taken to Athens (Thuc. 4,132,3; 5,3,1-4). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Leotychidas

(368 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Λεωτυχίδας; Leōtychídas). [German version] [1] Eurypontid Eurypontid (Hdt. 8,131; Eurypontidae), considered to be the ancestor of L. [2]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] King of Sparta, 5th cent. BC Eurypontid; became king in Sparta after Damaratus was deposed; in 491 BC, he participated in the actions of Cleomenes [3] I in Aegina (Hdt. 6,73), and for that reason was almost delivered up to the Aeginetans (Hdt. 6,85f.). In 479, L. commanded the Hellenic fleet, followed a request for help by the Samians, …

Tresantes

(133 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Τρέσαντες, 'those having fled in fear'). Spartiates, who had failed in battle and lost their aretḗ (Virtue) (Tyrtaeus fr. 8,14 Gentili/Prato), with the result that they were held in contempt socially (Plut. Lycurgus 21,2). They were allowed to shave only half their beards, could not hold office, were excluded from gymnastics, games, contubernia and from merchant business (Xen. Lac. 9,4-6), could allegedly also be beaten and had to wear dirty clothing. It was considered shameful to give one a da…

Kleros

(412 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (κλῆρος; klêros; Dor. κλᾶρος; klâros, ‘lot’, ‘land allocation’, ‘plot of land’, ‘land allotment’; etymologically probably derived from κλάειν/ kláein, ‘to break, to share’). …

Alcidas

(297 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀλκίδας; Alkídas). [German version] [1] Spartan nauarch 428-427 BC The Spartan nauarch 428-427 BC, who was supposed to bring relief to the polis of Mytilene on Lesbos, but on route learned of Mytilene's capitulation.…

Geranor

(27 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γεράνωρ; Geránōr). Spartiate, former polemarchos, fell in 369/8 BC during the defence of Asine against the Arcadians (Xen. Hell. 7,1,25). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Lacedas

(68 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Λακήδας; Lakḗdas; Hdt. 6,127,3: Λεωκήδης; Leōkḗdēs). Legendary king of Argus, by tradition the son of the historically debated Pheidon [3]. L. was regarded as the father of Meltas, …

Anchimolus

(73 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀγχίμολος; Anchímolos). In Aristot. Ath. Pol. 19,5 and schol. Aristoph. Lys. 1153 (Anchimolios in Hdt. 5,63,2) high-ranking Spartan, who in 511 BC was supposed to expel the  Peisistratids from Athens and landed with hoplites at Phalerum. In expectation of the invasion  Hippias had, however, called upon 1,000 Thessalian horsemen for help and prepared the landing-point for their attack. A. fell, the rest of his hoplites fled. …

Xenares

(141 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ξενάρης; Xenárēs). Spartiate, probably identical to the son of Cnidis who, as harmost ( Harmostaí [2]) in Heraclea [1] Trachinia in the winter of 420/19 BC, fell in battle against the Aenianes, the Dolopes and other tribes in that territory (Thuc. 5,51,2). As éphoros in 421/20 BC, X. and his colleague in office Cleobulus [3] rejected the alliance between Sparta and Athens concluded after the Peace of Nicias [1]. After unofficial negotiations with the Boeotians and the Corinthians, the two managed to conclude a special a…

Labotas

(50 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Λαβώτας; Labṓtas). Legendary Spartan king of the house of the Agiads. During his (fictional) reign (traditionally 1025/4-989/8 BC), Sparta is said to have fought against Argus for the first time (Apollod. FGrH 244 F 62; Hdt. 1,65; 7,204; Plut. Mor. 224c; Paus. 3,2,3f.). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Lacrates

(36 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] Spartan olympic champion; died in 403 BC during a skirmish in Piraeus against resistance fighters who freed Athens from the rule of the ‘Thirty’ ( Triakonta) (Xen. Hell. 2,4,33). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Zeuxidamus

(147 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ζευξίδαμος/ Zeuxídamos). [German version] [1] King of Sparta, c. 700 BC Was considered a Spartan king of the house of the Eurypontids and a son of Archidamus, is supposed to have been the successor to his grandfather Theopompus [1] towards the end of the 8th cent. BC, but is not mentioned in Hdt. 8,131, appearing only in Pausanias' list of Spartan kings (3,7,6; 4,15,3) into which he was probably inserted only in the 4th cent. BC [1. 97; 2. 344 f.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Son of Leotychidas [2] II Eurypontid, son of the Spartan king Leotychidas [2] II (…

Agesipolis

(359 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀγησίπολις; Agēsípolis). [German version] [1] I., Spartan king (395-380 BC) A. I, Agiad, son of the Spartan king Pausanias and older brother of Cleombrotus I, became king when his father had to go into exile after the battle at Haliartus 395 BC (Diod. Sic. 14,89; Paus. 3,5,7). First under the guardianship of his relative Aristodemus [3] (Xen. Hell. 4,2,9), he achieved already in 388/87 successes against the Argives (Xen. Hell. 4,7,2-7) and forced the polis of Mantinea under specious pretences to dioikismos into four villages in 385/84 (Xen. Hell. 5,2,3-7; Paus. 8,8,7-9). Af…

Megillus

(102 words)

Herippidas

(161 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἑριππίδας; Herippídas). A Spartiate, who after 400 BC belonged to the inner circle of Sparta's political leaders [1. 154]; in 399, he suppressed an uprising in Heraclea Trachinia (Diod. Sic. 14,38,4-5) [2. 120f., 154]. 395 saw him as an influential adviser to Agesilaus [2] during the latter's campaign in Asia Minor, when he also commanded the Cyreans, who in 394 were once again under his command at Coronea (Xen. Hell. 3,4,20; 4,1,11-14; 20-28; 4,3,15). Following the death of the

Timouchos

(293 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (τιμοῦχος/ timoûchos). Holder of an honour, honorary position or office (formed from τιμὴν ἔχειν, timḕn échein, 'to have/hold honour'); first recorded in the form τιμάοχος as an epithet of deities in the 7th cent. BC (Hom. Hymnos to Demeter 268 f.; Hom. Hymnos to Aphrodite 31 f.); as office holders timoûchoi are recorded almost only in communities of the Ionic dialect groups, e.g. in the early 5th cent. BC in Teos (Syll.3 37/8; ML 30), where they had to pronounce curse …

Teleutias

(169 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Τελευτίας/ Teleutías). Spartiate, step-brother of Agesilaus [2] II (Xen. Hell.  4,4,19; Plut. Agesilaos 21,1), commander of Spartan fleets several times between 392 and 381 BC, nauarchos in 387/6 (Xen. Hell. 5,1,13). In 392 he conquered ships and destroyed wharves in Lechaeum (Xen. Hell. 4,4,19; Plut. Agesilaos 21,1-3); in 390 he took over the fleet of the naúarchos Ecdicus in Cnidus, captured ten Athenian triremes and supported Sparta's partisans in Rhodes [1. 84-86]. He surrendered his fleet to the nauarchos Hierax in Aegina in 389 (Xen. Hell. 4,8,24 f.; 5,1,1-4). T. was very much loved by his soldiers, was given a new naval command in 388 and gained great plunder in an attack on Piraeus and in battle with an Athenian grain fleet (Xen. Hell. 5,1,13-24). As an

Timaea

(90 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Τίμαια/ Tímaia). Spartan, wife of Agis [2] II, in 415 BC supposedly seduced by Alcibiades [3] who thus fathered her son Leotychidas [3], yet this is doubtful [1. 67 f.]. Agis only recognised Leotychidas as his son on his death-bed, in order to enable him to succeed to the throne. Lysander [1], however, saw to the election of Agesilaus [2] II (Duris FGrH 76 F 69; Xen. Hell.  3,3,1-4; Paus. 3,8,8-10; Plut. Agesilaus 3; Plut. Alcibiades 23,7-9; Plut. Lysander 22,6-13; Plut.  Mor. 467 f.). Welwei, Karl…

Trierarchia

(170 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (τριηραρχία; triērarchía). Obligation to equip a trireme for one year and to command the crew ( c. 200 men). Introduced in 483/2 as a military leiturgia (Liturgy I.) in place of the naukrariai , which were no longer sufficient following the naval rearmament programme of Themistocles. Later also used as a technical term for the command of other warships. Because of the great financial burden it imposed, the system was modified from 410 BC by the syntrierarchy (two trierarchoi per ship), and the load was distributed still more in 357 BC or shortly before by t…

Eurypontids

(124 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Εὐρυπωντίδαι; Eurypōntídai). Spartan royal house, whose representatives according to Herodotus (6,51) were supposed to have less prestige than the royal house of the Agiads. In fact the E. provided important kings such as Archidamus II, Agesilaus II, Agis II, III and IV. Its eponym was the fictitious figure of Eurypon, a descendant of Heracles in the sixth (Hdt. 8,131; Str. 8,366) or seventh generation (Plut. Lycurgus 1; Paus. 3,7,1). The list of E., like that of the Agiads, is unusable historically for the period prior to the early 6th cent. BC.  Agiads Welwei, Karl-W…

Tellis

(76 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Τέλλις; Téllis). Spartiate, father of Brasidas, married to Argileonis, who commented on the death of her son (in 422 BC) with the words that he had been brave but Sparta had better men (Plut. Lycurgus 25,8-9; Plut. Mor. 190b; 219d; 240c; Diod. Sic. 12,74,3). T. swore to the Peace of Nicias (Nicias [1]) in 421 BC (Thuc. 5,19,2; 5,24,1) and was then doubtless a champion of Spartan peace policy. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Struthas

(89 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Στρούθας/ Stroúthas; Tod, Nr. 113: Στρούσης/ Stroúsēs). Persian satrap in Ionia [1.216], installed by Artaxerxes [2] II in 391 BC in place of Tiribazus. He was supposed to introduce anti-Spartan politics, immediately approached Athens and defeated the army of Thibron, whom Sparta had dispatched to Asia Minor and who had gained control over the Plain of Maeander from Ephesus after his arrival but then acted carelessly and fell in the battle against S. (Xen. Hell. 4,8,17-19; Diod. Sic. 14,99,1-3). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. Hornblower, in: CA…

Peraia

(736 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (ἡ περαία; hē peraía). Description of a community's territory lying 'opposite', predominantly (but not exclusively) a mainland possession of an island state. The development of regions near coasts was primarily for the purpose of gaining resources, but for island poleis also represented a protection zone [1. 466f.]. Examples of peraíai of mainland states are Myus, disputed between Miletus [2] and Magnesia [2] on the Maeander (Syll.3 588), and the peninsula of Perachora to the north of Corinth, which originally belonged to Megara [2] (Xen. Hell…

Xenodikai

(295 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(ξενοδίκαι/ xenodíkai). [German version] [1] In Athens: 'judges of foreigners' First mentioned in Athens as 'judges of foreigners' (IG I3 439,75 and IG I3 440,126) for the years 444-442 BC in which the xenodikai had to provide quite large sums for the construction of the Parthenon . It cannot be deduced from this evidence [3. 661 f.] that they operated only for a relatively short period after Pericles' [1] statute of civic rights as an authority for lawsuits relating to illegal arrogation of Athenian civil rights (Xenias graph…

Naucleidas

(65 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ναυκλείδας/ Naukleídas). Spartiate, son of Polybiades; as an ephor, he accompanied king Pausanias to Athens in 403 BC, and supported his policy of reconciling the hostile sides in the civil war, in defiance of the intent of Lysander [1], who in revenge later accused him of debauchery (Xen. Hell. 2,4,35-36; Agatharchidas FGrH 86 F 11 = Athen. 12,550 d-e). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Epaminondas

(1,037 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐπαμεινώνδας; Epameinṓndas). Most important Theban commander of the 1st half of the 4th cent. BC. His year of birth has not been recorded. After instruction by the Pythagorean Lysis of Tarentum who lived in his father Polymis' house (Diod. Sic. 15,39,2; Plut. Mor. 583c; 585e; Paus. 9,13,1; Nep. Epaminondas 2,2), he was considered incorruptible and frugal as well as a great orator (Plut. Mor. 808e, 809a). Little is known about his political beginnings. The outline in Paus. 9,13,1-1…

Klarotai

(34 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (κλαρῶται; klarôtai). Non-free country-dwellers in Crete, who worked the klâroi ( klêros ) of full citizens in exchange for the payment of fees (Ath. 6,263e-f; Poll. 3,83). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Apella, Apellai

(407 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] This word only occurs in the plural (ἀπέλλαι; apéllai) and is explained by Hesychius as σηκοί ( sēkoí; precincts) or by their function as ἐκκλησίαι ( ekklēsíai; people's assemblies) or ἐφαιρησίαι ( ephairēsíai; voting assemblies). The Labyad inscriptions in Delphi use apellai to refer to the  Apollo festival of the phratry during the religious month of Apellaios (Michel, RIG 995 = Schwyzer, DGE 323). Inscriptions from Gytheum (Laconia, 1st cent.) add the augmentative attribute μεγάλαι ( megálai; IG V 1, 1144, l.20 f.= SGDI 4567 = Michel, RIG 185; IG V 1, …

Teleclus

(83 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Τήλεκλος; Tḗleklos). King of Sparta, who according to legend played an important role a generation before the beginning of the first Messenian War. As a person he is probably historical; he is supposed to have conquered Amyclae, Pharis and Geronthrae (Paus. 3,2,6) and settled several places in Dentheliatis (Denthalii) with Laconic colonists (Str. 8,4,4). His killing by Messenians allegedly led to the first of the Messenian Wars (Paus. 4,4,2-3).…

Proxenia, proxenos

(228 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (προξενία/ proxenía, πρόξενος/ próxenos). The term proxenía denotes the function of a 'public guest' ( próxenos), i.e. one citizen's representing one Greek community in another 'state'. It is a specifically Greek institution, traceable to the protection of foreigners (Xenoi; Aliens, the position of [III]) and first attested in a late 7th cent. BC resolution of the 'people' ( dâmos) of Corfu  (ML 4). In the 5th cent. BC, proxenía moreover became an Athenian instrument of control in the Delian League, where próxenoi represented Athenian interests, reporting if n…

Rhamphias

(76 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ῥαμφίας; Rhamphías). Spartiate, father of Clearchus [2] (Thuc. 8,8,2). Member of the last Spartan delegation before the outbreak of the Peloponnesisan War (431 BC) that in Athens signaled a willingness for peace if the Athenians returned "independence to the Hellens" (Thuc. 1,139,3). R. was supposed to reinforce the army of Brasidas in the summer of 422 but in Thessaly he received news of his death and returned to Sparta. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Prytaneis

(837 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(πρυτάνεις/ prytáneis, sg. πρύτανις/ prýtanis, 'principal, first'). [German version] …

Chilonis

(158 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Χιλωνίς; Chilōnís). [German version] [1] Legendary wife of king Theopompus Legendary figure, said to be the wife of king  Theopompus, whom she is supposed to have freed from imprisonment by Messenians (Polyaenus, Strat. 8,34; Quint. Inst. 2,17,20; Plut. Lycurgus 7,2; Mor. 779e).…

Pasippidas

(64 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πασιππίδας; Pasippídas). Spartiate and naval commander in the eastern Aegaean in 410/409 BC probably in the role of naúarchos; he was charged with conspiring in Thasos to stage an uprising against a group favour…

Sophanes

(135 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Σωφάνης/ Sōphánēs). Athenian from Decelea, son of Eutychides (Hdt. 6,92,3; 9,73,1). In 490 BC after the battle of Marathon he refused to honour Miltiades [2] with a wreath (Plut. Cimon 8,1), since the victory was understood to be a success of the dêmos as a whole [1. 193]. S. distinguished himself by particular bravery in the Athenians' war with Aegina in 488/7 (Hdt. 6,92; 9,75; Paus. 1,29,5) and in the battle of Pla…

Hippitas

(47 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἱππίτας; Hippítas). Confidant of the Spartan king Cleomenes III, whom he accompanied to Alexandria after the battle of Sellasia, where he had himself killed willingly after the latter's failed uprising against Ptolemy IV in 219 BC (Pol. 5,37,8; Plut. Cleomenes 37,6-13).…

Clearidas

(81 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κλεαρίδας; Klearídas). Spartan, son of Cleonymus. Appointed by  Brasidas in 423 BC as commander at Amphipolis, C. proved himself after Brasidas' death in 422. After the peace of  Nicias he did not surrender the polis entrusted to him to the Athenians so its inhabitants would not be exposed to retaliation (Thuc. 5,21; 34). Unimpres…

Apoikia

(992 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀποικία; apoikía). Settlement of a group of colonists or their descendants outside the territory of a particular mother city ( Metropolis); the latter having sent out a proportion of its citizens as ‘emigrants’ (ἄποικοι, ápoikoi) to found a ‘colony’, or even encouraged the citizens of other poleis to take part in a new foundation. The leader of the undertaking was usually an oikist nominated by the mother city. Especially during the great period of ‘Greek colonization’ of c. 750-550/500 BC, many new communities arose, often being autonomous poleis which could be r…

Brasidas

(584 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Βρασίδας; Brasídas). Son of the respected Spartiate Tellis, who was one of those who took the oath sealing the Peace of Nicias in 421 BC (Thuc. 2,25; 5,19; 24).B. distinguished himself right at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War when he freed the Messenian coastal city of Methone which was surrounded by Athenians. That was probably the reason for his appointment in 431/30 as eponymous ephor (Diod. Sic. 12,43,2) and military ‘adviser’ at a relatively young age. In 429 he was adviser to admiral  Cnemus in the so-called second sea battle of Naupactus and…

Astyochus

(133 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀστύοχος; Astýochos). Spartan nauarch in 412/11 BC. In the summer of 412 his attempt to gain Lesbos failed (Thuc. 8,22f.); his operations between Lesbos, Chios, Erythrae and Clazomenae were luckless (8,31-33). Dissatisfied with his administration, Sparta sent ‘advisors’ with extraordinary powers to his headquarters in Milet in the winter of 412/11 (Thuc. 8,39,1f.). After advances as far as Cnidus and Rhodes he signed the third Spartan-Persian contract in the spring of 411, in whic…

Eleutherolakones

(123 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐλευθερολάκωνες; Eleutherolákōnes). League of Laconian coastal settlements; as former perioikoi settlements, they were placed under the protection of the Achaean Confederacy following the defeat of Nabis by the Romans in 195 BC. After the failure of the Achaean uprising in 146 BC, they were permitted to unite in the koinòn tôn Lakedaimoníōn (κοινὸν τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων) (Liv. 35,13,2; 38,31,2) [2. 51]. In 21 BC, Augustus reorganized the league [1. 60], which was thenceforth known as koinòn tôn Eleutherolakṓnōn (Str. 8,366; Paus. 3,21,6f.; IG V 1 1161; 116…

Sacred wars

(585 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (ἱεροὶ πόλεμοι/ hieroì pólemoi). As a concept hieròs pólemos is first encountered in the late 5th cent. BC and according to Aristophanes (Av. 554ff., particularly…

Cinadon

(106 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κινάδων; Kinádōn). In 398 BC, C. a hypomeion (‘Inferior’), thus presumably the son of Spartan parents but without full citizens' rights, sought widespread support for a revolt to overthrow the ruling class of the Spartiatae, by approaching  Helots, Neodamodes, hypomeiones and  Perioikoi. No details about his planned reforms are known. C. was betrayed, lured into a trap and killed after naming …

Mastigophoroi

(86 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (μαστιγοφόροι; mastigophóroi, ‘whip-carriers’). In Sparta, young men (ἡβῶντες/ hēbṓntes), who assisted the paidonómoi in the agōgḗ of boys (Xen. Lac. 2,2). In Athens in 404 BC they were…

Stasippus

(114 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Στάσιππος/ Stásippos). Leader of the pro-Spartan 'oligarchs' in Tegea (Xen. Hell. 6,4,18) who in the summer of 370 BC opposed annexation, instigated by anti-Spartan forces in Tegea, to a pan-Arcadian state, planned by 'democrats' in Mantinea. Initially successful in the disturbances unleashed by this [1. 505-507; 2. 105; 3. 74 f.], S. did not, however, have his defeated opponents prosecuted and, after the Mantineans i…

Menedaios

(61 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[English version] (Μενεδάϊος). Spartiat, 426 v.Chr. in Akarnanien im Kriegsrat des Eurylochos [2], nach dessen Niederlage und Tod bei Olpai Kommandeur der dortigen peloponnes. Truppen. Der athen. Befehlshaber Demosthenes [1] gewährte ihm nach geheimer Absprache freien Abzug unter Preisgabe der Ambrakiotai (Thuk. 3,100,2; 109,1-3; [1. 30]. …

Knemos

(70 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[English version] (Κνῆμος). Spartan. Nauarch (Flottenkommandant) 430/29 v.Chr., verwüstete 430 Zakynthos, operierte 429 in Akarnania und wurde bei Oiniadai geschlagen (Thuk. 2,66; 80-82; Diod. 12,47,4f.). K.' Flottenverbände erlitten 429 schwere Niederlagen bei Stratos und Naupaktos gegen die Athener unter Phormion. Im Spätherbst 429 unterblieb ein von K. und seinem “Berater” Brasidas geplanter Überfall auf den Peiraieus; statt dessen wurde Salamis verwüstet (Thuk. 2,83-94; Diod. 12,49).…

Panteus

(57 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[English version] (Παντεύς). Spartaner, führte 223 v.Chr. unter Kleomenes [6] III. zwei spartan. Einheiten mit Erfolg beim Sturm auf Megalopolis (Plut. Kleomenes 23,5-6), floh nach der Schlacht bei Sellasia mit Kleomenes nach Ägypten, wo er nach dessen mißglücktem Versuch, sich aus der Internierung zu befreien, Selbstmord beging (ebd. 37,13-16; 38,5; Pol. 5,37,8). …

Apoikia

(893 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[English version] (Ἀποικία). Siedlung einer Kolonistengruppe oder ihrer Nachfahren außerhalb des Gebietes einer bestimmten Mutterstadt (Metropolis), die einen Teil ihrer Bürger als “Aussiedler” (ἄποικοι, apoikoi) zur Gründung einer “Pflanzstadt” ausgesandt oder auch Bürger anderer Poleis zur Teilnahme an einer Neugründung aufgefordert hatte. Leiter des Unternehmens war in der Regel ein von der Mutterstadt benannter Oikistes. Vor allem während der “großen griech. Kolonisation” ca. 750-550/500 v. Chr. entstanden zahlreiche neue Gemeinwese…

Klearidas

(70 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[English version] (Κλεαρίδας). Spartiat, Sohn des Kleonymos; von Brasidas 423 v.Chr. als Befehlshaber in Amphipolis eingesetzt, bewährte K. sich nach dem Tod des Brasidas 422 und übergab nach dem Frieden des Nikias die ihm anvertraute Polis nicht den Athenern, um die Bewohner nicht Vergeltungsmaßnahmen auszuliefern (Thuk. 5,21; 34). Unbeeindruckt von Weisungen der Führungsgremien Spartas förderte er erhebliche neue Spannungen zwischen Sparta und Athen. Peloponnesischer Krieg Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Presbeia, Presbeis

(467 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (πρεσβεία/ presbeía, πρέσβεις/ présbeis, 'embassy', 'emissary'). The terms presbeía and présbeis in this sense are known only from the 5th cent. BC on, but there is evidence of 'diplomatic traffic' in Greece considerably earlier than this in Homer, in the form of the sending of 'messengers' (Hom. Il. 4,384; 5,804; 10,286). The term présbeis is explained by the fact that originally it was generally 'elders' ( présbys: 'old') who were sent out as emissaries, though by the 5th cent. this was no longer the custom (Aristoph. Ach. 599 ff.). Présbeis acted on behalf of their…

Mandrocleidas

(148 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Μανδροκλείδας; Mandrokleídas). [German version] [1] Spartiate, tried to keep Pyrrhos from further raids in Laconia, 272 BC Spartiate (Μανδρικλείδας/ Mandrikleídas in good MSS). Plutarch (Plut. Pyrrhus 26,24) passes down a memorable statement by M. who is said to have attempted in 272 BC to convince Pyrrhus of the Spartan will to resist him so as to prevent further plundering raids in Laconia by his troops [1. 128f.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Spartiate, supporter of Agis's reforms in 243/2 BC Spartiate (probably not identical to M. [1]), talented fo…

Aegidae

(222 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Αἰγεῖδαι; Aigeîdai). Designated by Herodotus (4,149) as ‘great phyle in Sparta’, but also (4,147) brought in connection with Cadmean Thebes. In Aristotle (fr. 532 Rose) the A. appear as φρατρία Θηβαίων ( phratría Thēbaíōn) and in Pindar (I. 7,15) as ‘Thebans’ (cf. Androtion FGrH 324 F 60; schol. Pind. Pyth. 5,101). According to the Schol. of Pindar I. 7,18 they are supposed to have originally been Phlegraei. Whether here ‘Phlegyans’ are meant [1. 28] is uncertain. Supposedly the A. migrated with the Heraclidae t…

Panteus

(62 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Παντεύς; Panteús). Spartan, who in 223 BC successfully commanded two Spartan units under Cleomenes [6] III in the attack on Megalopolis (Plut. Cleomenes 23,5-6). After the battle of Sellasia, he fled to Egypt with Cleomenes , where he committed suicide after the latter's failed attempt to free himself from internment (ibid. 37,13-16; 38,5; Pol. 5,37,8). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Gylis

(44 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γῦλις; Gŷlis). Spartiate, in 394 BC polemarch, assumed command of the army of Agesilaus [2] II after the battle of Coronea and advanced to Locris. He fell in battle after the retreat (Xen. Ages. 2,15; Hell. 4,3,21-23). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Menedaeus

(74 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Μενεδάϊος/ Menedáios). Spartan, in 426 BC a member of Eurylochus's [2] war council in Acarnania. After Eurylochus's defeat and death at Olpae, he became commander of the Peloponnesian troops there. In a secret agreement the Athenian commander Demosthenes [1] granted him free passage in return for surrender of the Ambraciots (Thuc. 3,100,2; 109,1-3; [1. 30]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 J. Roisman, The General Demosthenes …

Cleandridas

(92 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κλεανδρίδας; Kleandrías). Spartan; allegedly fought in 470 BC against Tegea (Polyaenus, Strat. 2,10,3) and in 446 as advisor of king  Pleistoanax he was bribed by Pericles on a campaign to Attica. Sentenced to death,…

Gerontes

(133 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (γέροντες; gérontes

Megistonous

(102 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Μεγιστόνους/ Megistónous). Spartan who supported the reforms of his stepson Cleomenes [6] III (Plut. Cleomenes 7,1; 11,1). As the Spartan commander at Orchomenus (Arcadia) he was defeated and captured by Aratus [2] of Sicyon after Cleomenes' coup (227 BC) at a time which has not be…

Antalcidas

(491 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀντιαλκίδας; Antalkídas in IG V 1,93 ll. 15 and 212). At some time in the spring of 392 BC or the preceding winter A., through the mediation of the satrap  Tiribazus and abandoning the Greeks of Asia Minor, was to make peace with the Persian king [3; 7], the victory of  Conon at Cnidus having left Sparta in a precarious situation. As Sparta no longer controlled the poleis of Asia Minor, the attempt was a failure, although A. did receive a secret subsidy from Tiribazus for the expansion of the Spartan fleet (Xen. Hell. 4,8,12 ff.; Plut. Ages. 23,2). In the summer of 388 as   nauarch…

Cratesiclea

(59 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κρατησίκλεια). Wife of Leonidas II, mother of  Cleomenes [6] III, who was strongly in favour of his reform plans. Following her son's flight to Ptolemy III, she went to Egypt as a hostage and was executed there in 219 BC after the failure of Cleomenes' coup (Plut. Cleomenes 6,2; 7,1; 22,3-10; 38,2-12). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
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