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Eck, Johann

(555 words)

Author(s): Wicks, Jared
[German Version] (born J. Maier; Nov 13, 1486, Egg an der Günz – Feb 10, 1543, Ingolstadt) was a prolific opponent of the Reformation. After an initial education under his uncle in Rottenburg, he studied in Heidelberg, Tübingen (M.A. 1501), Cologne, and Freiburg im Breisgau (1502–1510). Then he held the chair of theology in Ingolstadt for the rest of his life. Eck's Chrysopassus (1514) taught that God predestines to salvation those whom he foresees will acquiesce to his prevenient grace. In 1518, after Eck cr…

Cajetan, Thomas de Vio

(305 words)

Author(s): Wicks, Jared
[German Version] (Giacomo de Vio; Feb 20, 1469, Gaeta – Aug 10, 1534, Rome). When Cajetan joined the order of the Dominicans in 1484, he assumed the name Thomas, but was later called “Caietanus” after his place of birth. In Padua in 1494 he defended Thomistic positions against Duns Scotus and the Averroists (Averroism). After treatises on being, essence and analogy, Cajetan's commentary on Aristotle’ De anima (1509) questioned philosophical arguments for the immortality of the soul, while regarding it as revealed – leading some to link Cajetan wi…