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Hystaspes

(321 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Ὑστάσπης; Hystáspēs, ancient Persian/Avestian Vi/īštāspa-, ‘with untied horses (for the race)’). Name of various Iranian personalities. [German version] [1] Patron of Zarathustra As kauui- (Kavi, prince) the decisive patron of Zarathustra ( Zoroaster [4. 13,100]); son of Auruuaṯ.aspa-, husband of Hutaosā. In the Graeco-Roman world oft-used and quoted ‘Oracles’, which were concerned with the last things, went around under his name; cf. most recently [1. 376-381]. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Arsames Son of Arsames (ancient Persian Aršāma-), grands…

Megabyzus

(137 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(also Μεγάβυξος/ Megábyxos, Hdt. Μεγάβυζος/ Megábyzos < Old Persian Bagabuxša, Elamite Ba-ka-bu-uk-šá). [German version] [1] Distinguished Persian, conspirator against Gaumata Distinguished Persian, son of Dātūvahya (according to Hdt. 3,153 father of Zopyrus), He conspired with Darius [1] I against Gaumāta/Smerdis ([2. DB IV 85], Hdt. 3,70 passim). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Zopyrus, commander under Xerxes According to Hdt. son of Zopyrus (and hence grandson of M. [1]). Commander under Xerxes in his Greek campaign (Hdt. 7,82; 1…

Pnytagoras

(250 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Πνυταγόρας; Pnytagóras). [German version] [1] Greek politician from Cyprus Son of Evagoras [1] of Salamis in Cyprus. P. helped his father in the rebellion against the Persians and after the sea battle of  Citium (381 BC) defended Salamis (Isoc. or. 9,62; Diod. 15,4), which was under siege. Father and son are supposed to have had relations with the daughter of Nicocreon [1], and both were murdered by the eunuch Thrasydaeus  (Theop. FGrH 115 F 103,12; Aristot. Pol. 5,1311b 4ff.). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography F.G. Maier, Cyprus and Phoenicia, in: CAH 6, 21994, 297-336. …

Asia Minor

(16,327 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Genz, Hermann (Istanbul) | Schoop, Ulf-Dietrich (Tübingen) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Et al.
[German version] I. Name Strabo was the first to refer to the peninsula of Asia Minor (AM) west of the  Taurus (Str. 2,5,24; 12,1,3; cf. Plin. HN 5,27f.; Ptol. 5,2) as a single unit by the name of Asia in the narrower sense, as opposed to the continent of Asia. The term of Asia minor in this sense is first used in Oros. 1,2,26 (early 5th cent. AD). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] II. Geography AM is the westernmost part of the Asian continent between 36° and 42° northern latitude, and 26° and 44° eastern longitude, stretching from the Aegean to the Euphrates ( c. 1,200 km), and fro…

Prexaspes

(114 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Πρηξάσπης/ Prēxáspēs). [German version] [1] Prominent Persian Prominent Persian, who (according to Hdt. 3,30; 65) at the behest of king Cambyses [2] disposed of the king's brother Smerdis (Bardiya [1]). Although loyal to the demented king, after his death P. denied murdering Smerdis, but ultimately revealed before the assembled Persians the usurpation by the Magi (Patizeithes), called for their overthrow and committed suicide (Hdt. 3,66 ff.; 74 ff.). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Aspathines Son of Aspathines, the 'bow-carrier' of Darius [1] I (a…

Youth

(1,225 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] I. Issue and method Little research has yet been done into the complex of themes comprising the history of youth in Antiquity, except for individual problems such as the terminology of youth, the education of young people and youth organizations. What is especially needed is more gender-specific and class-specific studies, and more individual studies differentiated according to time and place. The focus of recent studies has been on the issue of whether 'adolescence' was perceived as …

Sar-e Pol-e Ẕahāb

(211 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Archaeological find site in Kurdistan, Iran (Old Persian Ḥulvān; Akkadian Ḫalmān), 20 km from the Iraqi border on the old Kermānshāh-Baghdad road. There, to both sides of the River Alvand, was found a total of four reliefs of the Lullubaean princes who reigned in the late 3rd or early 2nd millennium BC; among them, the triumphal relief of Anubanini [2. pl. 49], with the motif of trampling the enemy underfoot, provided the model for the relief of Darius [1] I at Bisutun. Below this image is …

Tiribazus

(186 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Τιρίβαζος/ Tiríbazos), Achaemenid satrap in Armenia, who rescued Artaxerxes [2] II at Cunaxa (in 401 BC) and allowed the Greek mercenaries free passage (Xen. Anab. 4,4,4 f.; 18; Plut. Artaxerxes 7 and 10; Diod. Sic. 14,27,7). As káranos (governor-general of the western satrapies) in Asia Minor (and probably also satrap in Sardeis), in 392 BC he referred Athenian and Spartan envoys to the great king, helped Antalcidas construct a fleet and captured Conon [1] (Xen. Hell. 4,8,12 ff.; Diod. Sic. 14,85,4). Temporari…

Mazaeus

(243 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Μαζαῖος; Mazaîos). Persian nobleman, highly respected at the Achaemenid court (Curt. 5,1,18; Plut. Alexander 39), father of Antibelus, Artiboles and Hydarnes. Under Artaxerxes [3] III, M. was satrap of Cilicia and Persian commander in the war against the rebellious Phoenicians (Diod. Sic. 16,42,1f.). Under Darius [3] III, he administered Coele Syria and ‘Syria between the rivers’. In 331 BC, he withdrew from his position near Thapsacus, enabling Alexander [4] the Great to cross th…

Sima Qian

(214 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] ( Sīmǎ Qiān). C. 145 - c. 85 BC, author of the first Chinese dynastic history, the Shǐjì, which contains, primarily in chapter 123, important information on central Asia and Iran (e.g. on the decline of the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom and characteristics of the Parthian Empire). S. was born in Longmen (modern province of Shanxi, near Chang'an, the capital of the time). After early travels through the whole Empire he later held office at the court of the Han emperor Wu (140-87 BC) as court astrologer a…

Rhagae

(241 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (ἡ Ῥάγα/ hē Rhága: Str. 11,13,6; ἡ Ῥάγη/ hē Rhágē: Tobit 6,10; Ῥάγοι/ Rhágoi: Tobit 1,14 et alibi; (αἱ) Ῥάγαι/ (hai) Rhágai: Str. 11,9,1; Arr. Anab. 3,20,2 etc.). City (and district with a large population) of eastern Media, today an expanse of ruins south of Tehran. In the district of (Old Persian) Ragā (Elamic Rakka, Babylonian Raga), Darius [1] I captured the Median rebel Fravarti (Phraortes [3]) in 521 ([3. DB II 70 ff.]). In the summer of 330, Alexander [4] the Great rested his troops in R. for five days while in pursuit of Dariu…

Margiana

(202 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Μαργιανή/ Margianḗ < Ancient Persian Marguš > New Persian Marv). Fertile eastern Iranian country through which the Murġāb flows (Ptol. 6,10,1; Plin. HN 6,16; Str. 2,1,14; 11,10,1; in the Avesta M. is regarded as one of the most beautiful of countries created by Ahura Mazdā) in modern Turkmenistan. Ptol. 6,10 names the Derbicci, Massageti, Parni, Daae and Topuri as inhabitants of M. and also mentions individual cities, among which Antioch [7] Margiane (Giaur-Qala with the original Achaeme…

Iuvenes (Iuventus)

(178 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] The term iuvenes, although also related to adults or non-junior teams, usually refers to the Roman or Italian youth of military training or serving age. The organizations of the iuventutes existing in the late Republican period in Italy that were originally military and later rather paramilitary or pre-military were revitalized by Augustus in the context of his reorganization of the aristocratic youth; later they had the character of an association. There is evidence of such   collegia in Italy ( collegia iuvenum) and in the western provinces ( collegia iuventutis) pa…

Elymaei

(144 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Ἐλυμαῖοι; Elymaîoi). [German version] [1] Inhabitants of the Elymais Inhabitants of the  Elymais, described by ancient authors mainly as mountain dwellers or rather, in a military context, as mounted archers (cf. i.a. App. Syr. 32; Str. 16,1,17; Liv. 37,40,9). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Inhabitants of the Elburz region According to Pol. 5,44,9 neighbours to the inhabitants of  Media Atropatene in the Elburz region along the south-western corner of the Caspian Sea. Plut. Pompeius 36 reports of a ‘king of the Elymaei and Medes…

G(a)eli

(98 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Γῆλαι / Gēlai, Str. 11,5,1, cf. 11,7,1; 11,8,1; Γηλύς / Gēlýs, Steph. Byz. s.v. Γ.; Γηλοί / Gēloí, Dionys. Per. 1019 [GGM II, 167]). Median tribe of Scythian origins, first mentioned by Strabo (according to Theophanes of Mytilene), who inhabited the south-western shores of the Caspian Sea. Some ancient authors (Plin. HN 6,48; Ptol. 6,2,5) identified them with the  Cadusii. The tribe's name lives on in the region's (or rather the Sassanid province's) modern name of Gı̄lān (middle Persian Gēlān). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography R. Gyselen, La géographie a…

Nabarzanes

(70 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ναβαρζάνης; Nabarzánēs). The chilíarchos (commander) of the royal cavalry of king Darius [3] III.; described in admiring terms by Curt. (esp. 5,9-10). Nabarzanes was the only Persian commander who was successful at the battle of Issus and was with Bessos at the time of king Darius' murder. He later surrendered to Alexander [4] the Great in Hyrcania (Arr. Anab. 3,23,3f.). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography Berve, vol. 2, no. 543.

Phraortes

(149 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Φραόρτης/ Phraórtēs, Old Persian Fravartiš). [German version] [1] Father of the Median king Deioces According to Hdt. 1,96, father of the Median king Deioces. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Deioces Son of Deioces, who, according to Hdt. 1,102, reigned for 22 years, subjugated the Persians and fell in battle against the Assyrians. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [3] Median rebel against Darius [1] I Median rebel against Darius [1] I, mentioned in the Bīsutūn inscription [1. DB II 13ff., 64ff., DBe] and depicted on the relief ther…

Stateira

(274 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Στάτειρα/ Státeira; Latin Statira). [German version] [1] Wife of Artaxerxes [2] II, c. 400 BC Daughter of Hydarnes, sister of Terituchmes and wife of Artaxerxes [2] II (Ktesias FGrH 688 F 15), who was beloved by the people (Plut. Artaxerxes 5,6). She was poisoned by the queen mother Parysatis [1] (Deinon FGrH 690 F 15b). In Chariton's novel S. fights Callirhoe for the love of the Great King, recognises her beauty and is rescued by Callirhoe from imprisonment in Egypt. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Sister of Darius [3] III, 4th cent. BC Wife and sister of Darius [3] III…

Divination

(6,021 words)

Author(s): Maul, Stefan (Heidelberg) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Haas, Volkert (Berlin) | Niehr, Herbert (Tübingen) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Et al.
[German version] I. Mesopotamia While attention in old Egyptian culture was largely centred on existence after death, the concerns of Mesopotamia were almost exclusively with the present. A significant part of the cultural energy of ancient Mesopotamia was devoted to keeping human actions in harmony with the divine, so as to ward off such misfortunes as natural catastrophes, war, sickness and premature death. As such, heavy responsibility rested on the ruler as mediator between the world of gods and that of men. In Mesopotamia everything which is and happens was seen as a man…

Parthians

(1,586 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Πάρθοι/ Párthoi, Hdt. 3,93 i.a.; Παρθυαῖοι/ Parthyaîoi Pol. 10,31,15; App. Syr. 65 i.a.; Latin Parthi, Just. Epit. 41,1,1 et passim. In a narrower sense a term for the inhabitants of the province of Parthia and/or the Parni, who invaded Parthia, and in a wider sense the inhabitants of the Arsacid Empire (Arsaces) or their political elite. [German version] I. Evidence In the written tradition (for a discussion of the evidence and literature concerning it see [21]; see also [19. 117-129, 276-278]) on the Parthians, contemporary indigenous sources take pre…

Idrieus

(145 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Hidrieus; Ἱδριεύς/ Hidrieús); son of  Hecatomnus and younger brother of  Maussolus, together with his sister and wife Ada satrap of Caria between 351 and 344. In the 340s I. helped Artaxerxes III to put down the Cypriot uprising against Persia and provided Evagoras II and Phocion of Athens with ships and troops (Diod. Sic. 16,42,6f.). He was honoured in Ionic Erythrae as euergetes (‘benefactor’) and proxenos (‘guest/friend of the state’), (SEG 31,969); dedication to I. in  Labraunda (Labraunda 16) and Amyzon (OGIS 235). I. and Ada are also do…

Ceremony

(3,932 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Winterling, Aloys (Bielefeld) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] I. Mesopotamia In contrast with cultic  rituals, the secular ceremonies of Mesopotamia have up to now rarely been the subject of academic research. On the whole, it has to be assumed that individual and communal life in the societies of the Ancient Orient in general and that of the  ruler in particular were dominated by numerous rules, resulting in more or less standardized patterns of behaviour. The reconstruction of such non-cultic ceremonies is largely dependent on secondary refe…

Mesambria/Mesembria

(837 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] [1] City on the west coast of the Black Sea This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Thraci, Thracia | Colonization | Apollo | Moesi, Moesia (Μεσ(σ)αμβρία, Μεσ(σ)ημβρία/ Me(s)sambría, Me(s)sembría). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] I. Location A city on the west coast of the Black Sea ( Pontos Euxeinos), situated at the northern entrance to the bay of Burgas, on a small rocky peninsula, 850 m long and 300 m wide, now known as Nesebâr (in modern Bulgaria). It is connected with …

Pahlawa

(162 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Indian name of the kings of the so-called Indo-Parthian dynasty, which is primarily known because of its coins. Gondophares, who ended the rule of the Shaka in Arachosia (Arachosia) and ultimately probably also in Gandhara (Gandaritis), is regarded as the founder of the dynasty. The inscriptions from Taḫt-i Bahī from the 26th year of this king established his rule quite precisely as from AD 20 to 46. In keeping with this, the apostle Thomas is said to have met Gondophares on his j…

Drangiana

(279 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (or Zarangiana), as the name of the region around the lower course of the  Etymander (the modern Hilmand/Helmand Rūd) in the Iranian province of Sı̄stān, goes back to the original Iranian name Zranka, which also described the inhabitants of the region and which has a disputed etymology. It appears in the inscription of  Bı̄sutūn of Darius I (1,16) and in Greek and Latin derivations; the ‘Persian’ variants have an initial d-. According to Strabo, D. (in the Parthian period) adjoined Areia in the north and west, Carmania in the west, Gedrosia in the …

Medes

(473 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Μῆδοι, Mêdoi, Old Persian Māda, Lat. Medi). Ethnolinguistically, the population is defined as western Iranian, and their north-west Iranian language is only indirectly documented in loan words and names in secondary transmission (Achaemenid royal inscriptions, Neo-Babylonian and Neo-Assyrian cuneiform texts) from the 9th cent. BC onwards. The Medes were first mentioned in 835 BC in the annals of Salmanassar III as enemies of the Assyrians. The Median tribes were apparently only linked …

Rhodogune

(226 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Ῥοδογούνη/ Rhodogoúnē). [German version] [1] Mother of Darius I Wife of Hystaspes [2], mother of Darius [1] I (Suda and Harpocr., s. v.). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of Darius [1] I Daughter of Darius [1] I? (Hier. Adversus Iovinianum 1,45; PL 23, p. 287). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [3] Daughter of Xerxes I Daughter of Xerxes I (Ctes. FGrH 688 F 13). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [4] Daughter of Artaxerxes [2] II Daughter of Artaxerxes [2] II, wife of Orontes [2] I (Plut. Artaxerxes 27,7; cf. Xen. An. 2,4,8) an…

Gundeshapur

(108 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] ( Ǧundı̄sābūr, ‘Place of the army of Šāpūr’; middle Persian Veh-Andiyōk-Šābūr, ‘Šāpūr [made this city] better than Antioch’; Syrian Bēṯ Lāpāṭ). City located about 30 km east of Susa in which the Sassanid Šāpur ( Sapor) I settled artisans and specialists deported from Syria in the 3rd cent. AD. The town soon became a cultural and scientific centre with its own ‘university’ (important especially in the field of medicine), a main location for Persian silk manufacturing and a centre for the Christians of…

Tiridates

(1,209 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Τιριδάτης/ Tiridátēs). [German version] [1] Artaxerxes' [2] II eunuch Artaxerxes' [2] II eunuch (Ael. VH 12,1). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Achaemenid commander of Persepolis, 2nd half of 4th cent. BC Achaemenid commander and 'treasurer' of Persepolis, who was kept in his post by Alexander [4] the Great after the surrender of the 'citadel' and treasure (Diod. Sic. 17,69,1; Curt. 5,5,2; 6,11). From 330/29 BC T. was a strategos of the Ariaspae and Gedrosians (Gedrosia) (Diod. Sic. 17,81,2). In 328/7 BC, Alexander gave the estates of a T. to the pa…

Media

(554 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Region in north-western Iran, in Neo-Assyrian records referred to as KUR Ma-da-a-a. The borders of M. changed in the course of history and cannot be defined exactly in geographical terms; its political centre was Ecbatana. In historical times, the ethnolinguistic classification of M.'s predominant inhabitants was Iranian ( Medes). More or less neglected by classical Greek records, the geography of M. gained importance in the Western mind from the Alexandrian period. Polybius praised the stra…

Nihāwand

(92 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Persian Nehāvand). City in Iran, south of the Alvand mountains in the Zagros range (Media). In this region (Tepe Giyan), which was already of importance in prehistoric times, the Seleucids founded the pólis Laodiceia(-N.), where a copy of the dynastic cult inscription of Antiochus [5] III was found. A Sassanid army was defeated by the Arabs near N. in AD 642, when N. was the main city of the district and diocese. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography L. Robert, Inscriptions séleucides de Phrygie et d'Iran, in: Hellenica 7, 1949, 5-22.

Xerxes

(685 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
(Ξέρξης/ Xérxēs; Old Persian Xšayāršā, 'ruling over heroes'). [German version] [1] X. I Achaemenid great king (486-465 BC), son of Darius [1] I and Atossa [1]. 'Born in the purple', X. was designated by his father as his successor (XPf 31 ff. = [6. 81-85]; Hdt. 7,2 f.; Porphyrogénnētos ). At the beginning of his reign he defeated an uprising in Egypt (Hdt. 7,3), and later the rebellions of Šamaš-Erība and Bēl-Šimmanni in Babylonia [3. 361 ff.]. A campaign to Greece (in 480/79 BC) - about which only accounts from the…

Nisaea

(337 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] [1] Port of Megara on the Bay of Saronia (Νίσαια/ Nísaia). Port of Megara [2] on the Saronikos Kolpos near modern Páchi [1. 259]. To the east of N. in Antiquity there was the island (now part of the mainland) of Minoa [2. 56-62], connected to the mainland by a bridge (Thuc. 3,51,3). Megara and its citizens are often described in ancient sources as ‘Nisaean’ [3. 156]. In the 6th cent. BC, N. temporarily belonged to Athens (Hdt. 1,59; Plut. Solon 12,3). In 461 BC the Athenians occupied N. a second time (Thuc. 1,103,4) and connected it with the c…

Marriage, Age at

(1,038 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] I. Object of Research and Method In pre-industrial societies, the age of husband and wife at first marriage - alongside mortality and the menopause - determined the time-span available for procreation. An extension of this period usually caused a proportional rise in fertility. At the same time, the age of the husband influenced the size of the generation gap and the social and legal relations within the oíkos and familia. Ancient historians have developed various methodological approaches to establish this age, which differ in the choice of the so…

Neoi

(451 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (νέοι; néoi). In ancient Greece, the term neoi, which was also used unspecifically (‘the young’ vs. ‘the old’, gérontes/γέροντες), as a technical term described an age group or a group of young men organized as an association: neoi were the young men over 18 who had grown out of puberty, with the boundary between neoi and ἄνδρες ( ándres/men) often remaining undefined; in poleis with the ephebeia ( ephēbeía ; Athens) they followed the paídes (Child) and éphēboi by age and, therefore, belonged to the citizens with military service obligations; Xenophon cons…

Masistes

(154 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Μασίστης; Masistēs). According to Hdt.7,82 son of Darius [1] I and Atossa [1], satrap of Bactria (Hdt. 9,113) and Persian commander-in-chief (Hdt. 7,82). After the cruel death of his wife, M. is said to have been killed by the king's troops in 479/8 BC, together with his sons, while on his way to Bactria bent on insurrection (Hdt. 9,107-113). The name M. probably derives from the Old Persian ma θ iišta- (Greek μέγιστος/ mégistos, ‘the greatest’). Iust. 2,10,1-11 and Plut. Mor. 173b-c; 488d-f recount how, in exchange for recognising his kingship, Xerxe…

Aryans

(327 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] The peoples of ancient India and ancient Iran, who spoke Aryan languages referred to themselves as A. (cf. Old Indo-Aryan árya-, Iranian arya-; etymology disputed). In the 19th cent. the until then purely linguistic terms A./Aryan were for a time used synonymously with Indo-Europeans/Indo-Germanic and in this way came to be used in anthropology and ethnology, which in the Nazi era perverted them with an anti-Semitic bias into the positive counterpart of Jews/Jewish. Linguistic and religious-historical reasons support the belief that the A. were an ori…

Rhodaspes

(92 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ρωδάσπης; Rhōdáspēs). Son of the Parthian king  Phraates [4] IV. In order to secure the royal succession of Phraates [5] V, his father sent him in 10/9 BC, with other sons and grandsons, to Augustus in Rome (R. Gest. div. Aug. 32; Str. 16,1,28; Vell. Pat. 2,94,4; Tac. Ann. 2,1,2; Suet. Aug. 21,3; 43,4) where he died (tomb inscription: ILS 842). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography 1 E. Nedergaard, The Four Sons of Phraates IV in Rome, in: Acta Hyperborea 1, 1988, 102-115 2 K.-H. Ziegler, Die Beziehungen zwischen Rom und dem Partherreich, 1964, 51 f.

Sittace

(127 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Σιττάκη/ Sittákē, cf. Hecat. FGrH 1 F 285). City in and eponym of the region of Sittacene (in Mesopotamia), later called Apolloniatis. Antiochus [5] III won a victory over the rebellious Molon [1] there in 220 BC (Pol. 5,53,2 ff.) and established his own administrative district. In the Parthian Period the border between Apolloniatis and Babylonia ran near Seleucia [1] (Isidorus from Charax, Stathmoí Parthikoí 2). If Xen. An. 2,4,13 and 2,4,25 confused S. and Opis [3] (modern Tulūl al-Muǧaili), S. would probabl…

Larisa

(2,121 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Et al.
(Λάρισα; Λάρισσα; Lárisa, Lárissa). Name of numerous locations in Greece and Asia Minor, cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ. [German version] [1] Acropolis of Argos The 289-m high acropolis of Argos with Mycenaean remains (not precisely identified) [1]. The temple of Zeus Larisaios and Athena Polias under the large Venetian castle has been excavated. References: Str. 8,6,7; Paus. 2,24,1; 3f.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λάρισαι πόλεις. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 N. Vassilatos, Larissa. The Acropolis of Argos, 1994. [German version] [2] City in Achaea Phthiotis Important city in Achaea Phthi…

Karter

(187 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Middle Persian Kerdīr or Kirdīr). The name of a Sassanid religious-political official and dignitary of the 3rd cent. AD. In his four inscriptions [1. KKZ, KNRm, KNRb, KSM], originating from the times of King Vahrām II (276-293), K. describes his career from a simple hērbed (teacher priest) under Šābuhr I to mōbad and dādvar (judge) of the entire kingdom. Further, he praises his commitment to Zoroastrianism and explains his visions. The significant role attributed to him in the arrest of the Mani under Vahrām I is in fact merely se…

Cunaxa

(126 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Κούναξα; Koúnaxa). City on the left shore of the Euphrates river mentioned only by Plut. Artaxerxes 8,2. In its vicinity,  Cyrus [3] the Younger lost the battle and his life against his brother  Artaxerxes [2] II in the autumn of 401 BC. According to Plut., the city was 500 stadia away from Babylon, but according to Xen. An. 2,2,6, the distance was 360. Thus, until today the city's location cannot be clearly ascertained (Tell Kuneise?). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography H. Gasche, Autour des Dix Mille: Vest…

Life expectancy

(861 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] The term life expectancy (LE) is used in historical demography and population sociology to indicate how many years a person of a certain age has left to live under the mortality conditions in a specific society. It must be noted that this term in no way indicates the average age of death, and that the LE of a person changes significantly over the course of his or her life. In societies before the demographic transition (transition to a low birth and mortality rate), due to high mo…

Hospitality

(1,855 words)

Author(s): Felber, Heinz (Leipzig) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Wagner-Hasel, Beate (Darmstadt)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt In Egypt and Mesopotamia, hospitality was not regarded as a value in itself, but generosity to the needy was seen in both cultures as an obligatory norm, in the sense of a communicative and vertical solidarity [1; 2]. According to Egyptian sources, strangers were treated with reserve, and late teachings (Ankh-Sheshonqi 21,24f.) speak of the loneliness of a person in a strange city where (s)he has no relatives. Rarely, letters contain admonitions to treat an announced guest with proper attention…

Satibarzanes

(137 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Σατιβαρζάνης; Satibarzánēs). [German version] [1] Chamberlain of Artaxerxes [1] I 'Eunuch'/chamberlain in the entourage of Artaxerxes [1] I (Plut. Artaxerxes 12,4. Plut. Mor. 173e; Ktes. FGrH 688 F 30). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Satrap of Areia, 4th cent. BC Persian satrap of Areia [1], fought in the battle of Gaugamela on the left flank (Arr. Anab. 3,8,4), follower of Bessus and one of the assassins of Darius [3] III (Arr. Anab. 3,21,9 f.). He surrendered in 330 to Alexander  [4] the Great (Arr. Anab. 3,25,1 f.; …

Zarama

(30 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ζαράμα; Zaráma). Not precisely locatable township, mentioned only in Ptol. 6,2,16, in the interior of Media, presumably to the southwest of Europus (Rhagae). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)

Mandane

(155 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Μανδάνη; Mandánē). [German version] [1] Daughter of the Medean king Astyages According to Hdt. 1,107, Xen. Cyr. 1,2,1 and Iust. 1,4,4, daughter of the Medean king Astyages, wife of the Persian Cambyses [1] and mother of Cyrus [2]. It seems that the dynastic link thus transmitted was meant to lend retrospective legitimation to the claims of Cyrus to the Medean (and, if M.'s mother was the Lydian princess Aryenis (Hdt. 1,74), also the Lydian) throne. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of Darius [1] I and sister of Xerxes I According to the court story surviving in …

Orxines

(84 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὀρξίνης/ Orxínēs, Curtius: Orsines). Rich Persian, descendant of Cyrus [2] II, fought at Gaugamela, and in 326 BC, in the absence of Alexander [4] the Great, made himself satrap of Persis. When he attempted to have his position confirmed at a later stage, he was executed by Alexander, having been accused of killing numerous people, defiling temples and robbing the royal tombs (Arr. Anab. 3,8,5; 6,29,2; 30,1f.; Curt. 4,12,8; 10,1,24.37). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography J. Wiesehöfer, Die “dunklen Jahrhunderte” der Persis, 1994, s.v. O.

Pan Ku, Pan Chao

(57 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Siblings (1st cent. AD), authors of the Hanshu (Qian Hanshu), the official Chinese dynastic history of the Former or Western Han, containing information on the Parthian empire (Parthians; Parthia), among other subjects. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography D.D. Leslie, K.H. J. Gardiner, The Roman Empire in Chinese Sources, 1996, s.v. Pan Ku/Pan Ch'ao.

Fan Ye

(265 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Chinese author of a dynastic history that contains i.a. information on the geography of the Parthian empire and on contacts between the Parthians and the Chinese. Born AD 398 into a family of Chinese imperial officials, F. himself held the posts of administrative district officer and general in the imperial guard. Implicated in a conspiracy under emperor Wen (Sung Dyn.), he was executed in AD 446, which prevented the completion of his 100-chapter ‘History of the later Han Dynasty (AD 25-220)’, Hou Hanshu (10 chs. ‘basic annals’, benji of emperors and empresses, 80 b…

Cyaxares

(438 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Κυαξάρης, ancient Persian Uvaxštra-, etymology uncertain). [German version] [1] Median king of the 7th or 6th cent. BC Median ‘king’ of the 7th/6th cents. BC. In the Median lógos of Herodotus (Hdt. 1,73f.; 103-107) C. appears as τύραννος/ týrannos or βασιλεύς/ basileús of the Medes, as the son of  Phraortes, grandson of  Deioces and father of  Astyages. During his 40-year reign, he is said -- after a Scythian interregnum -- to have conquered the Assyrians and to have fought against Alyattes of Lydia (probably for possession of Cappado…

Syennesis

(182 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Συέννεσις/ Syénnesis). Term for indigenous Cilician dynasts with their centre at Tarsus (Xen. An. 1,2,23). According to Hdt. 1,74, one S. is supposed to have mediated the accord between the Lydians and the Medes; in the war between Croesus and Cyrus [2], Cilicia was on the Persian side (Hdt. 1,28). Another S. took part in Xerxes's campaign against Hellas (Hdt. 7,98; Aesch. Pers. 326-328). It is generally assumed that the duplicity of the third known S., the husband of Epyaxa, duri…

Turan

(322 words)

Author(s): Amann, Petra | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] [1] Important Etruscan female deity Important Etruscan female deity, whose name, inscriptionally recorded from the 7th cent. BC (ET vol. 1, 179), was originally Etruscan and implies great age. T. appears in numerous depictions from the late Etruscan period, primarily as a goddess of love, fertility, and beauty. She is identified with the Greek Aphrodite and the Roman Venus [1]; her original sphere of influence, however, may have been wider (cf. Uni). T. was one of the cult goddesses in…

Persis

(477 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Περσίς/ Persís, Str. 15,3,1, etc.; Old Persian Pārsa). Region in Southwest Iran, which (as Anshan) belonged to the kingdom of Elam and was later the home of the dynasty of the Achaemenids [2] and Sāssānids (see below). Greek and Roman authors as well as Arab geographers divided P. into different geographical and climatic zones: the hot and infertile coastal region (with ports), the rugged, cold and inhospitable mountain region and the highly fertile region of well-watered valleys (Curt. 5,4,5-9; Str. 15,3,1; Arr. I…

Wet-nurses

(438 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] While women in archaic Greece usually nursed their own children, the use of wet-nurses became more common in the classical period. The τιθήνη/ tithḗnē or τίτθη/ títh ē (the nanny who did not nurse was referred to as τροφός/ trophós) was usually a slave (such as GVI 1729), although some free-born or freed women in Athens provided this service as well, usually ξέναι/ xénai. In the visual arts, wet-nurses played a primarily attributive role up into the 4th cent., but later one can observe an increased interest in them - that is, in their function, less as persons. In Rome, wet-nu…

Roads

(6,877 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Rathmann, Michael (Bonn)
[German version] I. General The construction of a network of roads and ways and the creation of long-distance roads always correlates with settlement construction and structure. A mixed settlement structure comprises compact settlements and dispersed homesteads in large number and is in evidence across wide areas of the ancient world for the most varied epochs. Such a settlement structure produces an especially dense network of traffic routes. Ancient roads were staked out on the principle of creati…

Parni

(134 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ἄπαρνοι/Πάρνοι, Áparnoi/Párnoi, variant Πάρνοι/Σπαρνοι, Párnoi/Spárnoi: Str. 11,7,1; Lat. Aparni/Parni: etymology unclear). Part of the Dahae [1] tribe - aside from the Xánthioi/ Xantheíoi and Píssouroi (Str. 11,8,2; cf. 11,9,3) - who occupied the steppe of south-western Turkmenistan in the 3rd cent. BC (Str. 11,8,2f.; Justin. 41,1,10) and from there, under its leader Arsaces [1] I, invaded Parthia after 250 BC. The P. originally spoke an eastern Middle Iranian dialect (Parnian) whose nature can only be…

Rulers

(2,915 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Kahl, Jochem (Münster) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
I. Ancient Orient [German version] A. Terminology Designations for rulers include: (1) descriptive terms like the Sumerian LUGAL (literally 'big man'), equated in vocabularies with the Akkadian šarru ('shining one(?)'), malku ('adviser', Hebrew melek), Hittite ḥaššu- ('well-born one'); furthermore, Sumerian NUN and Akkadian rubāum ('most excellent one'), and Sumerian EN, Akkadian bēlu, Hittite išḫa- ('lord'); these apply regardless of the size and structure of the area of rule. Feminine forms are recorded. (2) Culture and epoch specific titles (a…

Zariaspa

(66 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Diadochi and Epigoni | Alexander | Graeco-Bactria | Graeco-Bactria | Hellenistic states | India, trade with | Mauryas (Ζαρίασπα/ Zaríaspa: Arr.  Anab. 4,1,5; 4,7,1; Pol. 10,49;  Str. 11,11,2; in Plin. HN 6,48 called Zariastes). Earlier name of the chief town of Bactria, which later was known as Bactra (Balkh). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)

Oxyartes

(80 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὀξυάρτης/ Oxyártēs). Sogdian nobleman; friend of Bessus and opponent of Alexander [4] the Great, father of Rhoxane. After his reconciliation with the Macedonians (his sons joined Alexander's army), he was involved in the subjugation of Sogdia and in 326/5 BC received the Paropamisad satrapy (confirmed in 323 and 321). In 317 BC, O. fought with Eumenes [1] against Antigonus [1] (Arr. Anab. 3,28,10; 4,18,4-7; 20,4; 26,6f.; 6,15,3f.; 7,6,4; Diod. Sic. 18,3,3; 39,6; 19,14,6; 48,2). Sogdiana Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)

Bisutun

(388 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Old Persian bagastāna ‘place of gods’, Βαγίστανα; Bagístana), Βαγίστανον ὄρος; Bagístanon óros, Behistun). Rock face 30 km east of Kermanshah, on the road from Babylon to Ecbatana on the  Choaspes ( Silk Road [3. 11]), on which  Darius I had his achievements from c. 520 BC recorded pictorially and in inscription -- c. 70 m above the road level -- in several phases. Because of their trilingual form (Elamite, Babylonian, Old Persian) the inscription [1] was the key to decipherment of the  cuneiform script ( Trilinguals). The reli…

Zopyrus

(988 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζώπυρος; Zṓpyros). [German version] [1] Persian, took part in the capture of Babylon Prominent Persian, son of Megabyzus [1], who according to Hdt. 3,153ff. had the gates of rebelling Babylon opened to Darius [1] I by using a ruse (self-mutilation and pretending to be a victim of the Great King). For this deceptive manoeuvre (Polyaenus, Strat. 7,13; referring to King Cyrus: Frontin. Str. 3,3,4) Z. allegedly received from Darius the satrapy of Babylonia for life and tribute-free, but he was killed when the B…

Dara

(222 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig)
[German version] [1] City in Parthia This item can be found on the following maps: Graeco-Bactria | Graeco-Bactria | Hellenistic states City in the mountain region of Apavortene in Parthia. According to Pompeius Trogus (Iust. 41,5,2-4), this place was distinguished by its strategic and geographical merits (Plin. HN 6,46) and was founded by the Parthian king  Arsaces [1] I. As the region is mentioned elsewhere (as Apauarktikene, Isid. by Charax, 1,13, and Partautikene/ Artakana Ptol. 6,5), but not the city, it is assumed that the settlement diminished in importance la…

Iran

(1,143 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Middle Persian ērān, genitive plural of ēr, in Ērān-šahr, ‘land of the  Aryans/Iranians’ < Middle Persian ēr, Sassanid inscriptions and Paḫlavī literature of the 9th cent. AD < Old Iranian * arya-, Old Persian ariya-, Avestan airya-). [German version] I. History of the term Although ariya- in itself carries ethnical meaning (the Achaemenids referred to themselves as ariya- ‘Aryan’ or respectively ariyaciça-, respectively ‘of Aryan descent’), the term I. (or respectively Ērān-šahr) as an ethical, religious, and political concept is an early Sassanid creation. Under…

Qaṣr-e Šīrīn

(126 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] A place in the Iranian province of Īlām near the Iraqi border, named after Šīrīn (Shirin), the Christian wife of the Sassanid Ḫusrau II (Chosroes [6]; 591-628). In the Islamic period, Q. was an important town on the trading and pilgrimage route from Hamadān to Baghdad. On the eastern edge of the city a large fire sanctuary (?) (Çahār Tāq) is located, and north of it, on an 8 m high terrace, a palace complex attributed to Ḫusrau II (Imārat-e Ḫusrau), 370 × 190 m in size. The entire complex should be pictured as part of a park ( parádeisos ) in Antiquity. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) B…

Mortality

(735 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] I. General Before the so-called ‘demographic transition’ with its change to lower birth and death rates, societies generally  have high natality and mortality, especially infant mortality and concomitant low average life expectancy for new-born babies. This must have been the same in Antiquity, although less is known about Greece than about the Imperium Romanum. Modern scholarship assumes an ancient life expectancy of c. 20-25 years. According to modern mortality table ‘West, level 3 - often used for comparison with Rome - a ‘stable populatio…

Gaugamela

(149 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon | Alexander Large village (κώμη μεγάλη, probably modern Tall Gōmil near Ǧabal Maqlūb, 35 km north-east of Mosul) on the river Bumelos in northern Mesopotamia (Arr. Anab. 6,11,6), near which (cf. Arr. Anab. 3,8,7) the battle between  Alexander [4] the Great and  Darius [3] III took place on 1 October 331 (Arr. Anab. 3,11-15; Curt. 4,13,26-16; Plut. Alexander 31-33; Diod. Sic. 17,56-61; Iust. 11,14). After Alexander stalled a flanking manoe…

Pylae

(411 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Pylae Gadeirides The Straits of Gibralter (Πύλαι Γαδειρίδες; Pýlai Gadeirídes). The Straits of Gibraltar; the sound (saddle depth 286 m), which is about 60 km long and at its narrowest point 13 km wide, lies between the southern tip of the Spanish Peninsula and the continent of Africa, and between the Mediterranean (Mare nostrum) in the east and Oceanus in the west. The ancient names for the straits are based on Gades (Plin. HN 3,3; 5; 74; 4,93: Gaditanum fretum; Plut. Sertorius 8,1: Γαδειραῖος πορθμός/ Gadeiraîos porthmós), on the temple of Heracles in Gades ('…

Naqš-e Rostam

(183 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Rock wall situated north of Persepolis with reliefs from the Elamite and Sassanid periods ([3. 167 No.1-8], partly with inscriptions) as well as cliff tombs with reliefs from the Achaemenid period [3. 167 No. I-IV], of which only that of Darius [1] I can be confidently attributed (through the inscription [1. DNa/b]). Others buried there are assumed to be Xerxes I, Artaxerxes [1] I and Darius [2] II. On the summit of the mountain and on the mountain generally there are numerous Zor…

Proskynesis

(645 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (προσκύνησις; proskýnēsis). Ancient gesture of reverence, a kind of blown kiss (cf. Lucian. Demosthenus enkomion 49; Apul. Apol. 56; Min. Fel. 2,4), often performed in connection with particular postures or bodily movements (turning, bowing, etc.) (Plut. Marcellus 6,11 f.; Plut. Numa 14,4; [9. 142 f.]). The term proskynesis (Aristot. Rh. 1361a 36) is derived from proskyneîn, 'kiss towards' (Aesch. Prom. 936 f.) and in content corresponds to Latin adorare and venerari (Plin. HN 28,2,25; Hier. Adversus Rufinum. 1,19; Nep. Conon 3,3; [10. 157 f., 171,…

Yuezhi

(205 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Chinese name of a 'nomadic people' with an original settlement area between the Qilian chain of mountains and Dunhuang, the starting point of the Silk Road in northwestern China. Driven from there between 176/174 and 161 BC at the command of Maodun, khan of the Xiongnu, the Y. turned west and in turn subjugated the Sai tribes (Sacae). Shortly afterwards, expelled from the Sai pasture lands in the Ili Basin and on Lake Ysyk by the Wusun, a subject people of the Xiongnu, the Y. foll…

Carmania

(311 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Καρμανία, Karmanía, Latin Carmania; etymology unclear). Name of an Iranian area east of the Persis and west of the  Gedrosia. In western documents the inhabitants of C. are called Καρμάνιοι/ Karmánioi, Latin Carmanii. This tradition distinguishes at the same time the barren north (ἡ ἔρημος Κ., e.g. Ptol. 6,5,1) from C. proper, which is described as particularly fertile (Str. 15,2,14; Arr. Ind. 32,4f.; Amm. Marc. 23,6,48). In the Achaemenid royal inscriptions, C. is mentioned as the supplier of yakā wood for the palace of Darius I in Susa [2. 14…

Mardonius

(427 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
(Μαρδόνιος/ Mardónios < old Persian Marduniya). [German version] [1] Aristocratic Persian, son of Gobryas [3] Aristocratic Persian, son of the Gobryas [3] who plotted with Darius [1] I against Gaumāta (Gaubaruva; Hdt. 6,43,1 et passim) and a sister of Darius (Hdt. 7,5,1), grandson of M. [3. DB IV 84], husband of the daughter of Darius, Artazostra (Hdt. 6,43,1; [2. PFa 5,1f., 110, 118]) and father of Artontes (Hdt. 9,84,1). As a young man M. reorganized the political affairs of the Ionian cities on behalf of th…

Pasargadae

(375 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Alexander (Πασαργάδαι/ Pasargádai, cf. Curt. 5,6,10: Pasargada). In the masculine form, name of the Persian tribe to whom the Achaemenids are said to have belonged (Hdt. 1,125), in the feminine form, the Greek name for the residence built by Cyrus [2] II (after his victory over Croesus c. 550 BC at the site of the victory over Astyages (Str. 15,3,8)?) in the Murġāb Plain (1900 m/N.N.), 30 km north-east of Persepolis (Elamite name form: Batraqataš). In the Achaemenid period, the chief monuments were sc…

Comisene

(109 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Border territory of Media, opposite Parthyene east of the Caspian Gates (the modern territory of Dāmghān). Although it had already been lost for a period to the Seleucids before the eastern campaign ( anábasis) of  Antiochus [5] III, it did not finally fall to the Parthians (along with its central town of  Hecatompylus) until the 2nd cent. BC (cf. Str. 11,9,1). In the late Sassanid period the province ( šahr) Kōmiš, which incidentally was probably never a Christian diocese [1], separated the provinces of Gurgān and Ray. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography 1 R. Gysel…

Elymais

(381 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ἐλυμαίς; Elymaís). Greek name of a region in south-west Iran ( Ḫūzestān) within the territory of the ancient empire of  Elam. Originally probably mainly used for the mountainous Baḫtı̄ārı̄ region (in contrast with the Susiana plains), the term increasingly also included the expanding territory of the Hellenistic-Parthian ‘kingdom’ of E. [1. 39-45; 2. 3-8]. E./Susiana was one of the political and economic core regions of the Achaemenid and Seleucid empires; however, for the actual E., it is to be expected that some special forms of…

Istachr

(154 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] ( Iṣṭaxr, modern Taxt-i Ṭāʾūs). Site of ancient ruins located in Persis (Fārs) on the road from Iṣfahān to Shīrāz, at  Naqš-e Rostam; having been populated since prehistoric times, a fire sanctuary for  Anāhitā - according to Arabic tradition - was subsequently located there (archaeological investigations cannot prove this); Sāsān, the eponym of the  Sassanid Dynasty, is supposed to have been its priest. Inscriptions, finds of coins, seal legends, and literary accounts clearly show th…

Tang-e Sarvak

(111 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Gorge midway between Ramhor, Hormuz and Behbahan in ancient  Elymais (region in southwestern Iran), where rock reliefs (some with Elymaean inscriptions) were carved on four stone blocks in the 2nd/3rd cents. AD. Some of the reliefs show the dynasts Abar-Basi and Orodes with dependants and dignitaries in rites of legitimization or rulership (in the presence of deities and divine symbols), and on Block III a cavalry battle (with minor characters) is depicted. The identification of t…

Phrataphernes

(162 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Φραταφέρνης/ Phrataphérnēs). Satrap of the territories of Parthia and Hyrcania under Darius [3] III (Arr. Anab. 3,23,4); he commanded the Parthians, Hyrcanians and Topeirians in the battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC ( ibidem 3,8,4). After the death of Darius he was reinstated in his old post by Alexander[4] the Great ( ibidem 3,28,2; 5,20,7; Curt. 8,3,17) and became one of the most loyal followers of the Macedonian. He took part in the suppression of the rebellion in Areia [1] ( ibidem 3,28,2; 4,18,1), arrested the insurgent Autophradates [2] (ibidem 4,18,2; Curt. 8,3,17…

Ostanes

(400 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Ὀστάνης/ Ostánēs). [German version] [1] Persian governor of Babylonia and the Transeuphrates Akkadian Uštani. Persian governor of Babylonia and the Transeuphrates under Darius I (attested from 521-516 BC) [1]. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography 1 M.W. Stolper, Entrepreneurs and Empire, 1985, 8, 66. [German version] [2] Persian magician (Hostanes: Apul. Apol. 90). According to the Graeco-Roman biographical tradition, O. was a Persian magician who accompanied the expedition of Xerxes against Greece (479 BC) (Plin. HN 30,8 = [1. fragment 1…

Callonitis

(76 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Καλλωνῖτις, Kallōnîtis, other form of the name Χαλωνῖτις/ Chalōnîtis). Area mentioned by Pol. 5,54,7 and considered part of Media, directly west of the great  Zagrus passes along the upper Diyālā; here  Antiochus [5] III had the corpse of the rioter  Molon impaled; neighbouring region of Apolloniatis. Str. 16,1,1 considers C. as still part of Ἀτουρία, i.e. Mesopotamia. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography H. H. Schmitt, Unt. zur Gesch. Antiochos d.Gr. und seiner Zeit, 1964, Index s.v. Chalonitis.

Oreitae

(94 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὠρεῖται/ Ōreîtai, also Ὦροι/ Ôroi). Not an Indian ethnic group (cf. Arr. Ind. 21,8; 22,10; 25,2; incorrectly  Arr. Anab. 6,21,3) but probably an Iranian ethnic group with the centre at Rhambakeia (Arr. Anab. 6,21,5; probably close to modern Las Bela) in the modern Pakistani province of Baluchistan. According to Arr. Anab. 6,21,3, the O. lived fully autonomously before Alexander [4] the Great subjugated them in 325 BC and placed them under the control of the satrap Apollophanes. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography P.H.L. Eggermont, Alexander's Campaigns in Si…

Spithridates

(127 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Σπιθριδάτης/ Spithridátēs, 'granted by heaven'). [German version] [1] Persian commander, 5th cent. BC Persian commander from a highly prominent family (Xen. Hell. 4,1,6 f.). In 420 BC, he fought against the rebellious Pissuthnes, and under Pharnabazus [2] against the Ten Thousand, joined Agesilaus [2] in 396 and returned to the Persians in 395/394 (Ctes. FGrH 688 F 15,53; Xen. An. 6,5,7; Xen. Hell. 3,4,10; 4,1,20 ff.; Xen. Ages. 3,3). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography Briant, Index s. v. S. [German version] [2] Satrap of Lydia, 4th cent. BC Satrap of Lydia and Ionia who …

Zaranis

(40 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ζαρανίς/Ζανιρίς; Zaranis/Zaniris). Not accurately locatable township, mentioned only in Ptol. 6,2,13, in the interior of Media (cf. Zonbis in Amm. Marc. 23,6,39). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography M. G. Schmidt, Die Nebenüberlieferung des 6. Buchs der Geographika des Ptolemaios, 1999, 25 f.

Historiography

(6,587 words)

Author(s): Frahm, Eckart (Heidelberg) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hose, Martin (Munich) | Et al.
I. Ancient Orient [German version] A. Introduction Judged by the principles of modern historiography, this discipline did not exist in the Ancient Orient. Nevertheless, the past has been treated in the literature in various ways, which indicates that history was an essential source of political and religious identity in the Ancient Orient. Frahm, Eckart (Heidelberg) [German version] B. Mesopotamia Records with a historical orientation do not emerge until the middle of the 3rd millennium BC in the form of royal inscriptions of Lagaš. Deeds are reported f…

Empires, Concept of empire

(1,874 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient The idea of a  rulership that encompassed the entire known world was expressed in Mesopotamia in various royal epithets ─ i.a. ‘Ruler of the Four Regions (of the world)’ ( šar kibrāt arbaim/erbettim), ‘Ruler over the Totality’ ( šar kiššatim), ‘Ruler of Rulers’ ( šar šarrāni). The title ‘Ruler of the Four Regions (of the world)’ is first documented for the Akkadian ruler  Naramsin (23rd cent. BC). However, the claim inherent in this title did not hold true according to contemporary documents, since Naramsin's…

Glos

(139 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Γλῶς/ Glôs, Diod. Sic. 14,19,6; Γλοῦς/ Gloûs, Xen. An. 2,1,3). Son of the ‘Egyptian’ Tamos of Memphis (probably the Carian Tamos, born in Memphis), marched with Cyrus the Younger against his brother Artaxerxes II in 401 BC and after Cyrus' death defected to the other side (Xen. An. 1,4,16; 1,5,7; 2,1,3; 2,4,24). As commander of the fleet and son-in-law of the satrap  Tiribazus, G. organized the grain transport from Cilicia in the war against Evagoras of Salamis and defeated him in 381 …

Orontopates

(93 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὀροντοβάτης/ Orontobátēs, Arrianus; ΡΟΟΝΤΟΠΑΤΟ, coins, HN 630). Younger brother of the Carian satrap Mausolus, Persian co-regent appointed by Darius [3] III and son-in-law of the Carian dynast Pixodarus. After the death of Pixodarus in 334 BC, O. defended Halicarnassus as satrap of Caria against Alexander [4] the Great, and ultimately the castle against Ptolemaeus. Following his flight in 333, O. commanded Persian troops at Gaugamela. Arr. Anab. 1,23; 2,5,7; 3,8,5; 11,5; Str. 14,2,17; Curt. 4,12,7. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography Briant, Index s.v. O.  S…

Pubertas

(354 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] I. Age thresholds The onset of pubertas, sexual maturity and the autonomy categorically connected to it (Fest. p. 250 s. v. pubes: puer qui iam generare potest), was assumed for girls to come with the completion of their 12th year (Cass. Dio 54,16,7), and was established for boys only by the inspectio habitudinis corporis ( indagatio corporis).  In AD 529, Justinian finally abolished the obligatory indagatio, considering it too offensive a procedure (Cod. Iust. 5,60,3). The attainment of pubertas by boys was recognized and celebrated on the occasion of the f…

Sagartii

(210 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Σαγάρτιοι/ Sagártioi; Old Persian asagarta 'Sagartia', asagartiya 'Sagartian', 'Sagartians'). In an inscription of Darius [1] I from Persepolis that lists the lands/peoples of the empire, the S. precede the Parthians, Drangianians, Arians and Bactrians [3. DPe 15-16]. In the inscription of Bīsutūn, the same ruler reports that two 'pretenders to the throne' - the Mede Fravartiš (Phraortes [3]) and the Sagartian Ciçantaḫma (who was later executed in Arbela) - had passed themselves off as …

Sisygambis

(145 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Σισύγαμβις/ Sisýgambis, in Diodorus mostly Σισύγγαμβρις/ Sisýngambris). Daughter of Ostanes, a brother of Artaxerxes [2] II, sister and wife of Arsames [2] (Diod. Sic.17,5,5), as well as the mother of Darius [3] III. In 333 BC, after the battle of Issus she fell into the hands of Alexander [4] the Great (Arr. Anab. 2,11,9; Plut. Alexander 21; Curt. 3,11,24) and was treated with deference by him (cf. her rescue of the rebellious Uxians: Curt. 5,3,12 ff.). She stayed behind with Prince O…

Otanes

(227 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Ὀτάνης/ Otánēs, Ancient Persian Utāna). [German version] [1] Son of Thuxra Son of Θuxra [2nd DB IV 83], one of the accomplices of Darius [1] I in the murder of Gaumāta (Smerdis). According to Hdt. 3,68-70, who gives Pharnaspes as O's father, O was even the instigator of the plot. Through his sister Cassandane (Hdt. 2,1; 3,2), O was brother-in-law of Cyrus [2] (II), and through his daughter Phaedyme father-in-law of Cambyses II, Smerdis and Darius (Hdt. 3,68). His influential status may also have secured t…

Familienplanung

(555 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] Obgleich in der ant. Gynäkologie zwischen Abtreibung und Empfängnisverhütung unterschieden wurde (Soran. 1,60), sind die entsprechenden Mittel und Praktiken nicht exakt voneinander zu trennen, weil einerseits die Unterbrechung der als Prozeß angesehenen Konzeption in einem frühen Stadium der Schwangerschaft durchaus als kontrazeptiv bewertet wurde und andererseits angesichts fehlender Kenntnisse über den Zeitpunkt der Empfängnis ein kontrazeptiv eingesetztes Mittel auch als Abort…

Herrscher

(2,558 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Kahl, Jochem (Münster) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Eder, Walter (Bochum)
I. Alter Orient [English version] A. Terminologie Als Bezeichnungen für H. finden sich 1. beschreibende Begriffe wie sumer. lugal (wörtlich “großer Mann”), in Vokabularen gleichgesetzt mit akkad. šarru (“Glänzender(?)”), malku (“Ratgeber”, hebr. melek), hethit. ḥaššu- (“Wohlgeborener”); des weiteren sumer. nun und akkad. rubāum (“Vornehmster”), sowie sumer. en, akkad. bēlu, hethit. išḫa- (“Herr”); diese gelten unabhängig von Größe und Struktur des Herrschaftsbereiches. Fem.-Bildungen sind belegt. 2. kultur- und epochenspezifische Titel (darunt…

Elymäer

(135 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Ἐλυμαῖοι). [English version] [1] Bewohner der Elymais Bewohner der Elymais, die von den ant. Autoren in erster Linie als Berglandbewohner bzw., in mil. Zusammenhängen, als berittene Bogenschützen beschrieben werden (vgl. u.a. App. Syr. 32; Strab. 16,1,17; Liv. 37,40,9). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [English version] [2] Bewohner der Elburz-Region Nach Pol. 5,44,9 Nachbarn der Bewohner von Media Atropatene in der Elburz-Region an der SW-Ecke des Kaspischen Meeres. Bei Plut. Pompeius 36 tritt ein ‘König der Elymäer und Meder’ in diplomatischen Ko…

Phrataphernes

(139 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] (Φραταφέρνης). Satrap der Landschaften Parthia und Hyrkania unter Dareios [3] III. (Arr. an. 3,23,4); befehligte Parther, Hyrkaner und Topeirer in der Schlacht bei Gaugamela 331 v.Chr. (ebd. 3,8,4). Nach des Dareios Tod von Alexandros [4] d.Gr. wieder in seine alte Stellung eingesetzt (ebd. 3,28,2; 5,20,7; Curt. 8,3,17), wurde er zu einem der treuesten Gefolgsleute des Makedonen, war an der Niederschlagung des Aufstandes in Areia [1] beteiligt (ebd. 3,28,2; 4,18,1), nahm den Aufr…

Hekatompylos

(119 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Alexandros | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Indienhandel Nach Appianos (Syr. 57,298, Ἑκατόμπολις) Neugründung Seleukos' I. in der Komisene, nach Plinius (nat. 6,17,44) 133 Meilen von den Kaspischen Toren entfernt. Wohl das h. Šahr-e Qūmes bei Damghan. Wurde nach vorübergehender arsakidischer Besetzung zu Beginn des 2. Jh. v.Chr. parth. Residenzstadt. Bei Ausgrabungen kamen zahlreiche Zeugnisse aus parth. Zeit zum Vorschein, darunter - neben Palas…

Prexaspes

(108 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Πρηξάσπης). [English version] [1] Vornehmer Perser Vornehmer Perser, der (nach Hdt. 3,30; 65) im Auftrag des Königs Kambyses [2] dessen Bruder Smerdis (Bardiya [1]) aus dem Weg räumte. Obgleich dem wahnsinnigen König treu, leugnete er nach dessen Tod den Smerdismord, offenbarte aber schließlich vor den versammelten Persern die Usurpation der Magier (Patizeithes), rief zu ihrem Sturz auf und beging Selbstmord (Hdt. 3,66 ff.; 74 ff.). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [English version] [2] Sohn des Aspathines Sohn des Aspathines, des “Bogenträgers” des Dareios [1] I. (und mög…

Karmania

(269 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] (Καρμανία, lat. Carmania; Etym. unklar). Name einer iran. Landschaft östl. der Persis und westl. der Gedrosia. Die Bewohner von K. werden in den westl. Zeugnissen Καρμάνιοι/ Karmánioi bzw. lat. Carmanii genannt. Diese Überlieferung unterscheidet zugleich den unfruchtbaren Norden (ἡ ἔρημος Κ. z.B. Ptol. 6,5,1) vom eigentlichen K., das als bes. fruchtbar beschrieben wird (Strab. 15,2,14; Arr. Ind. 32,4f.; Amm. 23,6,48). In den achäm. Königsinschriften wird K. als Lieferant von yakā-Holz für den Palast Dareios' I. in Susa erwähnt [2. 143 DSf…

Idrieus

(142 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] (Hidrieus; Ἱδριεύς); Sohn des Hekatomnos und jüngerer Bruder des Maussolos, zusammen mit seiner Schwester und Gemahlin Ada Satrap von Karien zw. 351 und 344. I. half Artaxerxes III. in den 340er Jahren, die zyprische Erhebung gegen Persien niederzuschlagen, und stellte zu diesem Zweck Euagoras II. und Phokion von Athen Schiffe und Truppen zur Verfügung (Diod. 16,42,6f.). Als euergétēs (“Wohltäter”) und próxenos (“Staatsgastfreund”) geehrt im ionischen Erythrai (SEG 31,969); Weihinschr. des I. in Labraunda (Labraunda 16) und Amyzon (OGIS…
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