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Orobazus

(74 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὀρόβαζος/ Oróbazos). Envoy of the Parthian king Mithridates [13] II who met Cornelius [I 90] Sulla, the proconsular governor of Cilicia, in AD 96 (Plut. Sulla 5,4) in order to offer him 'friendship and an alliance' (Liv. epitome 70; Rufius Festus 15,2; Flor. Epit. 3,12). He is said to have subsequently paid with his life for his inadequate resistance to the humiliating behaviour of the Roman (Plut. Sulla 5,4). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)

Child exposure

(711 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Exposure of children (Greek έκθεσις/ ékthesis; Lat. expositio/ oblatio), which must be clearly distinguished from infanticide, is to be seen as a method of ancient family planning. The decision whether to expose an infant lay with the head of the family: in Greece -- with the exception of Sparta, where the phyle elders (των φυλετῶν οί πρεσβύτατοι) examined newly born infants either to order or to forbid that they be raised -- this was the κύριος/  kýrios ; in Rome the pater familias. Demographic theories regarding the frequency of infant exposure are not unprob…

Rhoxane

(278 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Ῥωξάνη/ Rhōxánē). [German version] [1] Wife of Cambyses [2] II Wife of Cambyses [2] II (Ctesias FGrH 688 F 13). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of Hydarnes Daughter of Hydarnes, half-sister of Terituchmes, fell victim with her whole family to the vengeance of Parysatis [1] (Ctesias FGrH 688 F 15) because Terituchmes had turned away from his wife Amestris and devoted himself to R. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [3] Daughter of Darius [3] III According to Julius Valerius 2,33 among others, daughter of Darius [3] III who in 332 offered her…

Parthians

(1,586 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Πάρθοι/ Párthoi, Hdt. 3,93 i.a.; Παρθυαῖοι/ Parthyaîoi Pol. 10,31,15; App. Syr. 65 i.a.; Latin Parthi, Just. Epit. 41,1,1 et passim. In a narrower sense a term for the inhabitants of the province of Parthia and/or the Parni, who invaded Parthia, and in a wider sense the inhabitants of the Arsacid Empire (Arsaces) or their political elite. [German version] I. Evidence In the written tradition (for a discussion of the evidence and literature concerning it see [21]; see also [19. 117-129, 276-278]) on the Parthians, contemporary indigenous sources take pre…

Orxines

(84 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὀρξίνης/ Orxínēs, Curtius: Orsines). Rich Persian, descendant of Cyrus [2] II, fought at Gaugamela, and in 326 BC, in the absence of Alexander [4] the Great, made himself satrap of Persis. When he attempted to have his position confirmed at a later stage, he was executed by Alexander, having been accused of killing numerous people, defiling temples and robbing the royal tombs (Arr. Anab. 3,8,5; 6,29,2; 30,1f.; Curt. 4,12,8; 10,1,24.37). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography J. Wiesehöfer, Die “dunklen Jahrhunderte” der Persis, 1994, s.v. O.

Fan Ye

(265 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Chinese author of a dynastic history that contains i.a. information on the geography of the Parthian empire and on contacts between the Parthians and the Chinese. Born AD 398 into a family of Chinese imperial officials, F. himself held the posts of administrative district officer and general in the imperial guard. Implicated in a conspiracy under emperor Wen (Sung Dyn.), he was executed in AD 446, which prevented the completion of his 100-chapter ‘History of the later Han Dynasty (AD 25-220)’, Hou Hanshu (10 chs. ‘basic annals’, benji of emperors and empresses, 80 b…

Rhodaspes

(92 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ρωδάσπης; Rhōdáspēs). Son of the Parthian king  Phraates [4] IV. In order to secure the royal succession of Phraates [5] V, his father sent him in 10/9 BC, with other sons and grandsons, to Augustus in Rome (R. Gest. div. Aug. 32; Str. 16,1,28; Vell. Pat. 2,94,4; Tac. Ann. 2,1,2; Suet. Aug. 21,3; 43,4) where he died (tomb inscription: ILS 842). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography 1 E. Nedergaard, The Four Sons of Phraates IV in Rome, in: Acta Hyperborea 1, 1988, 102-115 2 K.-H. Ziegler, Die Beziehungen zwischen Rom und dem Partherreich, 1964, 51 f.

Gordyaea

(183 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Γορδυηνή/ Gordyēnḗ, Plut. Lucullus 21; 26; 29 and passim; Plut. Pompey 36; Ptol. 5,12,9; Str. 11,14,2; 14,8; 14,15; App. Mith. 105; Γορδυαία/ Gordyaía, Str. 16,1,8; 1,21; 2,5). Region on the border of Armenia, the Adiabene, and the Atropatene on the upper course of the Tigris, south of Lake Van, with the poleis Sareisa (modern Šārı̄š), Satalka, and Pinaka (modern Finek) (Str. 16,1,24). Strabo identifies the inhabitants of the region, the Gordyaíoi (Γορδυαῖοι), with the   Carduchi (Καρδοῦχοι) (cf. Xen. An. 4,1,8; Plin. HN 6,44). After …

Drangiana

(279 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (or Zarangiana), as the name of the region around the lower course of the  Etymander (the modern Hilmand/Helmand Rūd) in the Iranian province of Sı̄stān, goes back to the original Iranian name Zranka, which also described the inhabitants of the region and which has a disputed etymology. It appears in the inscription of  Bı̄sutūn of Darius I (1,16) and in Greek and Latin derivations; the ‘Persian’ variants have an initial d-. According to Strabo, D. (in the Parthian period) adjoined Areia in the north and west, Carmania in the west, Gedrosia in the …

Masistes

(154 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Μασίστης; Masistēs). According to Hdt.7,82 son of Darius [1] I and Atossa [1], satrap of Bactria (Hdt. 9,113) and Persian commander-in-chief (Hdt. 7,82). After the cruel death of his wife, M. is said to have been killed by the king's troops in 479/8 BC, together with his sons, while on his way to Bactria bent on insurrection (Hdt. 9,107-113). The name M. probably derives from the Old Persian ma θ iišta- (Greek μέγιστος/ mégistos, ‘the greatest’). Iust. 2,10,1-11 and Plut. Mor. 173b-c; 488d-f recount how, in exchange for recognising his kingship, Xerxe…

Hecatompylus

(135 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Alexander | Hellenistic states | India, trade with According to Appianus (Syr. 57,298, Ἑκατόμπολις/ Hekatómpolis), a new foundation of Seleucus I in Comisene; according to Pliny (HN 6,17,44), 133 miles from the Caspian Gates. Probably the modern Šahr-e Qūmes near  Damghan. After brief Arsacid occupation at the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC, it became Parthian capital. Excavation has brought to light abundant evidence from the Parthian period, including - bes…

Mazaeus

(243 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Μαζαῖος; Mazaîos). Persian nobleman, highly respected at the Achaemenid court (Curt. 5,1,18; Plut. Alexander 39), father of Antibelus, Artiboles and Hydarnes. Under Artaxerxes [3] III, M. was satrap of Cilicia and Persian commander in the war against the rebellious Phoenicians (Diod. Sic. 16,42,1f.). Under Darius [3] III, he administered Coele Syria and ‘Syria between the rivers’. In 331 BC, he withdrew from his position near Thapsacus, enabling Alexander [4] the Great to cross th…

Naqš-e Rostam

(183 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Rock wall situated north of Persepolis with reliefs from the Elamite and Sassanid periods ([3. 167 No.1-8], partly with inscriptions) as well as cliff tombs with reliefs from the Achaemenid period [3. 167 No. I-IV], of which only that of Darius [1] I can be confidently attributed (through the inscription [1. DNa/b]). Others buried there are assumed to be Xerxes I, Artaxerxes [1] I and Darius [2] II. On the summit of the mountain and on the mountain generally there are numerous Zor…

Pasargadae

(375 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Alexander (Πασαργάδαι/ Pasargádai, cf. Curt. 5,6,10: Pasargada). In the masculine form, name of the Persian tribe to whom the Achaemenids are said to have belonged (Hdt. 1,125), in the feminine form, the Greek name for the residence built by Cyrus [2] II (after his victory over Croesus c. 550 BC at the site of the victory over Astyages (Str. 15,3,8)?) in the Murġāb Plain (1900 m/N.N.), 30 km north-east of Persepolis (Elamite name form: Batraqataš). In the Achaemenid period, the chief monuments were sc…

Great King

(273 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] The title Great King in the ancient Oriental tradition (from the 2nd millennium BC to the Achaemenids [1]) was adopted by Hellenistic rulers as μέγας βασιλεύς; megas basileûs (and continued as rex magnus [2. 253]). It is attested for the Seleucids  Antiochus [5] III, who did not use it on coins and in royal letters, but tolerated (or even promoted) its use elsewhere [3. 75-77],  Antiochus [9] VII (Iust. 38,10,6), Ptolemy III (OGIS I 54) and IV [5. 71-74], and later also for other Hellenistic kings and petty prin…

Karter

(187 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Middle Persian Kerdīr or Kirdīr). The name of a Sassanid religious-political official and dignitary of the 3rd cent. AD. In his four inscriptions [1. KKZ, KNRm, KNRb, KSM], originating from the times of King Vahrām II (276-293), K. describes his career from a simple hērbed (teacher priest) under Šābuhr I to mōbad and dādvar (judge) of the entire kingdom. Further, he praises his commitment to Zoroastrianism and explains his visions. The significant role attributed to him in the arrest of the Mani under Vahrām I is in fact merely se…

Oxathres

(184 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Ὀξάθρης/ Oxáthrēs). [German version] [1] Youngest son of Darius [2] II and Parysatis Youngest son of Darius [2] II and Parysatis (Plut. Artoxerxes 1,5). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Abulites, commander at Gaugamela Son of Abulites, commander of his father's troops at Gaugamela; he subjugated himself to Alexander [4] the Great, but he (now governor of Paraetacene) was executed in Susa in 324 because he failed to provide assistance to the Greek army marching through the Gedrosian desert (Arr. Anab. 3,8,5; …

Phrataphernes

(162 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Φραταφέρνης/ Phrataphérnēs). Satrap of the territories of Parthia and Hyrcania under Darius [3] III (Arr. Anab. 3,23,4); he commanded the Parthians, Hyrcanians and Topeirians in the battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC ( ibidem 3,8,4). After the death of Darius he was reinstated in his old post by Alexander[4] the Great ( ibidem 3,28,2; 5,20,7; Curt. 8,3,17) and became one of the most loyal followers of the Macedonian. He took part in the suppression of the rebellion in Areia [1] ( ibidem 3,28,2; 4,18,1), arrested the insurgent Autophradates [2] (ibidem 4,18,2; Curt. 8,3,17…

Marriage, Age at

(1,038 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] I. Object of Research and Method In pre-industrial societies, the age of husband and wife at first marriage - alongside mortality and the menopause - determined the time-span available for procreation. An extension of this period usually caused a proportional rise in fertility. At the same time, the age of the husband influenced the size of the generation gap and the social and legal relations within the oíkos and familia. Ancient historians have developed various methodological approaches to establish this age, which differ in the choice of the so…

Parysatis

(274 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Παρύσατις; Parysatis, Babylonian Purušātu). [German version] [1] Daughter of Artaxerxes [1] I and the Babylonian Andia Daughter of Artaxerxes [1] I and the Babylonian Andia; wife of her half-brother Darius [2] II, mother of Artaxerxes [2] II and Cyrus [3] the Younger (Ctesias FGrH 688 F 15; Plut. Artoxerxes 2,4) among other children. According to Greek tradition, she is said to have had a great influence on Darius (Ctesias ibid.; Plut. Artoxerxes 2,2), preferred Cyrus (Xen. An. 1,1,3; Ctesias FGrH 688 F 17), a…

Nishapur

(76 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] ( Nēv Šābuhr). City founded by Šābuhr I (Sapor) (Ḥamza Iṣfah, Šahristānihā-i Ērān; Ṭabarī: Šābuhr II), capital of the Sāssānid province of Abaršahr in Westḫorāsān (Iran). Under Yazdgird II (5th cent. AD) it was for a time the most important royal residence of the Sāssānids (battles against the Hephthalites), and the city, in whose vicinity was also an important fire sanctuary, remained a flourishing metropolis until the Mongol Conquest of the 13th cent. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)

Comisene

(109 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Border territory of Media, opposite Parthyene east of the Caspian Gates (the modern territory of Dāmghān). Although it had already been lost for a period to the Seleucids before the eastern campaign ( anábasis) of  Antiochus [5] III, it did not finally fall to the Parthians (along with its central town of  Hecatompylus) until the 2nd cent. BC (cf. Str. 11,9,1). In the late Sassanid period the province ( šahr) Kōmiš, which incidentally was probably never a Christian diocese [1], separated the provinces of Gurgān and Ray. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography 1 R. Gysel…

Xenippa

(122 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Fertile and densely settled area in Sogdiana, mentioned only in Curt. 8,2,14 as "bordering Scythia." The location and region are today identified with Erkurgan and its surrounding area near Karshi in the plain of the River Qashqadaryo in Uzbekistan. At the approach of Alexander [4]  the Great in the winter of 329/8 BC the inhabitants of X. expelled the Bactrians (Bactria) that had defected from the Macedonians and sought refuge in their land. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography 1 F. Grenet, Zoroastre au Badakhshân, in: Studia Iranica 31, 2002, 193-214 2 C. Rapin, …

Gaugamela

(149 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon | Alexander Large village (κώμη μεγάλη, probably modern Tall Gōmil near Ǧabal Maqlūb, 35 km north-east of Mosul) on the river Bumelos in northern Mesopotamia (Arr. Anab. 6,11,6), near which (cf. Arr. Anab. 3,8,7) the battle between  Alexander [4] the Great and  Darius [3] III took place on 1 October 331 (Arr. Anab. 3,11-15; Curt. 4,13,26-16; Plut. Alexander 31-33; Diod. Sic. 17,56-61; Iust. 11,14). After Alexander stalled a flanking manoe…

Media

(554 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Region in north-western Iran, in Neo-Assyrian records referred to as KUR Ma-da-a-a. The borders of M. changed in the course of history and cannot be defined exactly in geographical terms; its political centre was Ecbatana. In historical times, the ethnolinguistic classification of M.'s predominant inhabitants was Iranian ( Medes). More or less neglected by classical Greek records, the geography of M. gained importance in the Western mind from the Alexandrian period. Polybius praised the stra…

Oroetes

(86 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὀροίτης; Oroítēs). Persian governor in Sardeis who (according to Hdt. 3,120ff.) had Polycrates [1] enticed from Samos to Magnesia and crucified. When O. refused to assist Darius [1] I after the death of Cambyses [2], Darius had him disposed of (according to Herodotus, through a command from the royal envoy Bagaeus to the O.'s bodyguard). From the entourage of O., the physician Democedes came to the Persian court. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography P. Briant, Histoire de l'Empire perse: de Cyrus à Alexandre, 1996, s.v. Oroites

Life expectancy

(861 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] The term life expectancy (LE) is used in historical demography and population sociology to indicate how many years a person of a certain age has left to live under the mortality conditions in a specific society. It must be noted that this term in no way indicates the average age of death, and that the LE of a person changes significantly over the course of his or her life. In societies before the demographic transition (transition to a low birth and mortality rate), due to high mo…

Cunaxa

(126 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Κούναξα; Koúnaxa). City on the left shore of the Euphrates river mentioned only by Plut. Artaxerxes 8,2. In its vicinity,  Cyrus [3] the Younger lost the battle and his life against his brother  Artaxerxes [2] II in the autumn of 401 BC. According to Plut., the city was 500 stadia away from Babylon, but according to Xen. An. 2,2,6, the distance was 360. Thus, until today the city's location cannot be clearly ascertained (Tell Kuneise?). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography H. Gasche, Autour des Dix Mille: Vest…

Sacaraucae

(212 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Σακαραῦκαι/ Sakaraûkai; on the name [2. 68]). A people originally living on the borders of Transoxiana, regarded by Str. 11,8,2 ( cf. Just. Epit. prol. 41), together with the Asii, Pasiani and Tochari, among the conquerors of Bactria (in the 2nd cent. BC). After Parthian kings had already been forced at the end of the 2nd cent. BC into conflict with nomadic peoples on the eastern border of the empire, in 78/77 BC the S. even succeeded in placing Sanatruces [1] on the Parthian throne, an Arsacid acce…

Gobryas

(423 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Γωβρύας; Gōbrýas, Akkadian Gu/Gú-ba/bar-ru( -u; Elamite Kam-bar-ma, ancient Persian Gaubaruva-). Name of various Achaemenid dignitaries. [German version] [1] Governor of Cyrus the Gr. ‘Governor’ of Cyrus the Great known from the Nabonidus Chronicle (3,20 [4]) who after the conquest of Babylonia appointed administrative officials there. Presumably identical to Ugbaru, the ‘Governor of Gutium’ mentioned in 3,15 who captured Babylon for the Persian king and died there a few days after Cyrus' arrival. In this case it i…

Neoi

(451 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (νέοι; néoi). In ancient Greece, the term neoi, which was also used unspecifically (‘the young’ vs. ‘the old’, gérontes/γέροντες), as a technical term described an age group or a group of young men organized as an association: neoi were the young men over 18 who had grown out of puberty, with the boundary between neoi and ἄνδρες ( ándres/men) often remaining undefined; in poleis with the ephebeia ( ephēbeía ; Athens) they followed the paídes (Child) and éphēboi by age and, therefore, belonged to the citizens with military service obligations; Xenophon cons…

Zarotis

(82 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] River, mentioned only in Plin. HN 6,99, which flowed into the Persian Gulf. Presumably identical to the Or(o)atis, named in Plin. HN 6,111; 136 as the border river between Persis and Elymais (cf. Ptol. 6,3,1; 6,4,1 f.: Oroátis; Amm. Marc. 23,6,26: Oroates; modern Šūr Āb) or the Arosis, described in Arr. Ind. 39,9 as the border between the Persians and the Susians (modern Zohre/Hendīǧān). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography 1 M. G. Schmidt, Die Nebenüberlieferung des 6. Buchs der 'Geographie' des Ptolemaios, 1999, 25 f.

Satibarzanes

(137 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Σατιβαρζάνης; Satibarzánēs). [German version] [1] Chamberlain of Artaxerxes [1] I 'Eunuch'/chamberlain in the entourage of Artaxerxes [1] I (Plut. Artaxerxes 12,4. Plut. Mor. 173e; Ktes. FGrH 688 F 30). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Satrap of Areia, 4th cent. BC Persian satrap of Areia [1], fought in the battle of Gaugamela on the left flank (Arr. Anab. 3,8,4), follower of Bessus and one of the assassins of Darius [3] III (Arr. Anab. 3,21,9 f.). He surrendered in 330 to Alexander  [4] the Great (Arr. Anab. 3,25,1 f.; …

Satrap

(933 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Old Persian ḫšaçapāvan-, 'protector of the kingdom/dynasty', Elamic šá-ak-šá-ba-ma, Akkadian aḫšadrapanu, Imperial Aramaic ḥšatrapan, Greek usually σατράπης/ satrápēs [9]; Latin satrapa, -es, satraps). Title of a Persian-Achaemenid (seminal: [3]), later also Seleucid, Parthian and Sassanid provincial governor (Parthian ḥštrp / ḫšahrap/; Middle Persian štrp / šahrap/). The title appears first in the Bīsutūn inscription of Darius [1] I [11. DB III 14.56], where it denotes two appointees of the new king in Bactria and Arachosi…

Sassanids

(3,054 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
In the narrower sense, the term S. designates the members of the Iranian dynasty of the descendants of Sāsān; in the broader sense, it designates the inhabitants of the Sassanid Empire or its political elite (3rd-7th cents. AD). [German version] I. Evidence Among the written sources (discussion and literature in [25. 153-164, 283-287]; cf. also [1; 6; 27]), the contemporary indigenous evidence should have priority, esp.: a) the inscriptions, some multilingual, of kings and dignitaries (of the 3rd cent. AD) of Persis, the ancestral homel…

Megabazus

(144 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Μεγαβάζος; Megabázos). Name of several distinguished Persians. [German version] [1] Commander under Dareius [1] I. Commander under Darius [1] I, father of Oebares (Hdt. 6,33) and of Bubares (7,22). After his Scythian campaign in 513, the king left him in Europe to conquer Thrace (Hdt. 5,2). M. subjugated all the inhabitants of the Hellespont, Perinthus (5,2), and Thrace (ibid.) who were not already subjected to the Persians (Hdt. 4,144), as well as the Paeonians (5,15). He accomplished the subjugation of the Macedonian king Amyntas [1] through envoys (Hdt. 5,17f.; Iust. 7,3,7). Wiese…

Cyaxares

(438 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Κυαξάρης, ancient Persian Uvaxštra-, etymology uncertain). [German version] [1] Median king of the 7th or 6th cent. BC Median ‘king’ of the 7th/6th cents. BC. In the Median lógos of Herodotus (Hdt. 1,73f.; 103-107) C. appears as τύραννος/ týrannos or βασιλεύς/ basileús of the Medes, as the son of  Phraortes, grandson of  Deioces and father of  Astyages. During his 40-year reign, he is said -- after a Scythian interregnum -- to have conquered the Assyrians and to have fought against Alyattes of Lydia (probably for possession of Cappado…

Stateira

(274 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Στάτειρα/ Státeira; Latin Statira). [German version] [1] Wife of Artaxerxes [2] II, c. 400 BC Daughter of Hydarnes, sister of Terituchmes and wife of Artaxerxes [2] II (Ktesias FGrH 688 F 15), who was beloved by the people (Plut. Artaxerxes 5,6). She was poisoned by the queen mother Parysatis [1] (Deinon FGrH 690 F 15b). In Chariton's novel S. fights Callirhoe for the love of the Great King, recognises her beauty and is rescued by Callirhoe from imprisonment in Egypt. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Sister of Darius [3] III, 4th cent. BC Wife and sister of Darius [3] III…

Hystaspes

(321 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Ὑστάσπης; Hystáspēs, ancient Persian/Avestian Vi/īštāspa-, ‘with untied horses (for the race)’). Name of various Iranian personalities. [German version] [1] Patron of Zarathustra As kauui- (Kavi, prince) the decisive patron of Zarathustra ( Zoroaster [4. 13,100]); son of Auruuaṯ.aspa-, husband of Hutaosā. In the Graeco-Roman world oft-used and quoted ‘Oracles’, which were concerned with the last things, went around under his name; cf. most recently [1. 376-381]. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Arsames Son of Arsames (ancient Persian Aršāma-), grands…

Glos

(139 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Γλῶς/ Glôs, Diod. Sic. 14,19,6; Γλοῦς/ Gloûs, Xen. An. 2,1,3). Son of the ‘Egyptian’ Tamos of Memphis (probably the Carian Tamos, born in Memphis), marched with Cyrus the Younger against his brother Artaxerxes II in 401 BC and after Cyrus' death defected to the other side (Xen. An. 1,4,16; 1,5,7; 2,1,3; 2,4,24). As commander of the fleet and son-in-law of the satrap  Tiribazus, G. organized the grain transport from Cilicia in the war against Evagoras of Salamis and defeated him in 381 …

Iran

(1,143 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Middle Persian ērān, genitive plural of ēr, in Ērān-šahr, ‘land of the  Aryans/Iranians’ < Middle Persian ēr, Sassanid inscriptions and Paḫlavī literature of the 9th cent. AD < Old Iranian * arya-, Old Persian ariya-, Avestan airya-). [German version] I. History of the term Although ariya- in itself carries ethnical meaning (the Achaemenids referred to themselves as ariya- ‘Aryan’ or respectively ariyaciça-, respectively ‘of Aryan descent’), the term I. (or respectively Ērān-šahr) as an ethical, religious, and political concept is an early Sassanid creation. Under…

Iuvenes (Iuventus)

(178 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] The term iuvenes, although also related to adults or non-junior teams, usually refers to the Roman or Italian youth of military training or serving age. The organizations of the iuventutes existing in the late Republican period in Italy that were originally military and later rather paramilitary or pre-military were revitalized by Augustus in the context of his reorganization of the aristocratic youth; later they had the character of an association. There is evidence of such   collegia in Italy ( collegia iuvenum) and in the western provinces ( collegia iuventutis) pa…

Syennesis

(182 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Συέννεσις/ Syénnesis). Term for indigenous Cilician dynasts with their centre at Tarsus (Xen. An. 1,2,23). According to Hdt. 1,74, one S. is supposed to have mediated the accord between the Lydians and the Medes; in the war between Croesus and Cyrus [2], Cilicia was on the Persian side (Hdt. 1,28). Another S. took part in Xerxes's campaign against Hellas (Hdt. 7,98; Aesch. Pers. 326-328). It is generally assumed that the duplicity of the third known S., the husband of Epyaxa, duri…

Tissaphernes

(398 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Τισσαφέρνης/ Tissaphérnēs). Son of Hydarnes [4], grandson of Hydarnes [1]. After the removal of the rebellious satrap Pissuthnes T. became a satrap in 413 BC in Sardis and a káranos (Thuc. 8,5,4: stratēgòs tôn kátō, 'army leader of the lands on the coast') in the west of Asia Minor. As such he concluded a subsidy treaty with Sparta against Athens in 412 BC; in return Sparta entrusted the Greeks of western Asia Minor to the Great King (Thuc. 1,115,4; 8,5,4 f.; 8,17 f.; 8,43; 8,52 and 8,58; renewal of the treaty in…

Sima Qian

(214 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] ( Sīmǎ Qiān). C. 145 - c. 85 BC, author of the first Chinese dynastic history, the Shǐjì, which contains, primarily in chapter 123, important information on central Asia and Iran (e.g. on the decline of the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom and characteristics of the Parthian Empire). S. was born in Longmen (modern province of Shanxi, near Chang'an, the capital of the time). After early travels through the whole Empire he later held office at the court of the Han emperor Wu (140-87 BC) as court astrologer a…

Persis

(477 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Περσίς/ Persís, Str. 15,3,1, etc.; Old Persian Pārsa). Region in Southwest Iran, which (as Anshan) belonged to the kingdom of Elam and was later the home of the dynasty of the Achaemenids [2] and Sāssānids (see below). Greek and Roman authors as well as Arab geographers divided P. into different geographical and climatic zones: the hot and infertile coastal region (with ports), the rugged, cold and inhospitable mountain region and the highly fertile region of well-watered valleys (Curt. 5,4,5-9; Str. 15,3,1; Arr. I…

Elymaei

(144 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Ἐλυμαῖοι; Elymaîoi). [German version] [1] Inhabitants of the Elymais Inhabitants of the  Elymais, described by ancient authors mainly as mountain dwellers or rather, in a military context, as mounted archers (cf. i.a. App. Syr. 32; Str. 16,1,17; Liv. 37,40,9). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Inhabitants of the Elburz region According to Pol. 5,44,9 neighbours to the inhabitants of  Media Atropatene in the Elburz region along the south-western corner of the Caspian Sea. Plut. Pompeius 36 reports of a ‘king of the Elymaei and Medes…

Neoi

(429 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] (νέοι). Der Begriff n., der auch unspezifisch (“die Jungen” vs. “die Alten”, gérontes/γέροντες) gebraucht wurde, bezeichnete im ant. Griechenland als t.t. eine Altersgruppe bzw. eine als Verein organisierte Gemeinschaft junger Männer: Unter n. verstand man die der Pubertät entwachsenen jungen Männer ab 18 Jahren, wobei die Grenze zwischen n. und ἄνδρες ( ándres/Männern) oft undefiniert blieb; in Poleis mit der Ephebie ( ephēbeía ; Athen) folgten sie altersmäßig auf die paídes (Kind) und éphēboi und zählten damit zu den Bürgern mit mil. Dienstpflicht; …

Heiratsalter

(974 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] I. Forschungsgegenstand und Methode Das H. von Mann und Frau bei der ersten Heirat bestimmte in vorindustriellen Gesellschaften - neben Mortalität und Menopause - den für die Kinderzeugung zur Verfügung stehenden Zeitraum. Normalerweise bedingt eine Verlängerung dieses Zeitraumes eine proportional ansteigende Fertilität. Das H. des Mannes ist zugleich bedeutsam für die Größe des Generationenabstandes und die sozialen und rechtlichen Beziehungen innerhalb von oíkos und familia. Zur Ermittlung des H. hat die althistor. Forsch. eine Reihe von me…

Megabyzos

(121 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(auch Μεγάβυξος/ Megábyxos, Hdt. Μεγάβυζος < altpers. Bagabuxša, elam. Ba-ka-bu-uk-šá). [English version] [1] Vornehmer Perser, Verschwörer gegen Gaumāta Vornehmer Perser, Sohn des Dātūvahya (nach Hdt. 3,153 Vater des Zopyros), Mitverschwörer Dareios [1] I. gegen Gaumāta/Smerdis ([2. DB IV 85], Hdt. 3,70 u.ö.). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [English version] [2] Sohn des Zopyros, Feldherr des Xerxes Nach Hdt. Sohn des Zopyros (und damit Enkel von M. [1]) und Feldherr des Xerxes beim Griechenlandzug (Hdt. 7,82; 121). Später war er Gegenspieler der Athe…

Zadracarta

(61 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Alexander | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states (τὰ Ζαδρακάρτα/ tà Zadrakárta; Arr. Anab. 3,23,6; 25,1). Largest city and fortified Achaemenid residence in Hyrcania, whose precise location is not certain (Sārī?, Qale Ḫandān?). Alexander [4] the Great passed through Z. while pursuing Bessus in 331 BC. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)

Myci

(121 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Μύκοι; Mýkoi). Ethnic group in the Persian empire (Hdt. 3,93; 7,68; Hecat. FGrH 1 F 289) who, together with the Sagartii, Sarangae, Thamanaei, Utii and the island inhabitants of the Persian Gulf, were classed as belonging to the 14th nomos by Herodotus. It is probably correct to assume that they were  the inhabitants of the regions on both sides of the strait of Hormūz, corresponding to the Maciyā, i.e. the inhabitants of Maka, known from Achaemenid inscriptions and reliefs as well as the fortification and treasury ta…

Aryans

(327 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] The peoples of ancient India and ancient Iran, who spoke Aryan languages referred to themselves as A. (cf. Old Indo-Aryan árya-, Iranian arya-; etymology disputed). In the 19th cent. the until then purely linguistic terms A./Aryan were for a time used synonymously with Indo-Europeans/Indo-Germanic and in this way came to be used in anthropology and ethnology, which in the Nazi era perverted them with an anti-Semitic bias into the positive counterpart of Jews/Jewish. Linguistic and religious-historical reasons support the belief that the A. were an ori…

Elymais

(381 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ἐλυμαίς; Elymaís). Greek name of a region in south-west Iran ( Ḫūzestān) within the territory of the ancient empire of  Elam. Originally probably mainly used for the mountainous Baḫtı̄ārı̄ region (in contrast with the Susiana plains), the term increasingly also included the expanding territory of the Hellenistic-Parthian ‘kingdom’ of E. [1. 39-45; 2. 3-8]. E./Susiana was one of the political and economic core regions of the Achaemenid and Seleucid empires; however, for the actual E., it is to be expected that some special forms of…

Pahlawa

(162 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Indian name of the kings of the so-called Indo-Parthian dynasty, which is primarily known because of its coins. Gondophares, who ended the rule of the Shaka in Arachosia (Arachosia) and ultimately probably also in Gandhara (Gandaritis), is regarded as the founder of the dynasty. The inscriptions from Taḫt-i Bahī from the 26th year of this king established his rule quite precisely as from AD 20 to 46. In keeping with this, the apostle Thomas is said to have met Gondophares on his j…

Rhagae

(241 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (ἡ Ῥάγα/ hē Rhága: Str. 11,13,6; ἡ Ῥάγη/ hē Rhágē: Tobit 6,10; Ῥάγοι/ Rhágoi: Tobit 1,14 et alibi; (αἱ) Ῥάγαι/ (hai) Rhágai: Str. 11,9,1; Arr. Anab. 3,20,2 etc.). City (and district with a large population) of eastern Media, today an expanse of ruins south of Tehran. In the district of (Old Persian) Ragā (Elamic Rakka, Babylonian Raga), Darius [1] I captured the Median rebel Fravarti (Phraortes [3]) in 521 ([3. DB II 70 ff.]). In the summer of 330, Alexander [4] the Great rested his troops in R. for five days while in pursuit of Dariu…

Sar-e Pol-e Ẕahāb

(211 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Archaeological find site in Kurdistan, Iran (Old Persian Ḥulvān; Akkadian Ḫalmān), 20 km from the Iraqi border on the old Kermānshāh-Baghdad road. There, to both sides of the River Alvand, was found a total of four reliefs of the Lullubaean princes who reigned in the late 3rd or early 2nd millennium BC; among them, the triumphal relief of Anubanini [2. pl. 49], with the motif of trampling the enemy underfoot, provided the model for the relief of Darius [1] I at Bisutun. Below this image is …

Šīs

(205 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Place in Azerbaijan mentioned by Moslem authors. In the middle of the limestone interplateau projecting slightly over the plain was a more than 60 m deep (lifeless) lake. Š. is located about 30 km to the north of Takāb and identical with Taḫt-e Soleimān. During the Sassanid period, it was the location of one of the three main fire temples of the empire (Āzurgušnasp). The close relationship between this place and the Sassanid kings of the 5th-7th cents. (Sassanids) is documented by…

Zarama

(30 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ζαράμα; Zaráma). Not precisely locatable township, mentioned only in Ptol. 6,2,16, in the interior of Media, presumably to the southwest of Europus (Rhagae). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)

Carmania

(311 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Καρμανία, Karmanía, Latin Carmania; etymology unclear). Name of an Iranian area east of the Persis and west of the  Gedrosia. In western documents the inhabitants of C. are called Καρμάνιοι/ Karmánioi, Latin Carmanii. This tradition distinguishes at the same time the barren north (ἡ ἔρημος Κ., e.g. Ptol. 6,5,1) from C. proper, which is described as particularly fertile (Str. 15,2,14; Arr. Ind. 32,4f.; Amm. Marc. 23,6,48). In the Achaemenid royal inscriptions, C. is mentioned as the supplier of yakā wood for the palace of Darius I in Susa [2. 14…

Gundeshapur

(108 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] ( Ǧundı̄sābūr, ‘Place of the army of Šāpūr’; middle Persian Veh-Andiyōk-Šābūr, ‘Šāpūr [made this city] better than Antioch’; Syrian Bēṯ Lāpāṭ). City located about 30 km east of Susa in which the Sassanid Šāpur ( Sapor) I settled artisans and specialists deported from Syria in the 3rd cent. AD. The town soon became a cultural and scientific centre with its own ‘university’ (important especially in the field of medicine), a main location for Persian silk manufacturing and a centre for the Christians of…

Parthia

(382 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Παρθία/ Parthía Plut. Antonius 55; Παρθυαία/ Parthyaía Pol. 5,44,4; Str. 11,9,1; Παρθυηνή/ Parthyēnḗ, distinct from the Parthian Empire Pol. 10,28,7; Str. 11,9,1; Ancient Persian Par θ ava-). Territory south east of the Caspian Sea, bonded to the west by Media, in the north west by Hyrcania, in the east by Margiana (by the Parthian territory of Apauarktikene/Apavortene) and Areia [1]. P.'s geography is dictated by two chains of mountains, the Kopet Dag to the north (along the modern frontier between Iran and Turkmenistan) and the Bīnālū…

Tiribazus

(186 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Τιρίβαζος/ Tiríbazos), Achaemenid satrap in Armenia, who rescued Artaxerxes [2] II at Cunaxa (in 401 BC) and allowed the Greek mercenaries free passage (Xen. Anab. 4,4,4 f.; 18; Plut. Artaxerxes 7 and 10; Diod. Sic. 14,27,7). As káranos (governor-general of the western satrapies) in Asia Minor (and probably also satrap in Sardeis), in 392 BC he referred Athenian and Spartan envoys to the great king, helped Antalcidas construct a fleet and captured Conon [1] (Xen. Hell. 4,8,12 ff.; Diod. Sic. 14,85,4). Temporari…

Pnytagoras

(250 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Πνυταγόρας; Pnytagóras). [German version] [1] Greek politician from Cyprus Son of Evagoras [1] of Salamis in Cyprus. P. helped his father in the rebellion against the Persians and after the sea battle of  Citium (381 BC) defended Salamis (Isoc. or. 9,62; Diod. 15,4), which was under siege. Father and son are supposed to have had relations with the daughter of Nicocreon [1], and both were murdered by the eunuch Thrasydaeus  (Theop. FGrH 115 F 103,12; Aristot. Pol. 5,1311b 4ff.). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography F.G. Maier, Cyprus and Phoenicia, in: CAH 6, 21994, 297-336. …

G(a)eli

(98 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Γῆλαι / Gēlai, Str. 11,5,1, cf. 11,7,1; 11,8,1; Γηλύς / Gēlýs, Steph. Byz. s.v. Γ.; Γηλοί / Gēloí, Dionys. Per. 1019 [GGM II, 167]). Median tribe of Scythian origins, first mentioned by Strabo (according to Theophanes of Mytilene), who inhabited the south-western shores of the Caspian Sea. Some ancient authors (Plin. HN 6,48; Ptol. 6,2,5) identified them with the  Cadusii. The tribe's name lives on in the region's (or rather the Sassanid province's) modern name of Gı̄lān (middle Persian Gēlān). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography R. Gyselen, La géographie a…

Nischapur

(59 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] ( Nēv Šābuhr). Gründung Šābuhrs I. (Sapor) (Ḥamza Iṣfah, Šahristānihā-i Ērān; Ṭabarī: Šābuhr II.), Hauptort der sāsānidischen Prov. Abaršahr in Westḫorāsān (Iran). Unter Yazdgird II. (5. Jh.n.Chr.) vorübergehend wichtigste Residenzstadt der Sāsāniden (Kämpfe gegen die Hephthalitai), blieb dieser Ort, in dessen Nähe sich auch ein wichtiges Feuerheiligtum befand, bis zur mongolischen Eroberung im 13. Jh. eine blühende Metropole. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)

Iuvenes (Iuventus)

(160 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] Der Begriff i. bezeichnet, obgleich er auch auf Erwachsene bzw. Nicht-Jungmannschaften bezogen wurde, üblicherweise die röm. bzw. ital. Jugend im mil. Ausbildungs- bzw. Dienstalter. Die in spätrepublikanischer Zeit in It. existierenden, ursprünglich mil., später wohl eher para- bzw. prämil. Organisationen der iuventutes wurden von Augustus im Rahmen seiner Reorganisation der aristokratischen Jugend revitalisiert; später erhielten sie Vereinigungscharakter. Vor allem für das 2. und 3. Jh.n.Chr. sind solche collegia in It. ( collegia iuvenum) und in d…

Naqš-e Rostam

(143 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] Nördl. von Persepolis gelegene Felswand mit Reliefs aus elamischer und sāsānidischer ([3. 167 Nr.1-8], z.T. mit Inschr.) sowie reliefierten Felsgräbern aus achäm. Zeit [3. 167 Nr. I-IV], von denen nur das des Dareios [1] I. (durch die Inschr. [1. DNa/b]) sicher zuzuweisen ist. Als andere Grabherren vermutet man Xerxes I., Artaxerxes [1] I. und Dareios [2] II. Auf und an dem Berg befinden sich zahlreiche schwer zu datierende zoroastrische Grabanlagen (?), südl. der Felswand der Ka…

Pubertas

(307 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] I. Altersstufen Der Eintritt der p., der Geschlechtsreife und der damit grundsätzlich verbundenen Mündigkeit (Fest. p. 250 s. v. pubes: puer qui iam generare potest), wurde bei Mädchen mit Vollendung des 12. Lebensjahres angenommen (Cass. Dio 54,16,7), bei Jungen zunächst durch inspectio habitudinis corporis ( indagatio corporis) festgestellt. Iustinianus beseitigte schließlich 529 n. Chr. die Erfordernis der indagatio mit Hinweis auf ihre Anstößigkeit (Cod. Iust. 5,60,3). Das Erreichen der p. wurde bei Jungen anläßlich des Festes der Liberalia am…

Rhoxane

(247 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Ῥωξάνη). [English version] [1] Gattin Kambyses' [2] II. Gattin Kambyses' [2] II. (Ktesias FGrH 688 F 13). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [English version] [2] Tochter des Hydarnes Tochter des Hydarnes, Halbschwester des Terituchmes, fiel mit ihrer ganzen Familie der Rache der Parysatis [1] zum Opfer (Ktesias FGrH 688 F 15), weil Terituchmes sich von seiner Gemahlin Amestris ab- und Rh. zugewandt hatte. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [English version] [3] Tochter Dareios' [3] III. Nach Iulius Valerius 2,33 u. a. Tochter Dareios' [3] III., der 332 ihre Hand Alexandros [4] d.…

Masistes

(129 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] (Μασίστης). Nach Hdt. 7,82 Sohn des Dareios [1] I. und der Atossa [1], Satrap von Baktrien (Hdt. 9,113) und pers. Truppenbefehlshaber (Hdt. 7,82). Nach dem grausamen Ende seiner Frau soll M., mit Aufstandsplänen nach Baktrien unterwegs, 479/8 v.Chr. zusammen mit seinen Söhnen von königlichen Truppen getötet worden sein (Hdt. 9,107-113). Vermutlich gibt der Name M. altpers. ma θ iišta- (griech. μέγιστος/ mégistos, “der Größte”) wieder. Iust. 2,10,1-11 und Plut. mor. 173b-c; 488d-f berichten vom älteren Xerxes-Bruder Ariamenes, dem Xerxes …

Rhodaspes

(83 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] (Ρωδάσπης). Sohn des Partherkönigs Phraates [4] IV., wurde von diesem zur Sicherung der Thronfolge Phraates' [5] V. 10/9 v. Chr. mit anderen Söhnen und Enkeln zu Augustus nach Rom geschickt (R. Gest. div. Aug. 32; Strab. 16,1,28; Vell. 2,94,4; Tac. ann. 2,1,2; Suet. Aug. 21,3; 43,4), wo er starb (Grabinschr.: ILS 842). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography 1 E. Nedergaard, The Four Sons of Phraates IV in Rome, in: Acta Hyperborea 1, 1988, 102-115 2 K.-H. Ziegler, Die Beziehungen zw. Rom und dem Partherreich, 1964, 51 f.

Gundeschapur

(99 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] ( Ǧundı̄sābūr, “Platz der Armee Šāpūrs”; mpers. Veh-Andiyōk-Šābūr, “besser als Antiocheia [hat] Šāpūr [diese Stadt gemacht]”; syr. Bēṯ Lāpāṭ). Etwa 30 km östl. von Susa gelegene Stadt, in der der Sāsānide Šāpur (Sapor) I. im 3. Jh. n.Chr. aus Syrien deportierte Handwerker und Spezialisten ansiedelte. Der Ort entwickelte sich bald zu einem kulturellen und wiss. Zentrum mit eigener “Hochschule” (wichtig v.a. auf dem Gebiet der Medizin), zu einem Hauptstandort der pers. Seidenmanufaktur und einem Zen…

Gobryas

(398 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Γωβρύας, akkad. Gu/Gú-ba/bar-ru( -u; elam. Kam-bar-ma, altpers. Gaubaruva-). Name verschiedener achäm. Würdenträger. [English version] [1] Statthalter Kyros' d.Gr. Aus der Nabonid-Chronik (3,20 [4]) bekannter “Statthalter” Kyros' d.Gr., der nach der Eroberung Babyloniens dort Verwaltungsfunktionäre einsetzte. Vermutlich identisch mit Ugbaru, dem in 3,15 erwähnten “Statthalter von Gutium”, der Babylon für den Perserkönig einnahm und dort wenige Tage nach Kyros' Eintreffen starb. In diesem Falle dürfte der G. be…

Lebenserwartung

(782 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] Der Begriff L. wird in der histor. Demographie und der Bevölkerungssoziologie gebraucht, um anzugeben, wie viele Jahre ein Mensch in bestimmtem Alter unter den Bedingungen der in einer bestimmten Ges. gegebenen Mortalität noch zu leben hat. Es ist dabei zu beachten, daß mit diesem Begriff keineswegs das durchschnittliche Sterbealter erfaßt wird und daß die L. eines Menschen im Verlauf seines Lebens deutlichen Veränderungen unterliegt. Sie ist in Ges. vor der demographischen Trans…

Familienplanung

(555 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] Obgleich in der ant. Gynäkologie zwischen Abtreibung und Empfängnisverhütung unterschieden wurde (Soran. 1,60), sind die entsprechenden Mittel und Praktiken nicht exakt voneinander zu trennen, weil einerseits die Unterbrechung der als Prozeß angesehenen Konzeption in einem frühen Stadium der Schwangerschaft durchaus als kontrazeptiv bewertet wurde und andererseits angesichts fehlender Kenntnisse über den Zeitpunkt der Empfängnis ein kontrazeptiv eingesetztes Mittel auch als Abort…

Karduchoi

(149 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] (Καρδοῦχοι). Zuerst von Xenophon (Xen. an. 3,5,15 u.ö.) erwähntes, in den nördlichsten Ausläufern des Zagros, den Καρδούχεια ὄρη (Diod. 14,27,4), wohnendes Bergvolk. Xenophon beschreibt die K. als in Dörfern lebend und Ackerbau, Weinbau und Viehzucht sowie handwerkliche Tätigkeiten betreibend. Bes. hervorgehoben wird ihre mil. Bedeutung als Bogenschützen und Schleuderer. Während in den griech. Zeugnissen v.a. die (“natürliche”) Aggressivität der K. und ihre Feindschaft dem Großkö…

Gordyaia

(158 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] (Γορδυηνή, Plut. Lucullus 21; 26; 29 u.ö.; Plut. Pompeius 36; Ptol. 5,12,9; Strab. 11,14,2; 14,8; 14,15; App. Mithr. 105; Γορδυαία, Strab. 16,1,8; 1,21; 2,5. Landschaft an der Grenze Armeniens, der Adiabene und der Atropatene am Oberlauf des Tigris südl. des Van-Sees mit den Poleis Sareisa (h. Šārı̄š), Satalka und Pinaka (h. Finek) (Strab. 16,1,24). An gleicher Stelle setzt Strabon die Bewohner des Landes, die Gordyaíoi (Γορδυαῖοι), den Kardúchoi (Καρδοῦχοι) gleich (vgl. Xen. an. 4,1,8; Plin. nat. 6,44). In das armen. Reich un…

Rhodogune

(196 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Ῥοδογούνη). [English version] [1] Mutter Dareios' I. Gattin des Hystaspes [2], Mutter Dareios' [1] I. (Suda und Harpokr., s. v.). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [English version] [2] Tochter Dareios' [1] I. Tochter Dareios' [1] I.? (Hier. adversus Iovinianum 1,45; PL 23, p. 287). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [English version] [3] Tochter Xerxes' I. Tochter Xerxes' I. (Ktes. FGrH 688 F 13). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [English version] [4] Tochter Artaxerxes' [2] II. Tochter Artaxerxes' [2] II., Gattin des Orontes [2] I. (Plut. Artaxerxes 27,7; vgl. Xen. an. 2,4,8), dam…

Pan-Ku, Pan-Tschao

(47 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] Geschwister (1. Jh.n.Chr.), Verf. des Hanshu (Qian Hanshu), der offiziellen chinesischen Dynastiegesch. der Früheren oder Westlichen Han, u.a. mit Informationen über das Partherreich (Parther; Parthia). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography D.D. Leslie, K.H. J. Gardiner, The Roman Empire in Chinese Sources, 1996, s.v. Pan Ku/Pan Ch'ao.

Jugend

(1,091 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] I. Fragestellung und Methodik Die Gesch. der J. in der Ant. ist - abgesehen von einzelnen Problemen wie dem der J.-Terminologie, der J.-Erziehung oder der J.-Organisationen - ein bislang wenig erforschter Themenkomplex. Vor allem bedarf es zusätzlicher geschlechts- und schichtenspezifisch sowie zeitlich und räumlich differenzierender Einzelstudien. Im Mittelpunkt bisheriger neuerer Unt. stand das Problem, ob Adoleszenz überhaupt als ein von Kindheit und Erwachsensein geschiedener Leb…

Patizeithes

(80 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] (Πατιζείθης Hdt. 3,61ff.; Πανζούθης Dionysios von Milet, Schol. Hdt. 3,61 FGrH 687 F 2; identisch mit Παζάτης bei Xanthos dem Lyder; Πατζάτης Chr. pasch. 270?). Nach Hdt. 3,61 ein Magier, der 521 v.Chr. seinen Bruder Smerdis (Gaumāta) zur Revolte gegen Kambyses [2] II. überredete und von Dareios [1] I. getötet wurde. Iust. 1,9,9f. gibt seinen Namen mit Oropastes an. P. ist als Titel zu deuten, allerdings etym. unklar (der gleiche wie das spätere πιτιάχης, mittelpersisch btḥšy: “Vizekönig”?). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)

Hekatompylos

(119 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Alexandros | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Indienhandel Nach Appianos (Syr. 57,298, Ἑκατόμπολις) Neugründung Seleukos' I. in der Komisene, nach Plinius (nat. 6,17,44) 133 Meilen von den Kaspischen Toren entfernt. Wohl das h. Šahr-e Qūmes bei Damghan. Wurde nach vorübergehender arsakidischer Besetzung zu Beginn des 2. Jh. v.Chr. parth. Residenzstadt. Bei Ausgrabungen kamen zahlreiche Zeugnisse aus parth. Zeit zum Vorschein, darunter - neben Palas…

Oreitai

(81 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] (Ὠρεῖται, auch Ὦροι). Keine indische (vgl. Arr. Ind. 21,8; 22,10; 25,2; irrig Arr. an. 6,21,3), sondern wohl eine iranische Ethnie mit dem Hauptort Rhambakeia (Arr. an. 6,21,5; wohl nahe dem h. Las Bela) in der h. pakistanischen Prov. Belutschistan. Nach Arr. an. 6,21,3 lebten die O., bevor Alexandros [4] d.Gr. sie 325 v.Chr. unterwarf und dem Satrapen Apollophanes unterstellte, in völliger Unabhängigkeit. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography P.H.L. Eggermont, Alexander's Campaigns in Sind and Baluchistan, 1975, s.v. Oritans, Oritene.

Paraitakene

(46 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] (Παραιτακηνή; Bewohner: Παρητακηνοί, u.a. Hdt. 1,101 bzw. Παραιτάκαι, Arr. an. 3,19,2). Gebirgslandschaft in Westiran, im Norden und Osten von Media, Areia [1] und Karmania, im SW von Susiana umschlossen. Von Strab. werden die Paraitakēnoí als räuberisches Bergvolk beschrieben (15,3,12). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)

Mazaios

(225 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] (Μαζαῖος). Vornehmer, am achäm. Hofe hoch angesehener Perser (Curt. 5,1,18; Plut. Alexander 39), Vater von Antibelos, Artiboles und Hydarnes. Unter Artaxerxes [3] III. Satrap von Kilikien und pers. Befehlshaber im Kampf gegen die aufständischen Phoiniker (Diod. 16,42,1f.), verwaltete M. unter Dareios [3] III. Koile Syria und “Syrien zwischen den Strömen”. Er räumte 331 v.Chr. seine Stellung bei Thapsakos und ermöglichte Alexandros [4] d.Gr. damit den Übergang ü…

Parner

(122 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] (Ἄπαρνοι/Πάρνοι, Variante Πάρνοι/Σπαρνοι: Strab. 11,7,1; lat. Aparni/Parni: etym. ungeklärt). Teil-“Stamm” der Daher [1] - neben den Xánthioi/ Xantheíoi und Píssuroi (Strab. 11,8,2; vgl. 11,9,3) -, der im 3. Jh.v.Chr. die Steppe des sw Turkmenistan besetzte (Strab. 11,8,2f.; Iust. 41,1,10) und von dort unter seinem Anführer Arsakes [1] I. nach 250 v.Chr. in Parthia einfiel. Die P. sprachen urspr. einen ostmitteliranischen Dialekt (Parnisch), der nur aus indirekter Überl. erschlossen werden kann; di…

Iran

(1,028 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(mittelpers. ērān, Gen. Pl. von ēr, in Ērān-šahr, “Land der Arier/Iranier” < mittelpers. ēr, sāsānidische Inschr. und Paḫlavī-Lit. des 9. Jh. n.Chr. < alt-iran. * arya-, altpers. ariya-, avest. airya-). [English version] I. Begriffsgeschichte Obgleich bereits ariya- ethnischen Wert besitzt (Selbstbezeichnung der Achaimeniden als ariya- bzw. ariyaciça-, “arisch” bzw. “von arischer Abstammung”), ist I. (bzw. Ērān-šahr) als zugleich ethnischer, rel. und polit. Begriff eine frühsāsānidische Schöpfung. Schon unter Sapor I. (240-272 n.Chr.) tritt zu Ērān das Gegenstück Anērā…

Oroites

(75 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] (Ὀροίτης). Persischer Statthalter in Sardeis, der (nach Hdt. 3,120ff.) Polykrates von Samos nach Magnesia locken und kreuzigen ließ. Als O. nach dem Tode des Kambyses [2] dem Dareios [1] I. seine Hilfe versagte, ließ ihn dieser (nach Herodot durch einen Befehl des königlichen Gesandten Bagaios an die Leibwache des O.) aus dem Weg räumen. Aus der Umgebung des O. gelangte der Arzt Demokedes an den pers. Hof. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography Briant, s.v. O.

Kallonitis

(69 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] (Καλλωνῖτις, andere Namensform Χαλωνῖτις/ Chalōnítis). Von Pol. 5,54,7 erwähntes und zu Medien gerechnetes Gebiet unmittelbar westl. der großen Zagros-Pässe entlang der oberen Diyālā, in dem Antiochos [5] III. den Leichnam des Aufrührers Molon pfählen ließ; Nachbarregion der Apolloniatis. Strab. 16,1,1 rechnet die K. noch zu Ἀτουρία, d.h. zum Zweistromland. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography H.H. Schmitt, Unt. zur Gesch. Antiochos d.Gr. und seiner Zeit, 1964, Index s.v. Chalonitis.

Oxathres

(171 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Ὀξάθρης). [English version] [1] Jüngster Sohn Dareios' [2] II. und der Parysatis Jüngster Sohn Dareios' [2] II. und der Parysatis (Plut. Artoxerxes 1,5). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [English version] [2] Sohn des Abulites, Befehlshaber bei Gaugamela Sohn des Abulites, Befehlshaber der Truppen seines Vaters bei Gaugamela; er unterwarf sich Alexandros [4] d.Gr., wurde aber als Verwalter der Paraitakene u.a. wegen unterlassener Hilfeleistung für das durch die gedrosische Wüste ziehende Heer 324 in Susa hingerichtet (Arr. an. 3,8,5; …

Orxines

(77 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] (Ὀρξίνης, Curtius: Orsines). Reicher Perser, Nachfahre Kyros [2] II., kämpfte bei Gaugamela, machte sich 326 v.Chr. in Abwesenheit Alexandros' [4] d.Gr. zum Satrapen der Persis. Er wurde bei seinem Versuch einer nachträglichen Bestätigung in seinem Amt unter dem Vorwurf, zahlreiche Menschen getötet, Tempel geschändet und die königlichen Gräber beraubt zu haben, durch Alexandros hingerichtet (Arr. an. 3,8,5; 6,29,2; 30,1f.; Curt. 4,12,8; 10,1,24.37). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography J. Wiesehöfer, Die “dunklen Jahrhunderte” der Persis, 199…

Kyaxares

(395 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Κυαξάρης, altpers. Uvaxštra-, Etym. unsicher). [English version] [1] Medischer König des 7./6. Jh. v. Chr. Medischer “König” des 7./6. Jh.v.Chr. Im sog. medischen lógos Herodots (Hdt. 1,73f.; 103-107) erscheint K. als τύραννος/ týrannos bzw. βασιλεύς/ basileús der Meder, als Sohn des Phraortes, Enkel des Deiokes und Vater des Astyages. Während seiner 40jährigen Herrschaft soll er - nach einem skythischen Interregnum - die Assyrer unterworfen haben und gegen Alyattes von Lydien (wohl um den Besitz von Kappadokien) zu Felde gezog…

Persis

(430 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] (Περσίς: Strab. 15,3,1 u.ö.; altpersisch Pārsa). Region in Südwestiran, die - als Anšan (Anschan) - lange Zeit zum Reich von Elam gehörte und später Heimat der Dyn. der Achaimenidai [2] und Sāsāniden war (s.u.). Griech.-röm. Autoren wie arabische Geographen unterteilen die P. in geogr.-klimatische Zonen: die unfruchtbare und heiße Meeresküstenregion (mit den Häfen), das rauhe, kalte und unwirtliche Bergland und einen äußerst fruchtbaren Landstrich mit wohlbewässerten Talebenen (Curt. 5,4,5-9; Strab. 15,3,1; Arr.…

Qaṣr-e Abū Naṣr

(173 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] (“Alt- Šīrāz”, h. Mādar-e Sulaimān), 7 km sö von Šīrāz (Fars); im wesentlichen spätsāsānidische und frühislamische Anlage (5.-9. Jh.). Drei achäm. Steinportale, die schon im 19. Jh. bei Reisenden große Aufmerksamkeit erregten, erwiesen sich als Teile des Dareios-Palastes von Persepolis, die zur Ausschmückung viel späterer Gebäude nach Q. geholt worden waren (und inzwischen an ihren ursprüngl. Platz zurückgebracht worden sind). In achäm. Zeit ist Q. vermutlich mit dem Tirazziš bzw. Šī…

Gaugamela

(140 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Alexandros | Xenophon Großes Dorf (κώμη μεγάλη, h. wohl Tall Gōmil beim Ǧabal Maqlūb, 35 km nordöstl. von Mossul) am Fluß Bumelos in Nordmesopot. (Arr. an. 6,11,6), in dessen Nähe (vgl. Arr. an. 3,8,7) am 1. Oktober 331 die Schlacht zw. Alexandros [4] d.Gr. und Dareios [3] III. stattfand (Arr. an. 3,11-15; Curt. 4,13,26-16; Plut. Alexander 31-33; Diod. 17,56-61; Iust. 11,14). Nachdem Alexander einen Umfassungsversuch der pers. Reiterei abgef…

Prexaspes

(108 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Πρηξάσπης). [English version] [1] Vornehmer Perser Vornehmer Perser, der (nach Hdt. 3,30; 65) im Auftrag des Königs Kambyses [2] dessen Bruder Smerdis (Bardiya [1]) aus dem Weg räumte. Obgleich dem wahnsinnigen König treu, leugnete er nach dessen Tod den Smerdismord, offenbarte aber schließlich vor den versammelten Persern die Usurpation der Magier (Patizeithes), rief zu ihrem Sturz auf und beging Selbstmord (Hdt. 3,66 ff.; 74 ff.). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [English version] [2] Sohn des Aspathines Sohn des Aspathines, des “Bogenträgers” des Dareios [1] I. (und mög…

Nihāwand

(76 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] (pers. Nehāvand). Ort in Iran, südl. des Gebirgszuges Alvand im Zagros (Medien). In dieser schon in prähistor. Zeit bedeutsamen Gegend (Tepe Giyan) gründeten die Seleukiden die pólis Laodikeia(-N.), in der man ein Exemplar der Dynastiekultinschr. Antiochos' [5] III. fand. In der Nähe von N., damals Hauptort von Distrikt und Diözese, unterlag 642 n.Chr. ein sāsānidisches Heer den Arabern. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography L. Robert, Inscriptions séleucides de Phrygie et d'Iran, in: Hellenica 7, 1949, 5-22.

Orontopates

(86 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] (Ὀροντοβάτης, Arrianos; ΡΟΟΝΤΟΠΑΤΟ, Mz., HN 630). Jüngerer Bruder des karischen Satrapen Maussolos, von Dareios [3] III. eingesetzter persischer Mitregent und Schwiegersohn des karischen Dynasten Pixodaros, nach dessen Tod 334 v.Chr. er als Satrap von Karien Halikarnassos gegen Alexandros [4] d.Gr. und zuletzt die Burg gegen Ptolemaios verteidigte. Nach seiner Flucht 333 befehligte O. pers. Truppen bei Gaugamela. Arr. an. 1,23; 2,5,7; 3,8,5; 11,5; Strab. 14,2,17; Curt. 4,12,7. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography Briant, Index s.v. O.  S. Ruzicka, Poli…

Orobazos

(66 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] (Ὀρόβαζος). Gesandter des parthischen Königs Mithradates [13] II., der sich 96 v.Chr. mit Cornelius [I 90] Sulla, dem proconsularischen Statthalter von Cilicia, traf (Plut. Sulla 5,4), um ihm ‘Freundschaft und Bündnis’ anzutragen (Liv. epit. 70; Rufius Festus 15,2; Flor. epit. 3,12). Er soll später seinen mangelnden Widerstand gegen das demütigende Verhalten des Römers mit dem Leben bezahlt haben (Plut. Sulla 5,4). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
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