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Mania

(590 words)

Author(s): Ziemer, Jürgen
[German Version] generally refers to a state of intense psychological agitation that is often combined with a heightened feeling of self and an uninhibited urge to act. In its original meaning, Gk μανία/ manía may denote frenzy and madness, but also exceptional emotions ranging from love to rage. In the history of antique religion, there are notable divine personifications of madness known as Maniai (only in the plural!). They were venerated at the place of this name near Megalopolis, where legend claimed that Orestes had lost …

Pastoral Psychology

(1,232 words)

Author(s): Ziemer, Jürgen
[German Version] is “psychology in the service of the pastoral” (Stollberg, Was ist Pastoralpsychologie?, 169). This handy formula, closely related to practice, ¶ should not be understood only with reference to practical application. On the one hand, pastoral psychology as “psychology of the pastoral” contributes to critical analysis and reflection of all activities in this field; and on the other hand, it offers a plan of action (varying greatly in detail) for appropriate training and work. As a scholarly discipline,…

Political Sermon

(651 words)

Author(s): Ziemer, Jürgen
[German Version] Political sermons constitute a type of Christian preaching in which ethical/political subjects are addressed specifically in the context of the gospel. Such preaching is distinct from the fact that every Christian sermon is potentially political, since it is generally addressed to a public audience and proclaims a message highly relevant to social and political questions (cf. theses 2 and 5 of the Barmen Declaration). Among political sermons in the narrow sense, we may identify three functional types (cf. Daiber). (1) Description. The descriptive sermon artic…

Self

(2,419 words)

Author(s): Wesche, Tilo | Huxel, Kirsten | Herms, Eilert | Ziemer, Jürgen
[German Version] I. Philosophy The term self (ἑαυτοῦ/ heautoú; αὑτοῦ/ hautoú) appears as a noun (“the self”) but more often in compounds such as self-consciousness, self-relation, self-assertion, self-actualization, self-determination, self-assurance, and self-realization. Its basic meaning has to do with autonomy: self is something that can be by itself and stand by virtue of itself alone. Greek philosophy already emphasized this meaning: what something is of itself (καϑ᾿ αὑτά/ kath’ hautá; Arist. Metaph. 1017a 27) is what is independent of accidentals. What is self-moving (α…

Pastoral Care

(4,842 words)

Author(s): Ziemer, Jürgen | Pohl-Patalong, Uta | Schmidt-Rost, Reinhard | Henkys, Jürgen
[German Version] I. The Term Linguistic usage is not uniform. The English expression pastoral care comes from Lat. pastor (Pastor), while the corresponding German term, Seelsorge, is literally “soul care.” Both terms have a secular origin. The concept is first found in Plato, that is, in a “philosophy that understands itself as pastoral care” (Bonhoeffer, 9). Plato has Socrates call on his fellow-citizens to show ἐπιμέλεια τῆς ψυχῆς/ epiméleia tḗs psychḗs. They should care not only for riches and honor, but also for their souls ( Apol. 29 e 2); for the soul, unlike the body (Body…

Sexuality

(7,176 words)

Author(s): Heller, Birgit | Körtner, Ulrich H.J. | Schubert, Anselm | Braun, Karl | Ziemer, Jürgen | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Religions have various assessments and guidelines regarding sexuality, which shape the concrete ways people deal with it and influence certain social attitudes. Religious sexual morality (Sexual ethics) regulates sexual relations through various sexual taboos and by ¶ prohibiting premarital and extramarital sex as well as homosexuality, but also by requiring temporary continence, for instance during menstruation or periods of fasting. It protects procreation (Generativity) in general by commandments…

Death

(11,861 words)

Author(s): Heller, Birgit | Cancik, Hubert | Liess, Kathrin | Necker, Gerold | Goldberg, Sylvie-Anne | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies and History of Religions – II. Death and the Realm of the Dead in the Old Testament – III. Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. Philosophy – VI. Philosophy of Religion – VII. History of Dogma and Dogmatics – VIII. Ethics – IX. Practical Theology – X. Art – XI. Islam – XII. Buddhism – XIII. Hinduism I. Religious Studies and History of Religions 1. General Modern religious criticism regards religion as compensation for human anxiety in the face of death. …