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Olbia

(1,082 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meloni, Piero (Cagliari) | Et al.
(Ὀλβία/ Olbίa). [German version] [1] Milesian colony This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Thraci, Thracia | Wine | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Apollo | Patricius | Patricius | Rome | Rome …

Sidyma

(113 words)

Lycia et Pamphylia

(225 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] The province was set up in c. AD 74 under the Roman emperor Vespasian, after Lycia had been constituted as an autonomous imperial province following internal unrest (Suet. Claud. 25,3; [1. 137]) i…

Lycii, Lycia

(1,010 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
(Λύκιοι, Λυκία; Lýkioi, Lykía, Lycian Trm̃mis; Latin Lycii, Lycia). [German version] A. Prehistory The south-western Asia Minor landscape of Lycia stretched from the ancient Indus at Caunus to the coast north of Phaselis [5. 265-271] and has not only high mountains and fertile alluvial plains but also highly organized upland with dense rural settlement [8. 29; 13] whose features have been reconstructed since 1989 as a result of field research in central Lycian Cyaneae [2] ([7]). The settlement area of the L…

Trebendae

(78 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τρεβένδαι; Trebéndai). City in Lycia (Lycii; IGR 3,704); the long political independence of T. suggests a location at modern Muskar, where there was an  ancient settlement (remains from the Classical period to the Roman Imperial period). T. minted, probably in the Hellenistic period, coins for the  Lycian League. In the Roman Imperial period T., as did Tyberissus, entered into a  sympoliteía with Myra  (Syll.3 1234). Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. T., RE 6 A, 2267 f.

Limyra

(307 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Λίμυρα; Límyra, Lycian zêmuri). City in Lycia on a mountain slope near modern Finice in southern Turkey, settled at the latest from the 7th cent. BC onwards, with an extended chóra and small harbour (late antique name: Phoenix) [1]. In the 5th cent. BC the castle was extended with a fortified lower city [2], and coins were minted. From the beginning of the 4th cent. BC to 366/362 the Lycian king Pericles (cf. [3]; on his heroon with building decoration [1. 45-52]) c…

Megiste

(76 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] (Μεγίστη/ Megístē). Island off the Lycian coast near the city of Antiphellus. From the 4th century BC, it was a Rhodian naval base (Ps.-Scyl. 100; Liv. 37,24,1; 45,2), mentioned in Str. 14,3,7 as a pólis and in Plin. HN 5,131 as a ‘former civitas’. Inscriptions so far only provide evidence of Rhodian military presence in a fortress ( pýrgos) under a hagemṓn or epistátēs (SEG…

Myra

(476 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Byzantium | | Asia Minor | Lycii, Lycia | Natural catastrophes | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Education / Culture (Μύρα; Mýra). Since classical times, at the latest (5th cent. BC), M. was an inhabited polis (city-state) in Lycia (castle; Lycian inscription …

Trysa

(98 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Τρῦσα; Trŷsa). City in central Lycia (Lycii) at modern Gölbaşı; a dynastic seat from the archaic period. The small settlement was extended c. 400 BC around representational buildings, e.g. a significant heroon (reliefs in Vienna, KM); inhabited until late Antiquity. T. had belonged to Cyaneae [2] as a dêmos [2] (B.) since the early Hellenistic period and…

Cyaneae

(390 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
(Κυανέαι). [German version] [1] Two rocky islands Two small rocky islands directly to the west of the confluence of the Bosporus and the  Pontus Euxinus, 2.3 km north of Garipçe Burnu, 100 m in front of the lighthouse of Rumelifeneri, modern İreke Taşı. In Greek myths they were identified with the dangerous  Symplegades or  Planctae (Hom. Od. 16,176; Apoll. Rhod. 2,…

Milyas

(216 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Trustee of the legacy of Demosthenes Milyas (Μιλύας; Milýas), a confidant of Demosthenes [2], administered his inheritance. In a legal dispute between Demosthenes and his guardians, the latter accused M. of irregularities. Aphobus demanded that the presumed slave M. be handed over for interrogation under torture. Demosthenes refused, on the grou…

Phellus

(173 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Φελλός; Phellós). Lycian polis near modern Çukurbağ. As early as the 6th/5th cent. BC, an important town was situated here (in Hecat. FGrH 1 F 258 erroneously a Pamphylian pólis) with the Lycian name wehñti (Lycii, with map). In the mid 5th cent. BC, Harpagus, a dynast of Xanthus, resided …

Trebenna

(126 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Τρεβέννα/ Trebénna). City in eastern Lycia (Lycii), to the southwest of modern Antalya at Çağlarca. The age of the settlement presumably extends back to the Classical period. A member of the Lycian League, possibly since the Hellenistic period. Archaeological studies of the Imperial period buildings (e.g. stoa, thermae, ekklesiasterion) are in progress. T. minted coins under Gordianus [3] III. The town of Onobara was part of the territory of T., probably incorporated by sympoliteía , (S…

Olbia

(966 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meloni, Piero (Cagliari) | Et al.
(Ὀλβία). [English version] [1] Milesische Kolonie Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Apollon | Handel | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Kolonisation | Regnum Bosporanum | Regnum Bosporanum | Roma | Roma | Schwarzmeergebiet | Skythen | Thrakes, Thrake, Thraci | Wein Milesische Kolonie (Kolonisation) südl. vom h. Parutino (Ukraine) am Zusammenfluß von Hypanis und Borysthenes (Ps.-Skymn. 808f.), daher auch Borysthenes (Βορυσθένης) genannt (Hdt. 4,24; 78), gegr. Anf. des 6. Jh.v.Chr. (Hdt. 4,18,5: Ὀλβιοπολῖται; Ps.-Skymn. 813f.). Um die Wende vom 6. zu…

Milyas

(187 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Köln) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[English version] [1] Verwalter des Erbes des Demosthenes M. (Μιλύας) verwaltete als Vertrauensperson des Demosthenes [2] dessen Erbe. Im Gerichtsstreit zw. Demosthenes und seinen Vormündern warfen diese M. Unregelmäßigkeiten vor. Aphobos verlangte die Auslieferung des angeblichen Sklaven M. zum Verhör unter der Folter. Dies lehnte Demosthenes ab, da …

Lycia et Pamphylia

(191 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[English version] Die Prov. wurde ca. 74 n.Chr. unter dem röm. Kaiser Vespasianus eingerichtet, nachdem Lycia im J. 43 n.Chr. nach inneren Unruhen als eigenständige kaiserliche Prov. konstituiert worden war (Suet. Claud. 25,3; [1. 137]); die anderslautende Nachricht bei Cass. Dio 60,17,4 wird durch legati Augusti pro praetore Lyciae (z.B. AE 1956, 186) widerlegt; zum röm. Einfluß in republikanischer Zeit vgl. Strab. 14,3,3; [2. 94-100]. Pamphylia gehör…

Antiphellos

(148 words)

Kyaneai

(333 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
(Κυανέαι). [English version] [1] Zwei Felsinseln Zwei kleine Felsinseln direkt westl. der Mündung des Bosporos in den Pontos Euxeinos, 2,3 km nördl. von Garipçe Burnu, 100 m vor dem Leuchtturm Rumelifeneri, h. İreke Taşı. In den griech. Mythen wurden sie mit den gefährlichen Symplegades bzw. Planktai (Hom. Od. 16,176; Apoll. Rhod. 2,317ff.) identifiziert. Hier befand sich ein Heiligtum (Hdt. 4,85). Pompeius errichtete hier einen Altar zu Ehren Apollons [1. 28f., 35-39]. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bib…

Myra

(375 words)

Phellos

(138 words)

Megiste

(62 words)

Limyra

(241 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Theater (Λίμυρα; lyk. zêmuri). Stadt in Lykia an einem Berghang beim h. Finike in der Süd-Türkei, der spätestens seit dem 7. Jh.v.Chr. besiedelt war, mit ausgedehnter chṓra und kleinem Hafen (spätant. Name: Phoinix) [1]. Im 5. Jh.v.Chr. wurden die Burg mit befestigter Unterstadt ausgebaut [2] und Mz. geprägt. Anf. des 4. Jh.v.Chr. kontrollierte der lyk. König Perikles (vgl. [3]; zu seinem Heroon mit Bauschmuck [1. 45-52]) bis 366/362 von L. aus fa…

Limyros

(52 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[English version] (Λίμυρος). Fluß, der bei Limyra entspringt und von hier zum Meer fließt [1. 124f.], aber unweit des ant. Hafenplatzes (spätant. Phoinix) in den Arykandos mündet (Ps.-Skyl. 100; Strab. 14,3,7; Mz.-Bild: BMCRE Lycia, 61). Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen) Bibliography 1 J. Borchhardt, Zêmuri. Die Residenzstadt des lyk. Königs Perikles, in: MDAI(Ist) 40, 1990.
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