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Neuri

(90 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Νεῦροι/ Neûroi). Tribe (not of the Scythae) on the Hypanis [1], to the west of the Borysthenes and south of the source lake of the Tyras (Hdt. 4,17); easterly neighbours of the Androphagi and Melanchlaeni (Hdt. 4,17; 51; 100; 125). Various attempts have been made to associate them with cultures of southern Belrus, including the ancestor tribes of the Slavs, Balts or Finns. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography A.I. Terenožkin, Predskifskij period na Dneprovskom Pravoberež'e, 1961, 234  E.A. Mel'nikovskaja, Plemena južnoj Belorusij v rannem ž…

Zesutera

(47 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Way station for swapping horses ( mutatio) on the Via Egnatia on the border between the late-antique provinces of Europa in the east and Rhodope in the west, 12 miles to the west of Aprus (It. Burdig. 602,1); not located. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Tisia

(265 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] ( Tiza, Pathissus, Parthiscus; Τίσσος/ Tíssos, Τήσα/ Tḗsa, Τίτζα/ Títza; modern Tisza). The largest tributary of the Danube (Ister [1]), flowing from the Carpathians to the west of Singidunum and into the Danube from the north (cf. also Pathissus); original name probably Parthisus (Str. 7,5,2). Herodotus (4,100) and Strabo (7,3,4) identify the lower reaches of the T. with the Maris (modern Maros). The T. plain (modern Bánság) was fertile and densely settled: Agathyrsi (Hdt. 4,78), Daci, Bo…

Xanthea

(95 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ξάνθεια; Xántheia). City in Thrace between the Bistonis limne (modern Lake Vistonida) and Maronea [1] on the northern coast of the Aigaion Pelagos (Str. 7a,1,44) on the southern slopes of Rhodope, not precisely locatable. In the Byzantine city of the same name no remains suggesting Antiquity have been discovered; it was on the Via Egnatia (Nikephoros Gregoras 727,24; 814,19); modern Xanthi. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography S. P. Kyriakidis, Περὶ τὴν ἱστορίαν τῆς Θρᾴκης, 1960, 27-32  P. A. Pantos, Ἱστορικὴ τοπογραφία τοῦ νομοῦ Ξάνθης…

Bistones

(95 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βίστονες; Bístones). Thracian tribe on the Aegean Sea from around the Βιστονὶς λίμνη ( Bistonìs límnē) to the lower reaches of the Nestus; neighbours of the Cicones and the Sapaei. On their territory,  Abdera,  Dicaea and Stryme were founded. Hdt. (7,110) only mentioned as an intermediate staging post of the Persian army They appear frequently in mythological tales and in genealogies (Str. 7 fr. (43) 44 mentions B. on Thasos, under the rule of Diomedes; Val. Fl. 3,159: homeland of Orpheus). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography A. Fol, T. Spiridonov,…

Naulochus

(127 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ναύλοχος/ Naúlochos). Small port on the western shore of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) beneath the southern slopes of the Haemus mountains, north of Mesambria [1], from where N. was probably founded at the turn of the 4th/3rd cents BC (Str. 7,6,1; 9,5,19; cf. also Plin. HN 4,45), modern Obzor. Mentioned as a port (ὅρμος ναυσί/ hórmos nausí), but without giving its name, in Arrian Peripl. p. eux. 36 and Anon. Peripl. m. eux. 81. The mansio on the Mesambria - Philippopolis road was called Templum Iovis in the Roman period (Tab. Peut. 8,4), and Kozeakos i…

Corpili

(94 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κορπῖλοι; Korpîloi). Thracian tribe east of the lower course of the  Hebrus (Str. 7a,1,48). The Thracian strategia of Corpilice (Ptol. 3,6,9) also extended over the earlier territory of the  Apsinthii as far as  Aenus [1] (Str. 7a,1,58). In 188 BC the C. took part in the uprising against the troops of Cn. Manlius Vulso together with the Caeni and Maduateni (Liv. 38,40,7). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Chr. Danov, Die Thraker auf dem Ostbalkan. ..., in: ANRW II 7.1, 1979, 21-185, esp. 84f. M. Tačeva, Istorija na bălgarskite zemi 2, 1987, 58ff.

Ganus

(103 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Γάνος; Gános). A mountain above modern Gaziköy on the European Propontis coast, modern Ganos Dağı (945 m). Its region was Ganiás (Γανιάς) with the local deity theà Ganḗa (θεὰ Γανήα). A fortified settlement was located below the mountain tò Gános (τὸ Γάνος, Scyl. 67). In the 5th cent. BC, G. was part of the Thynian tribal territory under Seuthes II, who promised  Bisanthe, G. and Neon Teichos to Xenophon (400-399 BC., Xen. An. 7,5,8). G. is also mentioned in association with the advance of Philip II into Propontis against Kersebleptes (346 BC, Aeschin. In Ctes. 3,82). von…

Carpathians

(209 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Καρπάτης ὄρος/Κάρπαθον ὄρος; Karpátēs óros/ Kárpathon óros, Lat. Carpates montes, Carpatae, Alpes Bastarnicae). Arch-shaped mountain range, rich in forests and water, between the Balkans ( Haemus) and the Alps, the natural border between the Balkan peninsula and the steppes of north-eastern Europe. Marinus (Ptol. 3,5,6; 15; 18; 20; 7,1; 8,1) was the first to recognize the C. as a separate mountain range, whereas they were previously mainly seen as being part of the Alps or the Haemus. Gold, …

Phanagoria

(311 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Commerce | Colonization | Patricius | Patricius (Φαναγόρεια; Phanagóreia). Port founded by Teos (Ps.-Scymn. 886f.) in the 1st half of the 6th cent. BC in the area of the Sindi (Ps.-Scyl. 72) (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 212; Colonisation IV.) on the Korokondamitis limne (Gulf of Taman) on the Asiatic coast of the Bosphorus [2], on the peninsula of Taman about 3 km south-west of modern Sennaja. As the Hypanis [2] in ancient times flowed with …

Sale

(104 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σάλη; Sálē). City on the northern shore of the Aegean Sea, west of Doriscus in the south east of the foothills of the Serrheum, probably at present-day Alexandrupolis. Built as part of the peraia of Samothrace (Hdt. 7,59,2), S. belonged to the territory of Maronea [1] in 188 BC at the time of the Syrian Wars (Liv. 38,41,8: vicus Maronitarum). In the Roman Imperial Period, S. was a road-station ( mutatio) on the road from Traianopolis to Philippi (It. Burd. 602). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography B. Isaac, The Greek Settlements in Thrace until th…

Xerogypsos

(38 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ξηρόγυψος; Xērógypsos). Small river near Perinthus in southeatern Thrace (Anna Komnena, Alexias 7, 378,14 Niebuhr; Theophylaktos Simokattes 6,245,2 Bekker), presumably modern Çorlusuyu  (in Turkey). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography C. Danov, s. v. X., RE 9 A, 2094.

Macrones

(143 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μάκρωνες; Mákrōnes). Mountain people, already mentioned by Hecat. FGrH 1 F 206, who belonged to the 19th tax district under Darius [1] (Hdt. 3,94; 7,78; mentioned here between the Tibareni and the Mossynoeci). According to Xen. (An. 4,7,24; 8,1-22), their region lay south-west of Trapezus. Modern Meryemana Deresi (righthand tributary of Maçka Dere) then formed the border river between M. and Scythae; the border fortress of the Colchi was located outside Cevrilik. Colchic influence…

Rhoxolani

(277 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ῥωξολανοί/ Rhōxolanoí, Lat. Roxolani). Sarmatic tribe or group of tribes (Sarmatae; Str. 2,5,7, cf. 7,2,4; 7,3,17 in connection with Hipparchus [6], Eratosthenes [2]) that lived in the period approximately up to the time of Christ in the steppes between Tanais (Don) and Borysthenes (Dniepr) north of the Maeotis (Plin. HN 4,80; Ptol. 3,5,19; 24 f.). In the battle against Diophantus [3], general of Mithridates [6] VI, the R. fought under their king Tasius on the side of Palacus, king of the Scythians (113 BC?; Syll.3 709). In the 1st cent. AD, the R. settled on th…

Abritus

(178 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | (Ἄβριττος; Ábrittos). Roman fortress and civilian settlement, 2 km east of the modern Razgrad, Bulgaria; pre-Roman Thracian settlement, probably the administrative centre of the strategia Rysiké under the last of the Thracian kings (IGBulg 743). From 45 BC part of  Moesia inferior; from no later than AD 78 encampment of auxilia (CIL XVI 22); in the 2nd cent. AD garrison of the cohors II Lucensium (CIL III 13727); strongly fortified in the 4th cent. AD. Inscriptions confirm a civilian settleme…

Astae

(213 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀσταί; Astaí). Thracian tribe in south-east Thrace, between Apollonia [2] and  Salmydessus in the Strandža mountains, with the royal capital of  Bizye. Politically independent after the decline of Odrysian rule at the end of the 4th cent. BC, the A. increasingly gained in importance following the withdrawal of the Celts in 278 BC (Ps.-Scymn. 729; Pol. 13,10,10). They had good relations with the Greek colonies (IGBulg 312). The A. fought alongside the Maduateni, the  Caeni, and the…

Spartocus

(324 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Σπάρτοκος/ Spártokos). Name of a king from the Bosporanian dynasty of the Spartocids (Regnum Bosporanum). Contrary to earlier opinion he was of Iranian origin and not Thracian. [German version] [1] S. I. (438/7-433/2 BC; in Diod. Sic.12,31: written as Spartacus). Founder of the Spartocids dynasty. He removed the Archaeanactidae from power, probably through a coup and without changing the state’s structure as an hereditary tyranny. The culture remained purely Greek, which is in contradiction with the assumption that S. was the…

Panticapaeum

(370 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Wine | Diadochi and Epigoni | Alexander | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Patricius | Patricius | Rome (Παντικάπαιον; Pantikápaion). Milesian colony on the European side of the Bosporus [2], founded in the 7th/6th cent. BC, modern Kerč (Ps.-Scyl. 68; Scymn. 836). With its strategic and commercially commanding position and its fertile hinterland P. soon took on a leading role under the Greek poleis on the Bosporus (Str. 7,4,4; Plin. HN 4,87). Thus in about 480 BC the Regnum Bosporanum

Burgas

(151 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] City on the west coast of the Black Sea. Several prehistoric and ancient settlements have been recorded in modern B. (the oldest from the Chalcolithic period up until the Late Bronze Age). There was a Thracian settlement in Zlatkite kladenci; from the 6th cent. BC into the 2nd cent. BC possibly an empórion of  Apollonia [2]. There were three necropolises; on the height of Siloto there was a Thracian fortress and 6 km away from this were copper mines (today Vărli brjag) owned by Thracian princes. A Thracian settlement, Tyrsis, was l…

Maeotis

(144 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μαιῶτις; Maiôtis, Latin lacus or palus Maeotis). The Asov Sea north-east of the Krim with an area of c. 38,000 km2, with an outlet to the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos in the south through the Cimmerian Bosporus [2], in the north-east confluence of the Tanais in the M. The M. is exceptionally shallow (average depth 9 m) so that it easily freezes over. In spring, south-west winds drive the water of the Pontos Euxeinos into the M. Many rivers flow into the M., which has an abundance of fish (Str. 7,4,6).…

Aegissus

(109 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Αἰγισσος; Aígissos). Thracian fortress (1st cent. BC, Ov. Pont. 1,8,13), modern Tulĉa (Romania) in the Danube delta. Necropolis from the 6th to 1st cents. BC. Under  Rhoemetalces at the time of Augustus controlled by Rome (Cass. Dio 54,20,1-3). In about 12 BC destroyed by northern tribes, but rebuilt; from the 2nd cent. BC onwards, growing in military and civilian importance.   Statio between Noviodunum and Salsovia (It. Ant. 226,2). Fortified under Justinian (Procop. Aed. 4,7,20). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography G. Simion, Les Gètes de …

Saumacus

(106 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Killer of Paerisades [6] V, who surrendered the Regnum Bosporanum to Mithridates [6] VI. According to the decree honouring Diophantus [2] (IOSPE 12 no. 352, 34-35), S. had begun a rebellion with the Scythae, which gripped the European part of the empire. He was captured by Diophantus and handed over to Mithridates. This rebellion was evidently directed against the new political leadership. The view that S. was a slave is based on a wrong translation. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography A. Gavrilov, Skify Savmaka - vosstanie ili vtorženie?, i…

Tanais

(391 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Τάναϊς/ Tánaïs). [German version] [1] River A 1970 km long river forming the border between the Scythae and the Sarmatae (Hdt. 4,21; according to Plin. HN 6,20 called Silis by the Scythae) and flowing into the Maeotis, modern Don. Sarmatian tribes lived around its lower reaches from the 4th cent. BC onwards; some 15 ancient settlements are known from archaeology there. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] City This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Commerce | Colonization | Patricius | Patricius | Rome City founded in the 3rd …

Iyrcae

(111 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἰύρκαι/ Iýrkai, Hdt. 4,22; Tyrcae, Plin. HN 6,19; Mela, 1,116). Tribe of hunters east of Thyssagetae, east of Tanais, probably in the Ural region, in the plains of Kama, Vjatka, Belaja and Volga. The precise localization and ethnic identification are debatable and cannot be determined on the basis of the sources. Russian research links the I. with the Ananino culture (8th-3rd cents. BC), of which burial mounds and fortified settlements are known and whose trading reached as far as the Caucasus. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography J. Harmatta, Quel…

Myrcinus

(163 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Μύρκινος; Mýrkinos). Edonian settlement (Edones), later Greek polis, east of the lower Strymon; both its ancient and its modern name is M. (Str. 7a,1,33). In 513 BC, Darius [1] gave M. to Histiaeus [1] who expanded and fortified the town. After the collapse of the Ionian Revolt,   Aristagoras [3] led more colonists to M.; after his death (497 BC), the Edonians regained M.  (Hdt. 5,11; 124ff.; Thuc. 4,102,2). In 423 BC, after …

Zygactes

(23 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ζυγάκτης; Zygáktēs). Coastal river to the east of Philippi (App. B Civ. 4,105; 4,128); not identified. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Eupator

(81 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Ti. Julius E., king of the  Regnum Bosporanum, from AD 154/5 to c. 174, follower of  Rhoemetalces. Coins to 170. Roman vassal, financially supported by the Romans (Lucian, Alex. 57). As the first king of the Bosporus he had a Sarmatic sign as his emblem. Most of the inscriptions come from  Panticapaeum where his residence was located (IOSPE 2, 422, 438 et al.). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gaidukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 348 n. 42; 351.

Crobyzi

(165 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κρόβυζοι). Large Getic subtribe ( Getae) living between the Athrys (modern Jantra), the lower Oescus (modern Iskar) and the  Pontus Euxinus (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 170; Arr. Anab. 1,1; 1,3; Ptol. 3,10,4). In their land (Κροβυζική) the rivers Athrys, Noes and Artanes (modern Vit?, Hdt. 4,49) flowed. After the collapse of the kingdom of the  Odrysae, it seems to have expanded to the south to the northern slope of the  Haemus (Str. 7,5,12). Phylarchus (FGrH 81 F 20) reports of Isanthes, a …

Sveshtari

(250 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] To the north of S. (district of Razgrad Oblast in Bulgaria) a Thracian burial complex (first half of the 3rd cent. BC) was discovered in 1982. In the southeastern part of the Ginina Mogila burial mound is the grave of a Getic king ( dromos with relief frieze of bucrania, rosettes and garlands, three square chambers, i.e. ante-, burial and side chambers); 12 caryatids on the burial chamber, which can be linked to Thracian afterlife beliefs. In the chamber there are two stone catafalques, and above the larger one also wall pa…

Macrocephali

(71 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μακροκέφαλοι; Makroképhaloi, ‘the large-headed’). Apparently a tribe west of Colchis (Hes. fr. 153). But the name probably comes from the mythical or fictitious reports on the peoples on the Pontos Euxeinos (cf. Str. 7,3,6 as an example of his mythical criticism), even though geographers continued to use it (Mela 1,19; Plin. HN 6,2). According to Scyl. 37 they are identical with the Macrones. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Odrysae

(476 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ὀδρῦσαι; Odrỹsai). Thracian tribe in the eastern part of the Rhodope Mountains and on the lower reaches of the Tonzus (modern Tundža) as far as Cabyle (Hdt. 4,92). At the beginning of the 5th cent. BC, a kingdom was founded by Teres with the O.'s help. (Thuc. 2,29,2f.). He expanded their settlement area in the north to the Ister [2], in the south to the river Agrianes (also called Erginus). His successors were his sons Spartacus (until about 440: Thuc. 2,101,5) and Sitalces, who e…

Coelaletae

(105 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κοιλαλῆται; Koilalêtai, Lat. Coelaletae). Ethnonym referring to two different Thracian tribes: the ‘Greater Coelaletae’ below the  Haemus (Plin. HN 4,41) and the ‘Lesser Coelaletae’ below the  Rhodope; in AD 21 they fought together with the Odrysae and Dii against the Romans (Tac. Ann. 3,38f.). The Thracian strategia Koiletike was situated there (Ptol. 3,11,9). C. are found several times as soldiers on inscriptions of the 1st cent. AD (cf. CIL XVI 33 of AD 86). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Chr. Danov, Die Thraker auf dem Ostbalkan ..…

Gylon

(111 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Γύλων; Gýlōn). Athenian, is said at the end of the 5th cent. BC to have been responsible for the northern Pontic  Nymphaeum that belonged to Athens being ‘Handed to the enemies’, for which he was given the death penalty (Aeschin. In Ctes. 171); probably his offence was less serious (Dem. Or. 28,3). G. was allocated by the Bosporanian rulers the town of Kepoi with its territory, from which he collected high taxes. He married a rich Scythian and returned to Athens with her. One of his daughters was the mother of  Demosthenes [2] (Traill, PAA 282005). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigh…

Apsinthii

(81 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀψίνθιοι; Apsínthioi). Thracian tribe on the Thracian  Chersonesus, east of the Dolonci. It was against them that  Miltiades had a wall built from Cardia to Pactye (Hdt. 6,36 f.). After the conquest of Sestus by the Athenians in 478 BC, the A. took the Persian Oiobazos prisoner and sacrificed him to their god Pleistorus (Hdt. 9,119). The A. took their name from the River Apsinthus (=  Melas). The  Hieron oros was in Apsinthis.  Sestus von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Ismaris

(36 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἰσμαρίς; Ismáris). Lake near the Aegean coast between Maronea and the River Strymon (Hdt. 7,109) with a sanctuary of Maron (Str. 7, fr. 44), probably near modern Paguria. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Rhecusporis

(313 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
Kings of the Regnum Bosporanum with the name Tiberius Julius R. (for name variations see Rhascypolis). [German version] [1] R. (II.) King of the Regnum Bosporanum from AD 68/9 to AD 91/2 Son of Cotys [II 1] I., ruled from AD 68/9 to AD 91/2 (IOSPE 2,52; 355; 358); he minted gold stateres and pursued a policy which was more independent of Rome PIR2 I 512; [1. 14-17, 93-103]. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] R. (III.) King of Bosporus and the surrounding peoples AD 210/1- AD 226/7 Son of Ti. Julius Sauromates II., ruled as 'king of Bosporus and the surroun…

Callip(p)idae

(90 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Καλλιπ(π)ίδαι; Kallip(p)ídai). Name of the inhabitants of the region neighbouring the emporium of Borysthenes on the modern Dnieper, characterized as Hellenoskýthai (Ἑλληνοσκύθαι, Hdt. 4,17; cf. Str. 12,3,21; Mela 2,7). They seem to be identical with the Graeco-Scythian population, referred to as Mixhéllēnes (Μιξέλληνες) in decree IOSPE 12 32, Z. 26f. The name alludes both to the Scythians as an equestrian people and to the derisive nickname of C. (‘unlucky fellow’). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography I. von Bredow, Der Begriff der Mixh…

Pautalia

(241 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Moesi, Moesia (Παυταλία; Pautalía). City in a fertile plain on the upper Strymon (Ptol. 3,11,12) between the River Bantčica and Hizarlak Hill, overbuilt by modern Kjustendil (in Bulgaria). Founded under Trajan (98-117 AD) over a settlement of the Thracian Danthaletae (traces from the early Hallstatt period onward, end of the 8th century BC), P. was an administrative, economic and cultural centre. Mining (iron, copper, lead, and sil…

Cynossema

(67 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κυνὸς σῆμὰ; Kynòs sêma, ‘dog grave’). Cape on Thracian Chersonesus south of Madytus near modern Kilit Bahır where the Hellespont is at its very narrowest, well known for the sea victory of the Attic fleet over the Peloponnesians in 411 BC (Thuc. 8,104-107; Diod. Sic. 13,40,6; cf. also regarding the name ‘dog grave’ Eur. Hec. 1270ff.; Ov. Met. 13,569). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Rhombites

(141 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Ῥομβίτης/ Rhombítēs). Two rivers flowing from the east into the Maeotis, where they are abundant in fish, distinguished by their epithets 'the Great' and 'the Lesser' (Str. 11,2,4; cf. Ptol. 5,9,3 f.; 26; Amm. Marc. 22,8,29). [German version] [1] R. Megas (ὁ μέγας Ῥ./ ho mégas R., 'the Great R.'). Further north, modern Jeja; according to Str. ibid., 800 stadia from the mouth of the Tanais (Don). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] R. Elatton (ὁ ἐλάττων Ῥ./ ho eláttōn R., 'the Lesser R.'). Further south; according to Str. ibid., 800 stadia from R. [1…

Drusipara

(42 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Δρουσιπάρα; Drousipára). Important station on the Amphipolis ─ Hadrianopolis ─ Byzantium road in south-east Thrace, east of Büyük Kariştiran/Turkey (earliest reference Ptol. 3,11,7; also in It. Ant. 137,7; 323,3; It. Burd. 569; Theophanes, 1,234,2). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Cabyle

(323 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Moesi, Moesia (Καβύλη, Kabýlē). City near today's Kabile on the bend of the river Tonzo in the district of Jambol/Bulgaria. Traces of settlements have been documented from the late Bronze Age and the early Iron Age. During the mid 5th cent., C. developed intensive connections to the Aegean region. A mountain sanctuary with Cybele relief was created on the acropolis. In 342/41 BC, C. was conquered by Philip II (Dem. Or. 8,44; 10,14)…

Aorsi

(121 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀορσοι; Áorsoi). Group of tribes of the Sarmatae in the steppe region of the west and north coast of the  Caspian Sea, as far as the Maeotian ( Maeotis) river Achardeus and the lower reaches of the Tanais (Ptol. 3,5,10; Plin. HN 4,80). Strabo also mentions οἱ δ ̔̃ἄνω Ἄορσοι ( hoi d' ánō Áorsoi 11,5,8). They were known through their lively trade with  Media and  Armenia; their king Spadines provided 20,000 mounted men for Pharnaces (Str. 11,5,8). In 50 BC their prince Eunones supported Rome against the Siraci (Tac. Ann. 13,15). It was from the A. that the  Alani sprang. von Bred…

Cardia

(294 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Colonization | Persian Wars (Καρδία; Kardía). Town on the northern face of the Thracian Chersonesus on the  Melas Kolpos (Ps.-Scyl. 67; Ps.-Scymn. 698f.; Str. 7a,1,52;54), not localized (the modern Bakla Liman?), described in Dem. Or. 23,182 as the gateway to Thrace. It was founded towards the end of the 7th cent. BC by Miletus, possibly with colonists from Clazomenae (Str. loc. cit), and re-established by  Miltiades with Attic coloni…

Madytus

(138 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μάδυτος; Mádytos). City on the Thracian Chersonesus between Elaeus and Sestus, founded by Lesbos (6th cent. BC; Scyl. 67, Ps.-Scymn. 709; Str. 7, fr. 55). North of M., Xerxes had the pontoon bridge built over the Hellespontus (Hdt. 7,33; 9,120). In 465 BC, M. was a member of the Delian League (Plut. Cimon 4); a few tributes are recorded for 443/440 BC (ATL 1,336f.). In the Peloponnesian War, M. was used as a harbour by the Athenian fleet (Xen. Hell. 1,1,3). Conquered in 200 BC by …

Criu Metopon

(72 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κριοῦ μέτωπον, ‘Ram's Forehead’). The designation of the two southernmost peaks of the Taurian  Chersonesus [2]: Cape Capyc and Cape Ai Todor (Plin. HN 4,86; Ps.-Scymn. 953; Ptol. 3,6;2) opposite Cap Carambis in Paphlagonia. According to legend the golden ram carried  Phrixus from there to the Colchi (Ps.-Plut. De fluviis 14,4). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. D. Blavatskij, Očerki noennogo dela v antičnih gosudarstvah severnogo Pričernomor'ja, 1954, 133f.

Pactye

(89 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Πακτύη/ Paktýē). Fortress on the Propontic coast of Chersonesus [1], to the south of present-day Bolayır Iskelesi (Ps.-Scyl. 67; Str. 7a,1,52; 54; 56). Here stood the east end of the wall which ran from Miltiades [1] via the Chersonesus [1] to Cardia (Hdt. 6,36; Scymn. 711). Alcibiades [3] retreated here in 407 BC after the loss of his position as strategos (Nep. Alcibiades 7,4; Diod. Sic. 13,74,2). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Müller 2, 895f.  B. Isaak, The Greek Settlements in Thrace until the Macedonian Conquest, 1988.

Mygdones

(147 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μυγδόνες; Mugdónes). Thracian inhabitants of the Mygdonia [1] region (Μυγδονία/ Mygdonía; Macedonia) between the lower Axios, the Gulf of Thermae, the Bolbe and the Kruša and Bogdanska mountains in the east (Hdt. 7,123f.; 127; Strab. 7a,1,11; 36). At the time of Herodotus (5th cent. BC) it was home to groups of Paeones, Sitones and Crestones; according to Thucydides 2,99,4 the Edones were expelled from Mygdonia by the Macedonian kings (after 479 BC? [4. 15]), at the time of Strabo it was i…

Maiotae

(146 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μαιῶται; Maiôtai). Greek collective name for the tribes on the east coast of the Maeotis and in the lower and middle reaches of Kuban/north-west Caucasus (Hdt. 4,123; Str. 11,2,2-4; 11). These probably include Iranian and Caucasian tribes of the Sindi, Cercetae, Toretae, Dandarii and Psessii among others. Farming and fishing formed the primary basis of their livelihood (Str. 11,2,4). They traded actively with Tanais in particular. The M. had to pay tributes to the Regnum Bosporanu…

Bergule

(75 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βεργούλη; Bergoúlē). Lüle-Burgas on the Erghene, Thracian settlement and important statio of the province of Thracia (Ptol. 3,11,7), called Arcadiopolis from the beginning of the 5th cent. AD. In AD 441, it was threatened by the Huns, and in AD 473, captured by the Goths under  Theoderic. In the Middle Ages, it was a strong fortress. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. Zlatarski, Istorija na bălgarskata dăržava prez srednite vekove 1,1, 21994, pass.

Hygiaeon

(56 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ὑγιαίων; Hygiaíōn). Ruler of the Kingdom of the Bosporus ( Regnum Bosporanum), c. 220-200 BC. Successor of  Leucon II, but not as king, rather as árchōn, also portrayed without a royal diadem. Maybe not a Spartocid. On brick stamps and coins ἄρχοντος Ὑγιαίοντος. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gaidukevič, Das Bosporan. Reich, 1971, 93, 95.

Pangaeum

(281 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Πάγγαιον/ Pángaion, Παγγαῖον ὄρος/ Pangaîon óros). A mountain chain (up to 1956 m in height) forested in Antiquity, extending parallel to the northern Aegaean coast between the lower Strymon and Kavalla (25 km long, 16 km wide) isolated from other mountain ridges; still called P. today. With its rich gold and silver deposits it was constantly in the centre of disputes (Str. 7a,1,34). Ore production was probably begun in the 7th cent. BC by the Pieres, the Odomanti and the Satrae (Hdt. 7,112), but also by Thasos and the cities of its peraía . At a very early stage Athen…

Alani

(484 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀλανοί; Alanoí). Iranian alliance of tribes north of the  Caspian Sea, from the Caucasus to the Tanais. A. appear in sources since the end of the Roman republic in place of the Sarmatian tribes. During a campaign against  Mithridates VI, Pompey came upon A. (Luc. 8,133). Since the end of the 1st cent. AD there were invasions into Media and Armenia; under Hadrian (AD 117 to 138), they threatened Cappadocia. For their culture, see Lucian, Tox. 51; Amm. Marc. 30,2,3; Iord. Get. 24. A…

Seuthopolis

(184 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Diadochi and Epigoni (Σευθόπολις/ Seuthópolis). Residence city of king Seuthes [4] III of Thrace, 3,5 km to the south of modern Koprinka (municipality of Kazanlak in Bulgaria) at the confluence of the Goljama Varovica and the Tonzos (modern Tundža). A city wall of 890 m enclosed a pentagon (orthogonal city layout) of 5 hectares. In the agora there was a temple to Dionysus, with a great altar in its centre. In the northern part of S. there was a fortress defended by a wall of its own (4620 m2) with the residence …

Moschi

(112 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μόσχοι; Mόschoi). Caucasian tribe between Colchis and Armenia. The Moschikḗ was situated in the hinterland of Phasis (Μοσχική/ Moschikḗ, Str. 11,2,17), the Moschian mountains were to the south of Colchis (Str. 11,2,15; Moschorum tractus, Plin. HN 6,29). Hdt. 7,78 describes the M.'s primitive weapons (wooden helmets, small shields and lances). Under Dareius [1] I. and Xerxes the M. were part of the 19th Persian satrapy (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 288). A shrine to Leucothea and the so-called oracle of Phrixus, which was plu…

Iluraton

(122 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἰλούρατον; Iloúraton). Graeco-Scythian settlement north of the Curubas lake in the interior of modern Kerč, c. 17 km from Panticapaeum. Traces of settlement since the Neolithic; founded in the middle of the 1st cent. AD. The results of the excavations are representative for other inland settlements in the Bosporan kingdom of the Roman period: I. was naturally and artificially well fortified. The inhabitants were military peasants who engaged in agriculture and livestock breeding, Hellenized des…

Maduateni

(42 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Ethnicon for the place name Madytus, often erroneously regarded as a small Thracian tribe, mentioned only in Liv. 38,40,7 in connection with the attack by Thracian tribes on Cn. Manlius Vulso in 188 BC. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Bryges

(56 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βρύγες, Βρῦγαι, Βρύγοι, Βρίγες; Brýges, Brŷgai, Brŷgoi, Bríges). Thracian tribe in western Macedonia. In 492/91 BC, the B. ravaged the Persian army under Mardonius (Hdt. 6,45); later, they provided troops for Xerxes' infantry (Hdt. 7,185). They are often erroneously equated with the Phrygians. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Chr. Danov, Altthrakien, 1976, 271ff.

Theodoropolis

(165 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Θεοδωρόπολις/  Theodōrópolis, also Θεοδωρούπολις/ Theodōroúpolis). Name of several towns and forts in the northern Balkan peninsula founded by Iustinianus [1] I and named after his wife Theodora [2], which have not all been located. [German version] [1] City in Moesia Secunda City in Moesia Secunda (Moesi, with map) on the Danube (Ister [1]), between Securisca (modern Cherkovitsa) and Iatrus (modern Krivina; Proc. Aed. 4,7,5). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] Fort in Dacia Ripiensis Fort in Dacia Ripiensis (Proc. Aed. 4,6,18) on the right b…

Melantias

(76 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μελαντιάς/ Melantiás, Melantiana). Last station before (and 150 stadia from) Constantinople on the via Egnatia , where the Athyras flowed into the Propontis (Agathias 5,14,20; It. Ant. 138; 230); its precise location is unknown. The emperor Valens spent several days at his villa in M. before the battle of Adrianopolis in AD 378 (Amm. Marc. 31,11,1; 12,1). In AD 558, M. was attacked by the Cutrigur Huns (Agathias 5,13). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Nipsaei

(119 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Νιψαῖοι/ Nipsaîoi). Thracian tribe west of Mesambria, probably on the eastern slopes of the Strandža mountain range to about Salmydessos. When the Persian army under Darius [1] marched through in a northerly direction against the Scythians in 513 BC, the N. subjugated themselves to Darius without bloodshed (Hdt. 4,93). Possibly identical with the Tranipsi (Xen. An. 7,2,32; Hsch. s.v. Τρανιψοί/ Tranipsoí). At the end of the 5th cent. they came under the rule of the Odrysae which is why they are not longer mentioned in later sources. The place name Νίψα/ Nípsa in Steph. …

Rhodope

(106 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ῥοδόπη/ Rhodópē). Mountain range stretching from the northern shores of the Aigaion Pelagos (Aegean Sea) to the Thracian plain around Philippopolis, mostly high, up to 2000 m in height, and inaccessible, modern Rhodopi, east of the mountain chain border between Greece and Bulgaria. According to ancient tradition R. also included the modern Rila and Pirin chains (Hdt. 4,49; 8,116; Thuc. 2,96-98; Str. 7,5,1; 7, fr. 36). Rich ore production (gold, silver, copper). R. was the area whe…

Tomi

(573 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Thraci, Thracia | Christianity | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Moesi, Moesia | Pertinax | Rome | Rome | Balkans, languages (Τόμοι/ Tómoi, Τόμις/ Tómis, Τῶμις/ Tômis; Lat. Tomi). Colony of Miletus [2] (Ps.-Scymn. 765) on the west coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), modern Constanţa (Romania). T. was probably founded in the 6th cent. BC -- although Jer. Chron. 95b,4, lists the founding date as 657 BC. In Plinius [1] the Older (HD 4,44), T. is referred to as Eumenia (originally perhaps an…

Thracia

(272 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Roman province in the north of the Balkan peninsula, established in AD 45. Its boundaries were: to the east the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos I.) from Apollonia [2] to the Bosporus [1] including Byzantium (Ptol. 3,11; Hdn. 3,1,5; from no later than AD 201, Mesambria [1] was also part of T.); to the the south the northern coast of the Aegean Sea including the islands of Proconnesus, Thasos, Samothrace and possibly also at times Imbros; to the west the province of Macedonia (border on …

Tirizis

(137 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Τίριζις ἄκρα/ Tírizis ákra; Latin Tiristis promunturium). 'Cape' or fortress on the western coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos; Str. 7,6,1; cf. Mela 2,22), on the coast road between Callatis to the north and Dionysopolis to the west, modern Kaliakra (Ptol. 3,10,8: Tiristría ē Tiristrìs ákra; Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 35). T.' natural safe position on the steep coast had already been of useful service to the Thracian Terizi. Lysimachus [2] hid his treasure from the attacking Thraci under Seuthes [4] III there at the end of the 4th cent. BC (Str. 7,6,1). The comes foederator…

Perinthus

(481 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon | | | Colonization | Moesi, Moesia | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (Πέρινθος; Périnthos). Harbour town, established by Samos in 602 BC on a peninsula on the Thracian Propontis coast (Ps.-Scymn. 713-715; Str. 7a,1,56; Diod. Sic. 16,76; Plin. HN 4,47; Colonisation IV), where later the via Egnatia joined the coast road, modern Marmara Ereğlisi. The place name is of pre-Greek origin (cf. the ending -inthos). Around 570/560 BC, P. became …

Thyssagetae

(148 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Θυσσαγέται/ Thyssagétai). Tribe of Volga Finns (Ugro-Finnic peoples) in the area of the trade route from the Tanais [1] (modern Don) to the Agrippaei, i.e. to the central Urals, seven days' travel to the northeast of the Budini and close neighbours with the Iyrcae (Hdt. 4,22; Plin. HN 6,19). This was the source region of the four great rivers, the Lycus [16], the Oarus (modern Kama), the Tanais and the Syrgis (Hdt. 4,123); it could hence be that the area where the Oarus flows into…

Hunni

(847 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Οὖννοι; Oûnnoi, Χοῦννοι; Choûnnoi), the Huns. [German version] A. History Nomadic people, origin debatable. In all probability they came from central Asia shortly after the time of Christ. As Χοῦννοι ( Choûnnoi) first mentioned in Ptol. 3,5,25 between  Bastarnae and Roxolani (additional later localizations in Amm. Marc. 2,1; Iord. Get. 36f.). Some of the Hunnic tribes moved to the Caucasus region; from the eastern Hunnic branch, several states emerged (Hephthalitae, Avares, Chazars and Protobulgarians). Around AD 376 Hunnic …

Hermonaktos kome

(73 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἑρμώνακτος κώμη; Hermṓnaktos kṓmē). Settlement at the mouth of the  Tyras (Str. 7,3,16) or at a distance of c. 16.5 km from it (Ptol. Geog. 3,10,7). Perhaps identical with the remains of an ancient settlement near modern Kosovka. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography M. V. Arbunov, K voprosu o lokalizacii bašni Neoptolema u Germonaktovoj derevni [On the problem of locating the tower of Neoptolemos and H.K.], in: VDI 1, 1978, 43-51.

Maedi

(270 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μαῖδοι, Μαίδοι; Maîdoi, Maídoi, M(a)edi). Thracian tribal league on the middle reaches of the Strymon, between Kresna and Rupel (modern Macedonia). According to the earliest witness (Thuc. 2,98), neighbours of the Sinti and Paeoni. In 429 BC, Sitalces moved through their territory, which did not belong to the kingdom of the Odrysae, against the Macedons. After the withdrawal of Sitalces, the M. expanded their tribal territory to the north, probably subjugated the Dentheleti and estab…

Tyras

(182 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Thraci, Thracia | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Patricius | Rome | Rome (Τύρας/ Týras). Colony of Miletus [2] on the northwestern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), modern Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, at the mouth of the river of the same name, modern Dnister (Ps.-Skymn. 7,98; 7,802 f.; Plin. HN. 4,82). The Ionian character of the polis is confirmed by inscriptions (IOSPE I2 2-19), the calendar and the cult of Apollo Ietrus. The date of foundatio…

Agathopolis

(123 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀγαθόπολις; Agathópolis). Modern Ahtopol on the western coast of the Black Sea. Inscriptions on coins allow a probable trace of the name to the 5th cent. BC; according to Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 36 Aulaiou teichos, Ptol. 3,11,3 Perontikon, Geographus Ravennas 4,6,2-5 Burtinum; from Middle Ages verified as A. Traces of settlements from the aeneolithic period onward; in the 3rd/2nd cents. BC Greek polis (IGBulg 474-478). It was integrated into the Roman province of  Thracia in the midd…

Cimmerii

(943 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κιμμέριοι; Kimmérioi, Lat. Cimmerii). Nomadic tribe probably of Iranian descent, attested for the 8th/7th cents. BC. The Assyrian and Babylonian forms of the name were Ga-mir, Gi-mir-a-a and similar; in the OT they were referred to as gmr, in the Masora Gȯmär. According to a document from the time of Sargon II [1. no. 30-32], the Urartian King Rusa I invaded the land of Gami(ra) (between 720 and 714 BC) and was defeated there. A further document from the same period attests to a Cimmerian intrusion into  Urartu from the region south of La…

Regnum Bosporanum

(1,439 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
The 'Bosporan kingdom' on the northern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), the heart of which was the Kerč peninsula on the so-called Cimmerian Bosporus [2], called Kimmerikòs Bósporos or simply Bósporos (Diod. Sic. 12,36; 20,22). Cf. the two maps below. [German version] I. The founding of the kingdom The Greek cities on the straits of Kerč joined together c. 480 BC under the leadership of Panticapaeum, probably originally as a protective alliance against the native Scythians. The first dynasty was the Archaeanactids, whose founder Archaeanax proba…

Mastusia

(30 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μαστουσία/ Mastousía, Μαζουσία/ Mazousía). Unidentified location on the southern tip of the Thracian Chersonnesus [1] (Str. 7, fr. 52; Ptol. 3,2,9; 12,1; Mela 2,2,25). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Scombrus

(47 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σκόμβρος; Skómbros). Heavily forested mountains with ore deposits in the west of Thrace (Thuc. 2,96,3; Scopius, Plin. HN 4,35), modern Vitoša south of Sofia. Aristot. Mete. 350b 16f. mistakenly locates the sources of the  Nestus [1] and the Hebrus there. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Pagrae

(82 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Πάγραι; Págrai). Port settlement on the Caucasian coast of the Pontos Euxeinos, 180 stadia from Hieros Limen (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 28; Anon. Peripl. m. Eux. 10r 9; possibly identical with Toricus in Scyl. Peripl. m. Eux. 74), near modern Gelenǧik, 43 km to the southeast of modern Novorossiysk. Probably part of the Regnum Bosporanum. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V.F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 237f.  D.D. and G.T. Kacharava, Goroda i poseleniya Pričernomor'ya antičnoy epochi, 1991, 207, 280f.

Treres

(126 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Τρῆρες/ Trêres, Τρᾶρες/ Trâres). Thracian tribe, located in the Plain of Serdica (modern Sofia) to the north of the Scombros (modern Vitoša) Mountains and to the west of the River Oescus [1] (modern Iskăr). In the kingdom of the Odrysae they were among the northwestern border tribes. They were neighbours of the Triballi and the Tilataei (Thuc. 2,96,6; Str. 1,3,18; Plin. HN 4,35). According to Str. (1,3,21; 13,1,8; 14,1,40) they were supposed to have been among the Cimmerii who migrated to Asia Minor. Ancient oriental sources do not mention them, however. von Bredow, I…

Eunones

(57 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] King of the Aorsi, supported C.  Iulius Aquila and  Cotys I against  Mithridates IX. However after the capture of Uspe, he received the latter but handed him over later on the condition that his life would be spared (Tac. Ann. 12,15-20).  Aorsi von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 342f.

Athyras

(74 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀθύρας; Athýras). Small river, which flows into the Propontis west of Byzantium, today Kara-su (Plin. HN 4,47; according to Ptol. 3,11,4 several branches). In the late Roman era, the fortified harbour settlement (Amm. Marc. 22,8,8) was restored by Justinian (Procop. Aed. 4,8,18). The fortified stone bridge, which was destroyed by Krum in 812, was famous. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. Zlatarski, Istorija na bălgarskata dăržava prez srednite vekove 1,1, 21994, 275.

Skardon oros

(103 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σκάρδον ὄρος/ Skárdon óros; Latin mons Scordus). High mountains, placed by Str. 7a,1,10 in the chain of mountains bounding Macedonia in the north beyond Bertiscus (nowadays in Montenegro) and this side of Orbelus, Rhodope (modern Rhodope, Rila and Prin) and Haemus (modern Stara Planina). According to Liv. 44,31,4 f. (cf. 43,20,1; Pol. 28,8,3, in connexion with the third of the Macedonian Wars) SO is surrounded in the east by Dardania, in the south by Macedonia and in the west by Illyricum. Thus SO is generally identified with modern Šar Planina. von Bredow, Iris (Bie…

Odomanti

(111 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ὀδόμαντοι; Odómantoi). Thracian tribe on the east bank of the lower Strymon at the western foot of Pangaeum (Str. 7a,1,36) in the area of modern Serres (northern Greece). The O. were involved in exploiting the gold mines there (Hdt. 7,112; Thuc. 2,101,3). Megabazus [1], commander of the forces of Darius, failed to subject the O. in 512 BC (Hdt. 5,16). A king of the O., Polles, provided a mercenary force to the Spartans in 425 BC (Thuc. 5,6,2). They were conquered by the Macedonians after 424 BC. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Chr. Danov, Altthrakien…

Arzus

(61 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἄρζος; Árzos). River in Thrace, modern Sazlijka; at its mouth into the  Hebrus (not the Propontis, cf., however, Ptol. 3,11,4), there was a statio of the same name (It. Ant. 136,7; Tab. Peut. 8,2), modern Kalugerovo, district of Haskovo, in the territory of Augusta Traiana (IGBulg 3,1704-1706). Fortified by  Justinianus. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography IGBulg, 3,2, 131.

Pharsanzes

(71 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Pharzanes). King of the Regnum Bosporanum in AD 253-254; he interrupted the reign of Rhecusporis V probably as a usurper who was hostile to the Romans. He is known on account of the coins he issued PIR2 P 343. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V.F. Gaidukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 470  A.N. Zograph, Ancient Coinage. Ph. II: The Ancient Coins of the Northern Black Sea Littoral, 1977, 334-335.

Trausi

(83 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Τραυσοί/ Trausoí, Latin Trausi). Thracian tribe, which can be located in the southwestern part of the Rhodope mountains; their customs are supposed to have been distinct from those of the other Thraci  (Hdt. 5,3 f.). According to Liv. 38,41,5 the T. lived on robbery; he mentions them in connection with the defeat of  Manlius [I 24] Vulso at Tempyra. According to Steph. Byz. s. v. T., the Greeks called the T. Agathyrsi. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography A. Fol, Političeska istorija na trakite, 1972, 58.

Taurike Chersonesos

(24 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ταυρικὴ Χερσόνησος; Taurikḕ Chersónēsos) see Chersonesus [2]. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography J. M. Mogaričev (Hrsg.), Problemy istorii i arheologii Krymy, 1994.

Dunax

(52 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Δοῦναξ; Doûnax, Dunuca, Dinax). Mountain range in western Thrace, probably the Rila mountains in Bulgaria (Ptol. 34,10,15 = Str. 4,6,12; Liv. 40,58,2: battle of the Thracians with the Bastarnae, 179 BC). It is not really possible to link homonymous personal names with this name. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Hebrus

(217 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἕβρος; Hébros). Southern Thracian river, modern Bulgarian Marica, Byzantine/Modern Greek Εὖρος, longest river after the Danube on the Balkan peninsula. According to Ps.-Plutarchus (De fluviis 3), its earlier name is supposed to have been Rhombus. Its headwaters lie in the Rila mountains (Thuc. 2,96,4). From there, it flows in an easterly direction through the fertile Thracian plain to  Hadrianopolis, where it is joined by the Tonzos, then turns toward the south and empties into th…

Bessi, Bessoi

(240 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βεσσοί; Bessoí). Term given to various Thracian tribal groupings, first mentioned by Hdt. 7,111 as part of the  Satrae in the western Rhodope mountains, but thereafter not again until the 2nd cent. BC (Pol. 23,8,4; Syll.3 710 A). The B. gained political significance because of their opposition to the Romans: defeated by Lucullus in 72 BC, by C. Octavius (ILS 47) in 59 BC, and brought to battle c. 15 years later by Brutus (Liv. Per. 77); in 29 BC M. Licinius Crassus attacked them, took away from them the Dionysus sanctuary in the Rhodope and trans…

Skapte Hyle

(68 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σκάπτη ὕλη/ Skáptē Hýlē, Σκαπτησύλη/ Skáptēsýlē). Unlocated township in the peraia of Thasos in the Pangaeum mountains with gold mines from which Thasos extracted 80 talents a year before the Persian Wars (Hdt. 6,46; Thuc. 1,100,2). The historian Thucydides had estates and also died there (Plut. Cimon 4,3; Markellinos, Vita Thucydidis 19,25,47). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography P. Perdrizet, Skaptésylé, in: Klio 10, 1910, 1-27  Müller, 100 f.

Amardi

(94 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἄμαρδοι; Ámardoi). Iranian town in  Media on the south bank of the  Caspian Sea, west of the Hyrcani ( Hyrcania), east of the  Cadusii (Str. 11,6,1; 8,1; 8; Plin. HN 6,36; Mela 3,39; 42 - joint source is  Eratosthenes). Not likely to be identical with the A. in the Persian armed forces under Xerxes (Aesch. Pers. 994), just as unlikely to be identical with the neighbours of the Persae (Arr. Ind. 40,6). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography F. C. Andreas, s. v. A., RE 1, 1729-1733 F. H. Weissbach, s. v. Mardoi, in: RE 14, 1648-1651.

Sinti

(119 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σιντοί/ Sintoí). Thracian tribe on the western bank of the Strymon, probably between the mountains Malaševska and Ogražden, possibly somewhat more in the south; western neighbour of the Illyrian Dardani (Str. 7a,1,36; App. Mithr. 55); the westernmost tribe of the kingdom of the Odrysae ( cf. Thuc. 2,98,1 on Sitalces' [1] campaign against Macedonia in 429 BC). The main centre of the S. was Heraclea Sintica, which has not yet been located (Diod. Sic. 31,8,8; Liv. 45,29,6). The Sínties in Hom. Od. 8,294 are not the same as the S. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibli…

Pliska

(227 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Slavonic; Greek Πλίσκοβα/ Plískoba). Residency in the first kingdom of the Bulgari, one of the successor states on the soil of the Roman Empire, in the years 681-843, 25 km to the east of Šumen at modern Pliska (formerly Aboba) in northeastern Bulgaria, to the north of the Haemus, where important mountain passes can be controlled, probably founded by Khan Asparuh. Originally built as a military fortress 23 km2 in area, with rectangular and circular wooden buildings and three concentric embankments, the innermost ring enclosing the palace area (0·5 km2). This city,…

Caeni

(136 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Καινοί; Kainoí). Thracian tribe between Astae and Corpili in the region of the Paeti (Hdt. 7,110 Arr. Anab. 1,11,4). After the fall of the Odrysean kingdom, the C. were located in the area east of the river Hebrus spreading to the coasts of the Propontis and the Aegean Sea. The province Caenica at the lower reaches of the river Hebrus was named after this tribe (Plin. HN 4,47; Ptol. 3,11,6). In 188 BC, the C. followed the advice of Philip V and attacked the baggage train of Cn. Ma…

Caspian Sea

(290 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κασπία θάλαττα; Kaspía thálatta; also known as ‘Hyrcanian Sea’ after the pre-Iranian Caspii or Hyrcanii who settled on its south-western shore). The world's largest drainless salt lake (371,000 km2) with c. 50 smaller islands; in the west, it borders on the Caucasus, in the east on the Iranian highlands, in the south on the Elburz range, and in the north on the Russian lowlands. Rivers flowing into the Caspian Sea (CS) are: Volga (Tanais), Ural, Terek (Atrek), Sulak, and Kura (Cyrus). Whereas the CS was seen…

Melanditae

(69 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μελανδῖται/ Melandîtai). Greek name for a Thracian tribe north of Perinthus (Xen. An. 7,2,32; cf. the name of the region in Steph. Byz. s.v. Μελανδία). North of them was the tribal territory of the Thyni, in the east the ‘Thracian delta’ of Byzantium. Their territory belonged to the Hellenistic stratēgia of Astikḗ. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography T. Spiridonov, Istoriceska geografija na trakijskite plemena, 1983, 40f., 111f.

Cillae

(38 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κέλλαι; Kéllai). Mansio on the road from Philippopolis to Hadrianopolis, modern Černa gora (Bulgaria). Honorary decrees and dedications from the imperial period (IGBulg 1515ff.); It. Ant. 136; Tab. Peut. 568. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Berezan

(193 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Island (still a peninsula in antiquity) located in front of the mouth of the  Borysthenes and on which the oldest traces of settlement by Milesian colonists on the northern coast of the Black Sea have been found: Rhodian-Ionic ceramics from the end of the 7th cent. BC; the locality B. arose in the 2nd half of the 7th cent. (numerous graffiti; flourished at the end of the 6th to the beginning of the 5th cent.). Cult of Apollo Ietros and of Apatouria (Aphrodite). Olbia was possibly …

Symbolum

(60 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Thracian coastal mountain range, today also Simbolo, lying to the south-east of the Pangaeum. The road from Philippi across S. to the port of Neapolis [1] led across a narrow pass, significant in the Roman Civil War (autumn 42 BC; Plut. Brutus 38,2; Cass. Dio 47,35,3). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography TIR K 35,1 Philippi, 1993, 55.

Doiptunus

(58 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Tib. Iulius D. (also Doiptounos or Douptounos; IPE 2,49). The name is not Greek and appears here for the first time. Probably appointed by Byzantium as administrator of the Bosporus after AD 620, since the inscription with Christian symbols also mentions a comes. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V.F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 517.
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