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Antebi (Antibi), Abraham b. Isaac

(12 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see Antebi (Antibi) Family (also Community Leaders)Daniel SchroeterBibliography,

Tiznit

(3 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see SousDaniel Schroeter

Berber Jews

(847 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
From the early Islamic period until the mid-twentieth century, Jews were scattered among the Muslim Berber-speaking populations of the Maghreb: in rural Morocco, especially in the Atlas Mountains and the south, Kabylia and Mzab in Algeria, Jerba in Tunisia, and the Jebel Nafusa in Libya. While contemporary evidence is lacking, it is likely that some Berbers converted to Judaism in late antiquity, before the expansion of Islam in the Maghreb. The idea that the Jews who lived in these regions were themselves part of the indigenous Berber population …

Targhilil

(3 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see Dra’aDaniel Schroeter

Macnin (Maqnīn), Meʾir

(581 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
Born in Marrakesh in the 1760s, Meʾir ben Abraham Cohen Macnin (Maqnīn; Mor. Ar. goldfinch) settled in Essaouira (Mogador) in the 1770s or early 1780s. He soon rose to prominence in the port as a merchant and key intermediary for the governor of Essaouira. In the winter of 1799 to 1800, he set sail for England during an outbreak of bubonic plague, leaving behind his wife whom he had recently married. This was the beginning of a long sojourn in …

Maghreb

(5 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see Algeria;Morocco; Libya; TunisiaDaniel Schroeter

Ḥusaynī, Ḥājj Amīn al-

(6 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
See Anti-Judaism/Antisemitism/Anti-ZionismDaniel Schroeter

La Voix des Communautés (Rabat)

(13 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see Conseil des Communautés Israélites du Maroc (CCIM)Daniel Schroeter

Jacob Hayyim ben Isaac Ben Na'im

(10 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see Ben Nāʾīm FamilyDaniel Schroeter

Slouschz, Nahum

(827 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
Nahum Slousch…

Iligh

(661 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
The town of Iligh, located in the district of Tazeroualt (Tāzarwālt) in the Anti-Atlas Mountains in the southwestern Sous region of Morocco, rose to importance when Būdamī‘a (d. 1659), the great-grandson of the venerated saint ( murābiṭ) and sharīf Sīdī Aḥmad ū-Mūsā (Sī Ḥmad ū-Mūsā) made it his capital in the 1620s. ‘Alī Būdamī‘a exploited the weakness of the Saʿdian dynasty after the death of Sultan Aḥmad al-Manṣūr to build a base of political power. He accomplished this largely through his control of trade in the western Sahara which was conducted by Jews from nearby Ifrane, many of whom settled in Iligh at his invitation. When the Jews in Iligh founded a synagogue, a Muslim jurist issued a fatwa (legal …

ʿAyyāsh, Judah

(5 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see ʿAyyāsh FamilyDaniel Schroeter

Essaouira (Mogador)

(2,286 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
Essaouira (Cl. Ar. al-Ṣuwayra; Mor. Ar. Ṣwīra; Port. Mogador), a city located on the southwestern Atlantic coast of Morocco, was the most important seaport of Morocco from the last decades of the eighteenth to the end of the nineteenth century. It was home to one the largest Jewish communities in Morocco in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. 1. Jewish Merchants in the Town’s Early Development Jews were closely connected to the early development of Essaouira, which was founded in 1764 by Sultan Sīdī Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh as the port for th…

Amizmiz

(4 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see Atlas MountainsDaniel Schroeter

Foum Zguid

(5 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see Tata RegionDaniel Schroeter

Atlas Mountains (Morocco)

(2,799 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
There have been Jewish communities in various parts of the mostly Berber regions of the …

Benoliel, Judah

(482 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
Born in 1772, Judah Benoliel was a wealthy Jewish merchant from a Tetouani family who served as the Moroccan consul general in the British colony of Gibraltar in the 1820s and 1830s under the Alawid (ʿAlawī) sultans Mawlāy Sulaymān and Mawlāy ‘Abd al-Raḥmān. Morocco maintained only a few permanent consulates in foreign countries before the twentieth century, but Gibraltar, a key entrepôt for commerce in the western Mediterranean, was strategically a crucial center for Moroccan financial and political dealings wit…

Ifrane (of the Anti-Atlas; also Ifran, Oufrane)

(866 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
Located in the Anti-Atlas Mountains in the southwestern Sous region, the town of Ifrane (from Berb. ifri, cave), called Oufrane by Jews, was, according to Moroccan Jewish tradition, home to the oldest continuously existing Jewish community in Morocco. Legend recounted that its origin ultimately went back to escapees from Jerusalem after the destruction of the First Temple in 586 B.C.E.  Over the years their descendants moved across Egypt and North Africa in search of a home. They eventually settled in Wadi Oufrane in 361 B.C.E. after obtaining permission from the local inhabitants and founded a kingdom under King Ephrati from Ephraim,…

Ouled Berrhil

(4 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see SousDaniel Schroeter

Arazan

(3 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see SousDaniel Schroeter

Aliya, Clandestine

(4 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see MoroccoDaniel Schroeter

Twansa

(6 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see Grana (Livornese), Tunis, TunisiaDaniel Schroeter

École Normale Hebraïque (ENH), Casablanca

(313 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
The École Normale Hébraïque (ENH) was founded inCasablanca in 1946 by the Alliance Israélite Universelle to train teachers in modern Hebrew and Jewish Studies. It was part of an effort to modernize the Jewish and Hebrew curriculum in Morocco, …

Beni Sbih

(4 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see Dra’aDaniel Schroeter

Zarzis

(552 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
Zarzis is a town on the coast of southeastern Tunisia, about 50 kilometers (32 miles) south of Jerba and close to the Libyan border. A Jewish community was established in Zarzis in 1883 after French settlers began developing olive oil production in the town and region during the French protectorate (1881–1956). Nearly the entire Jewish community was made up of Jerban Jews from Hara Kebira who, seeking opportunities in the colonial economy, formed a network of satellite communities together with other towns in the region (Ben Gardane, Medenine, Matmata). The large synagogue, modeled on…

Renacimiento de Israel (Tangier)

(302 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
The Renacimento de Israel (Renaissance of Israel) was a bimonthly Spanish-language review published in Tangier but printed in Algeciras, Spain. The paper described itself on its masthead as Defensor de los intereses politicos y nacionales de la colectividad Israelite de Marruecos (Defender of the political and national interests of the Jewish collectivity in Morocco).  It was founded in 1924 by Asher Perl (known as “Rabbi Asher”), who was born in Poland around 1868 or 1869, lived in Palestine for time, and settled in Algeciras after trave…

Agadir

(669 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
Agadir (Berb. Agadīr, fortified enclosure) is a seaport on the Atlantic coast of southwestern Morocco near the mouth of the Sous River. Founded as a fortified post by a Portuguese nobleman in 1505, and acquired by the Portuguese crown in 1513, Santa Cruz do Cabo de Guer was renamed Agadir when it was conquered by the Saʿdi dynasty in 1541. The town became Morocco’s principal southern seaport, and much of the country’s trade with Europe, especially Amsterdam, was conducted by Jews who settled there. The Dutch relied on Jewish merchants in Agadir for ostrich feathers, indigo, wax, gum arabic, and dates.      During its heyday in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Agadir was a center of Kabbala and talmudic scholarship. One of its most outstanding rabbis and talmudists in this period was the merchant-scholar Khalifa ben Malka. In the mid-seventeenth century, Agadir’s Jews were influenced by the messianic movement of Shabbetay Ṣevi.      With the founding in 1764 of the new Atlantic port of …

Azizmiz

(4 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see Atlas MountainsDaniel Schroeter

Ahavat Ṣiyyon Society (Safi)

(6 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see ZionismDaniel Schroeter

Agadir

(533 words)

Author(s): Schroeter, Daniel J.
Agadir (Agādīr; Berber, Agadir n'Ighir) is a city on the southern Moroccan Atlantic coast near the mouth of the Sous river valley, at the base of the western flank of the High Atlas mountain range. Derived from the Semitic root g-d-r (“wall”), “Agadir” is a frequent place name in the Sous region, connoting a fortified structure or collective granary.…
Date: 2021-07-19

Casablanca

(2,437 words)

Author(s): Andre Levy | Daniel Schroeter
The city of Casablanca ([al-]Dār al-Bayḍāʾ, Sp. and Ar. white house), Morocco’s principal seaport, was home to the largest Jewish community in the Maghreb in the twentieth century. Situated on the central Atlantic coast, it was known as Anfā in the Middle Ages. During the decline of the Marinid dynasty, its relative autonomy made it a safe haven for corsairs. The Portuguese destroyed the town in 1468 or 1469, and it was only rebuilt in the latter half of the eighteenth century by Sultan Sīdī Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh, who renamed it al-Dār al-Bayḍāʾ. Grain was its principal export, especially to Spain, but between the 1790s and 1830 the port was often closed to foreign commerce because of conflicts between Morocco and Spain and prohibitions of grain exports. Essaouira (Mogador) was originally Morocco’s principal port, but in the latter half of the nineteenth century it was supplanted by others, among them Casablanca, which became Morocco’s most active port in the dec…

Morocco

(9,120 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter | Yaron Tsur | Mohammed Hatimi
1. Until 1912Origins of the Jews of MoroccoMorocco (Ar. al-Maghrib) is a country in the northwestern part of Africa, along the Mediterranean coast to the north, and stretching along the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The origins of Jewish settlement in al-Maghrib al-Aqṣā (Ar. far west, far Maghreb), as the westernmost country of North Africa was called by Arab geographers, is unknown. The Jewish communities of Morocco traced their roots back to ancient Israel; legends recount that the first J…
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