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Nafza

(369 words)

Author(s): Ed.
( Nefza ), the name of a Berber tribe (ethnic: Nafzī) belonging to the group which the mediaeval genealogists and historians mention under the name of Butr [ q.v.]. It had spread out over a large part of Barbary, between Ifrīḳiya [ q.v.] and Fās, passing through the region of Constantine, Oran, Tlemcen and the Rīf. In contemporary Tunisia, to the east of the massif of Kroumirie [see k̲h̲umayr ], there extends the country of the Nafzas, a fertile region fringed with woodlands abounding in game. Near the D̲j̲abal al-Abyaḍ, at ca 150 km/96 miles to the west of Tunis by road and 140 km/90…

Abu ’l-Asad al-Ḥimmānī

(385 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, nubāta b. ʿabd allāh , minor poet of the ʿAbbāsid period, originally from Dīnawar. His talent was only moderate, and it was ʿAllawayh/ʿAllūya who rescued him from oblivion, since this singer, the poet’s friend, introduced him to the great men of the age and, above all, set some of his verses to music, so that they enjoyed a great success. His career seems to have been quite a lengthy one. He is found, first of all, satirising as early as 153/770 two of al-Manṣūr’s mawālī , Ṣāʿid and Maṭar (al-D̲j̲ahs̲h̲iyārī, Wuzarāʾ , 124), and then frequenting Abū Dulaf al-ʿId̲j̲lī [see al-ḳāsim b. ʿīsā …

Mūsā b. ʿUḳba

(168 words)

Author(s): Ed.
al-Asadī (after 55-141/675-758), early Medinan scholar and historian, especially interested in the Prophet’s expeditions or mag̲h̲āzī [ q.v.]. A mawlā of al-Zubayr b. al-ʿAwwām’s and a pupil of al-Zuhrī [ q.vv.], he taught in the Prophet’s mosque in Medina, showing in his work the characteristic, increasing emphasis of the Medinan school on isnāds and also displaying a concern in giving dates for the events which he describes. His Kitāb al-Mag̲h̲āzī , transmitted by his nephew Ismāʿīl b. Ibrāhīm b. ʿUḳba, has not survived as a complete work, …

al-Niẓāmiyya, al-Madrasa

(38 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the designation given to the colleges of Sunnī instruction founded in ʿIrāḳ, al-D̲j̲azīra and Persia by the great Sald̲j̲ūḳ vizier Niẓām al-Mulk [ q-v.]. See for these, madrasa, I. 4, and niẓām al-mulk . (Ed.)

Manōhar

(69 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Manōhargárh , a fortress on a lofty rock, some 2,500 feet/770 m. high, in lat. 16° N. and long. 74° 1′ E., in the Western Ghats range of peninsular India. Formerly in the southernmost part of the British Indian province of Bombay, it is now just within the southwestern corner of the Maharashtra state of the Indian Union. (Ed.) Bibliography Imperial gazetteer of India 2, xvii, 200.

ʿArabistān

(71 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ‘the Arab country’, a term much in use until recently to denote the Persian province of Ḵh̲ūzistān; the latter name was revived during the reign of Riḍā S̲h̲āh Pahlawī. Fur further particulars see k̲h̲ūzistān . Following Persian usage, ʿArabistān denotes occasionally the Arabian peninsula. In Ottoman administrative documents from the 16th century it is occasionally applied to the Arabic-speaking provinces of the Empire, more especially to Syria. (Ed.)

Red̲j̲āʾī-Zāde

(208 words)

Author(s): Ed.
Meḥmed Ḏj̲elāl bey (1254-1300/1838-82), Turkish writer and poet, and elder brother of Red̲j̲āʾī-zāde Maḥmūd Ekrem Bey [see ekrem bey ]. He had a moderately successful administrative career, entering the Translation Office ( Terd̲j̲üme Odasi̊ ) of the Sublime Porte in 1270/1853-4, being appointed in 1279/1862-3 chief clerk to the embassy in St. Petersburg, becoming assistant secretary ( mektūbī muʿāwini ) under Aḥmed D̲j̲ewdet Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] in 1282-1865-6, when the latter became wālī of Aleppo, and finally chief secretary of the provinces of K…

Ḳanbāniya

(302 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(also kanbāniya , with kanfāniya once attested in the Calendrier de Cordoue ), from Spanish campaña , in general denotes in Spanish Arabic usage, the countryside, but in particular the Campiña, sc. the vast, gently-undulating plain which forms the southern part of the kūra of Cordova; al-Idrīsī, Description de lAfrique et de lEspagne , ed. and tr. Dozy-De Goeje, 174, 209, makes it an iḳlim whose capital was Cordova and its main towns al-Zahrāʾ, Ecija, Baena, Cabra and Lucena. After leaving the capital, the approach to it was first thr…

Ḳaṣab

(429 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), noun of unity ḳaṣaba , any plant with a long and hollow stem like the reed ( Arundo donax ), to which the term is especially applied (see Muk̲h̲aṣṣaṣ , xi, 46). The bamboo is called k̲h̲ayzurān , but ḳaṣab is a component of certain expressions denoting in particular the sugar cane ( ḳaṣab al-sukkar, etc.) [see following article] and the sweet flag (or fragrant rush, ḳaṣab al-d̲h̲arīra ; see H. P. J. Renaud and G. S. Colin, Tuḥfat al-aḥbāb , Paris 1934, 152; M. Levey, The medical formulary . . . of al-Kindī , Madison-London 1966, 316), or even the papyrus reed ( ḳaṣab al-bardī or just al-bardī

Niẓām al-Mulk

(145 words)

Author(s): Ed.
Čīn Ḳilič K̲h̲ān , Ḳamar al-dīn , founder of the Indian Muslim state of Ḥaydarābād in the early 12th/18th century and a dominant figure in the military affairs of the decaying Mug̲h̲al empire from his appointment as governor of the Deccan by the Emperor Farruk̲h̲-siyar [ q.v.] till his death in 1161/1748. In the early years of his governorship he was the deadly foe of his rivals for influence in the empire, the Bārha Sayyids [ q.v. in Suppl.], and after his victory over them at S̲h̲akarkheldā in 1137/1724, virtually independent ruler in Ḥaydarābād with the additional ti…

Sindān

(107 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Sandān , a port on the western coast of peninsular India, mentioned by the early Islamic geographers (Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, Ibn Ḥawḳal, the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam ) as a flourishing mercantile town with a mixed population of Hindus and Muslims. It has been identified with the Sanjam of Portuguese maps and the St. John of English ones and as lying south of Daman and north of Thāna, hence in the modern Bombay state of the Indian Union. (Ed.) Bibliography Ḥudūd al-ʿālam, tr. Minorsky, 57, comm. 244-5 S. Maqbul Ahmad, India and the neighbouring territories in the Kitāb Nuzḥat al-Mus̲h̲tāq ... of al-S̲…

Būrī-bars

(73 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. alp arslān , the Sald̲j̲ūḳ, was sent by Barkiyārūk against Arslan Arg̲h̲ūn, another son of Alp Arslan, who was trying to make himself independent in Ḵh̲urāsān. In the struggle between the two brothers, Būrī-Bars was at first successful, but in the second encounter, in 488/1095, his troops were scattered and he himself was taken prisoner and strangled by his brother’s orders. (Ed.) Bibliography Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, x, 179 Houtsma, Recueil, ii, 257. ¶

Ṣābir

(189 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Mīrzā ʿAlī Akbar (b. 1862 in S̲h̲emākha, d. 1911 in Bākū), Azerbaijani satirical poet and journalist. After the First Russian Revolution of 1905, a humorous and satirical literature grew up in Russian Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān, seen especially in the weekly journal Mollā Naṣreddīn founded at Tiflis in 1906 by Ḏj̲elāl Meḥmed Ḳulī-zāde [see d̲j̲arīda. iv], which attacked the old literary forms, backwardness in education and religious fanaticism, achieving a circulation also in Turkey and Persian Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān. One of the writers in it was Ṣābir (who als…

Fatā

(221 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, pl. fityān , strictly “young man”, has assumed a certain number of meanings in Arabic [see futuwwa ]: here we confine ourselves to one exclusively Andalusian usage. In Muslim Spain the slaves, whether eunuchs or not, employed in the service of the prince and his household, and then of the ḥād̲j̲ib [ q.v.] at the time when the latter was in practice taking over the reins of power, were in fact called g̲h̲ilmān (sing, g̲h̲ulām [ q.v.]), whilst those who held an elevated rank in the palace hierarchy bore the title fatā , the entire management of the household being …

K̲h̲amsa

(483 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) “five” still possesses, in several Muslim countries, as amongst peoples of ancient times, a magical value in connection with the use of the fingers of the hand as a defence against the evil eye [see ʿayn ]. An efficacious method of protection against the evil eye, especially in North Africa but also in certain parts of the Near East also, consists essentially in stretching out the right hand, with the fingers spread out, towards the person whose glance can harm, and in pronouncing a formula containing the word k̲h̲amsa , e.g. k̲h̲amsa fī ʿayni-k

K̲h̲ayāl

(119 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Mīr Muḥammad Taḳī , of Aḥmadābād in Gud̲j̲arāt (d. 1173/1759-60), author of a collection of tales in 15 volumes entitled Bustān-i K̲h̲ayāl , composed in Persian prose between 1155/1742 ¶ 1742 and 1169/1756, at the request of his patron Nawwāb Ras̲h̲īd K̲h̲ān, or, according to one manuscript, for the two brothers Nawwāb Ras̲h̲īd K̲h̲ān and Nawwāb Muḥammad Isḥāḳ K̲h̲ān, sons of D̲j̲aʿfar ʿAlī K̲h̲ān (Nawwāb of Bengal 1170-4/1757-61 and 1176-8/1763-5); an account of the contents of this work, which is made up partly of histor…

Yawm

(216 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(a., pl. ayyām ), “day” (a Common Semitic word, e.g. Akkad. ūmum , Hebr. yōm , Aram. yawmā , ESA ywm ), denoting the whole 24-hour cycle making up a day, whereas nahār means “the daylight period”, i.e. from sunrise to sunset. See further on this, al-layl wa ’l-nahār . Yawm occurs as an isolated term in various specialised uses, in particular, in pre- and early Islamic times in the meaning of “day of battle”; for this, see ayyām al-ʿarab . The pl. ayyām can also occur, especially in early Arabic poetry, in a similar sense to its apparent antonym layālī

Ibn ʿAbdūn

(583 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd Ibn ʿAbdūn al-Fihrī , was an Andalusian kātib and poet born in Evora. Early in life his talents attracted the attention of the governor of this city, ʿUmar Ibn al-Afṭas, and he became his secretary when the latter became ruler of Badajoz [see baṭalyaws ] assuming the laḳab al-Mutawakkil, in 471/1078 [see afṭasids ]. After the fall of the dynasty and the capture of Badajoz in 487/1095 by the Almoravid general Sīr b. Abī Bakr, Ibn ʿAbdūn entered the service of the Almoravids and became kātib to Yūsuf b. Tās̲h̲fīn and to his son ʿAlī. He died in Evora in 529/1134. ʿIbn A…

Sufyānids

(115 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the branch of the Umayyad dynasty of Arab caliphs in early Islam who formed the first and shorter-lasting line of the dynasty, being predecessors of the Marwānids [ q.v.]. The line took its name from Abū Sufyān b. Ḥarb [ q.v.], whose son Muʿāwiya I became caliph in 41/61, to be followed briefly by his son Yazīd I and the latter’s young son Muʿāwiya II, who died in 64/683. The succession was then taken up by the parallel branch of Marwān b. al-Ḥakam [ q.v.]. For the general history of the Sufyānids, see umayyads and the articles on the individual rulers, and for the post-132/750 eschato…

Ṣalāt-i Maʿkūsa

(106 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a., p.), literally, “the act of Muslim worship performed upside-down”, one of the extreme ascetic practices found among extravagant members of the dervish orders, ¶ such as in mediaeval Muslim India among the Čis̲h̲tiyya [ q.v.], where it formed part of the forty days’ retreat or seclusion ( k̲h̲alwa , arbaʿīniyya , cǐlia ) undertaken to heighten spiritual awareness [see k̲h̲alwa ]. This practice was one of those done in tortured or difficult circumstances, in this case hanging on the end of a rope over the mouth of a well; see čis̲h̲tiyya, at Vol. II, 55b, and hind. v. Islam, at Vol. III,…

Hāmarz

(107 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Persian officer who, at the battle of D̲h̲ū Ḳar [ q.v.], was in command of the Persian troops who were driven back by the Bakr b. Wāʾil [ q.v.] and who was killed in the battle. Al-Masʿūdī ( Murūd̲j̲, ii, 228 = ed. Pellat, i, 648) calls him, in error, al-Hurmuzān, but he should not be confused with the Persian general of this name [ q.v.] who was assassinated by ʿUbayd Allāh b. ʿUmar. (Ed.) Bibliography Ṭabarī, i, 1030, 1032, 1034 f. (tr. Nöldeke, Geschichte der Perser, Leiden 1879, 335, 338, 340, 342) Ibn al-Wardī, Taʾrīk̲h̲, Cairo 1285, i, 117 see also the Bibl. of the article d̲h̲ū ḳār.

Ḏj̲ayb-i Humāyūn

(138 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the privy purse of the Ottoman Sultans. Under the authority of the privy secretary ( Sirr kātibi ), it provided for the immediate needs and expenses of the sovereign. Its regular revenues consisted of the tribute from Egypt (see irsāliyye ), the income from the imperial domains (see k̲h̲āṣṣ ), and the proceeds from gardens, orchards, forests etc. belonging to or attached to the imperial palaces. Irregular revenues included the fees paid by newly appointed rulers of Moldavia, Wallachia, Transylvania and, for a while, Ragusa, the Sultan’s share…

Tahlīl

(119 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(a.), the verbal noun from hallala , form II verb, with two differing etymologies and meanings. (1) From hilāl , the new moon, meaning “jubilation or excitement at seeing the new moon” [see hilāl. i; talbiya ]. (2) From the formula la ilāha illā ’llāh , the first and main element of the Islamic profession of faith or s̲h̲ahāda [ q.v.]. The verbal form is here obtained by the so-called procedure of naḥt “cutting out, carving out”. The tahīl then denotes the pronouncing, in a high and intelligible voice, of the formula in question, which implies formal and basic recognition of the divine unity. (Ed.…

Taḳrīẓ

(230 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), lit. “The act of praising”, a minor genre of mediaeval Arabic literature which consisted of statements praising the virtues of a particular work, some composed after the death of the author of the work in question but probably for the most part composed at the time of the work’s appearance with the aim of giving it a puff and thus advertising it; such statements must have been solicited by the author from obliging friends and colleagues, the more eminent the better. F. Rosenthal (see below) has felicitously compared them to modern ¶ “blurbs” of publishers to…

Isḥāḳ Sükūtī

(251 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a Young Turk leader, was born in 1868, probably of Kurdish extraction. As a student at the Military Médical School in Istanbul, he was in May 1889 one of the original group of founders of the Secret Committee, which eventually developed into the Committee of Union and Progress [see ittiḥād we-teraḳḳī d̲j̲emʿiyeti ]. Later, in 1895, he was exiled to Rhodes but managed to escape and went to Paris, where he associated with the Young Turk émigrés. In 1897, with others, he founded the anti-government journal Osmanli ( ʿUt̲h̲mānli̊ ), which was published in Geneva. …

Sadrāta

(143 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a place in Algeria, founded in 296/908 at 8 km/5 miles to the south-west of Ward̲j̲ilān (Ouargla) in the territory of the confederation of ḳṣūr of the Isedrāten, by the last Rustamid Imām, after the destruction of the principality of Tāhart [ q.v.] by the Fāṭimids. Its fame is linked with the history of the Ibāḍī communities of the Mag̲h̲rib. An Ibādī scholar, Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ibrāhīm al-Sadrātī al-Ward̲j̲ilānī (d. 570/1174-5) compiled there the musnad of al-Rabīʿ b. Ḥabīb, based essentially on the tradition of Abū ʿUbayda (ed. Masḳaṭ 1325/1908 under the title of al-D̲j̲āmiʿ al-ṣaḥīḥ

Rakʿa

(63 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), literally “the act of bowing, bending”, a sequence of utterances and actions performed by the Muslim believer as part of the act of worship or ṣalāt , involving utterance of the takbīr and Fātiḥa , then the bending of the body from an upright position ( rukūʿ ) and then two prostrations ( sud̲j̲ūd ). See further ṣalāt . (Ed.)

Ṣadr al-Dīn ʿAynī

(261 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Russian form Sadriddin Ayni , one of the leading figures in the 20th century cultural life of Central Asia and in Tad̲j̲ik literature (1878-1954). He began as a representative of the reform movement amongst the Muslims of Imperial Russia, that of the Ḏj̲adīdīds [see d̲j̲adīd ]. A formal education at the traditional madrasa s of Buk̲h̲ārā left him intellectually unsatisfied. In the early part of his career he was a talented poet in both Tad̲j̲ik and Uzbek, but after 1905 he became increasingly involved in the social and educa…

al-Nāṣiriyya

(244 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a branch of the Ṣūfī order of the S̲h̲ād̲h̲iliyya [q. v.], which originated in southern Morocco, at the zāwiya of Tāmgrūt [ q.v.], which had been founded in 983/1575 by a member of a family of marabouts. The order owes its name to the Ibn Nāṣir family [ q.v. in Suppl.], who headed the zāwiya from the time of the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Maḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥusayn b. Nāṣir b. ʿAmr b. ʿUt̲h̲mān (1015-85/1603-74), the founder (1070/1660), onwards. It was however his son Aḥmad b. Maḥammad (1057-1129/1647-1717) who was responsible for organising the order. (Ed.) Bibliography To the …

Raḍwā

(220 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of the crags west of Medina, occasionally mentioned in connection with the mountain T̲h̲abīr ( Sīrat al-Ḥabas̲h̲a , 86). Lying behind Yanbuʿ, between the regions of Madyan [see madyan s̲h̲uʿayb ] and Mecca, they were known to Ptolemy (Sprenger, Die alte Geographie , nos. 28, 30) and are mentioned by Ibn Isḥāḳ ( The life of Muhammad , tr. 413, 542). Al-Hamad̲h̲ānī quotes a tradition, according to which the Prophet said: “May God be satisfied ( raḍiya ) with it (Raḍwā)!” Abū Karib, leader of the Kuraybiyya [ q.v.], a sub-sect of the Kaysāniyya, is said to have believed that M…

Fed̲j̲r-i Ātī

(48 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the coming dawn, a Turkish literary group active in the period following the Young Turk Revolution of 1908, and associated with the review T̲h̲erwet-i Fünūn [ q.v.], where its initial manifesto was published. See further turks, ¶ literature, and the articles on the individual authors. (Ed.)

al-K̲h̲ūrī

(581 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Fāris (1875?-1962) a Syrian politician, a Christian, who played a very important role over a period of almost half a century. Born in a Lebanese village on the slopes of Mount Hermon, he studied at Ṣaydā then at the school in Beirut which was later to become the American University, while also working as a teacher. When family affairs took him to Damascus in 1899, he took up residence in the Syrian capital, learned Turkish and French and was employed as an interpreter in t…

al-Muʿawwid̲h̲atāni

(218 words)

Author(s): Ed.
“the two sūras of taking refuge [from evil]”, the name given to the two last sūras (CXIII and CXIV) of the Ḳurʾān, because they both begin with the words ḳul : aʿūd̲h̲u bi-rabbī . . . min . . . , “Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of. . . against . . . “, and are pronounced as prayers intended to dispel the evils engendered by the devil, evil spirits, the practice of magic, etc. The plural al-muʿawwid̲h̲āt is also found equally applied to these two sūras and to ¶ the preceding one, set forth in the form of a credo; this plural appears especially in al-Buk̲h̲ārī ( daʿawāt , bāb 12) in re…

Maḍīra

(354 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), a dish of meat cooked in sour milk, sometimes with fresh milk added, and with spices thrown in to enhance the flavour. This dish, which Abū Hurayra [ q.v.] is said to have particularly appreciated (see al-Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ , viii, 403 = § 3562, where a piece of poetry in praise of maḍīra is cited), must have been quite well sought-after in mediaeval times (al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, however, does not cite it in his K. al-Buk̲h̲alā ’; see nevertheless al-T̲h̲aʿālibī, Laṭāʾif , 12, tr. C. E. Bosworth, 46). Its principal claim to fame comes from al-Hamad̲h̲ānī’s al-Maḳāma al-maḍīriyya

Tārūdānt

(284 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, conventionally Taroudant, a town in the Sūs region of southern Morocco situated in lat. 30° 31′ N., long. 8° 55′ W. at an altitude of 250 m/820 feet. It lies 4 km/2½ miles from ¶ the right bank of the Wādr Sūs and some 83 km/51 miles from Āgādīr [ q.v.] and the Adantic coast. The old town is enclosed by a lengthy, high, early 18th-century crenellated wall with five gates. Tārūdānt was an important town in mediaeval Islamic times. It formed part of the Almoravid empire from 421/1030 onwards, but a century later was conquered by the Almohads. It was at Tārūdānt that…

Leo Africanus

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name by which the author of the Descrittione dell’ Africa is generally known, who was in fact originally called al-Ḥasan b. Muḥammad al-Wazzān al-Zayyātī (or al-Fāsī). He was born in Granada between 894 and 901/1489 and 1495 into a family which had to emigrate to Morocco after that city’s fall [see g̲h̲arnāṭa ], and was brought up in Fās, where he received a good education and very soon entered the service of the administration there. Whilst still a student, he was employed for two years in the mental hospital, which he describes in detail ( Description , tr. Epaulard, i, 188 [see bīmāristān…

Rangoon

(221 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a city of the Pegu district of Burma and the country’s capital, situated on the Rangoon (Hlaing) River (lat. 16° 47′ N., 96° 10′ E.). It was developed as a port in the mid-18th century by the founder of the last dynasty of Burmese kings, with a British trading factory soon established there and with flourishing groups of Parsee, Armenian and Muslim merchants. In 1852, during the Second Anglo-Burmese War, it passed definitively under British ¶ control, and Rangoon became a more modern city, and also, through immigration, largely Indian in composition. These last includ…

Fag̲h̲fūr

(555 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or Bag̲h̲būr , title of the Emperor of China in the Muslim sources. The Sanskrit * bhagaputra and the Old Iranian * bag̲h̲aput̲h̲ra , with which attempts have been made to connect this compound, are not attested, but a form bg̲h̲pwhr (= * bag̲h̲puhr ), signifying etymologically “son of God”, is attested in Parthian Pahlavī to designate Jesus, whence Sogdian bag̲h̲pūr , Arabicized as bag̲h̲būr and fag̲h̲fūr ; these forms were felt by the Arab authors as the translation of the Chinese T’ien tzŭ “son of heaven” (cf. Relation de la Chine et de l’Inde , ed. and tr. J. Sau…

Riḍā

(272 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), literally “the fact of being pleased or contented; contentment, approval” (see Lane, 1100), a term found in Ṣūfī mysticism and also in early Islamic history. 1. In mystical vocabulary. In the Ḳurʾān, the root raḍiya and its derivatives occur frequently in the general sense of “to be content”, with nominal forms like riḍwān “God’s grace, acceptance of man’s submission” (e.g. III, 156/61, 168/174; IV, 13/12; IX, 73/72; LVII, 20, 27), although the actual form riḍā does not occur. In the writings of the proto-Ṣūfī al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī [ q.v.], it is a moral state, contentment with t…

al-Ḥaddād, al-Ṭāhir

(589 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, nationalist and reformist Tunisian writer, considered as the pioneer of the movement for feminine liberation in his country. Born in Tunis ca. 1899 into a family of modest status originally from the Ḥāma of Gabès, he studied at the Zaytūna [ q.v.] from 1911 to 1920 and gained the taṭwīʿ (corresponding to the diploma for completing secondary education). He then took part in the trade union movement and was put in charge of propaganda in an organisation founded in 1924, the D̲j̲āmiʿat ʿumūm al-ʿamala al-tūnisiyya , ¶ whose chief promoters were hunted down and banished in 1925. His…

Ḥareket Ordusu

(94 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, literally “action army”, the name usually given to the striking force sent from Salonica on 17 April 1909, under the command of Maḥmūd S̲h̲ewket Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], to quell the counter-revolutionary mutiny in the First Army Corps in Istanbul. The striking force also known as the Army of Deliverance, reached the capital on 23 April (n.s.) ¶ and, after some clashes with the mutineers, occupied the city on the following day. (Ed.) Bibliography B. Lewis, The emergence of modern Turkey 3, London 1965, 212-3. See further ḥusayn ḥilmī pas̲h̲a and ittiḥād we teraḳḳī.

Ič-Og̲h̲lani̊

(78 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), literally “lad of the interior”, i.e. “page of the inner service ( Enderūn [ q.v.])”, Ottoman term for those boys and youths, at first slaves, recruits through the devs̲h̲irme [ q.v.], and occasionally hostages, later (from the 11th/17th century) also free-born Muslims, who were selected for training in the palaces of Edirne and Istanbul in order to occupy the higher executive offices of the state. For details, see g̲h̲ulām , iv; ḳapi̊-ḳulu ; sarāy-i hümāyūn . (Ed.)

Būḳalā

(119 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a term employed in Algerian Arabic (cf. βαύκαλις) to denote a two-handled pottery vase used by women in the course of the divinatory practices to which it gave its name. The operation consisted, basically, of the woman who officiated improvising, after an invocation, a short poem which was also called būḳāla and from which portents were drawn. These practices, which seem to have enjoyed a certain vogue during the period when piracy was at its height (women wanted to have news of their men who were at sea), developed into …

S̲h̲ehir Ketk̲h̲üdāsi̊

(119 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), an official of the pre-modern Ottoman empire, who had financial and administrative duties. His prime function was to collect the specified taxation from a town or its quarters (a function thus corresponding to that of the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ , al-balad in Egypt), whereas the aʿyān [ q.v.] acquired tax-farming rights in the rural areas of the provinces. As with the aʿyān, the office of s̲h̲ehir ketk̲h̲üdāsi̊ tended to become hereditary; and there was, obviously, much scope in it for oppression of the taxpayers. Having lasted from the time of…

Ibrāhīm b. ʿAlī al-Aḥdab

(330 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Ḥanafī s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of Lebanon (born at Tripoli in 1243/1827, died at Beirut on 22 Rad̲j̲ab 1308/3 March 1891), who is a distinguished representative of Arabic culture in the 19th century. After following the traditional studies, he became a teacher (1264-8/1848-52), then went to Istanbul (where he addressed a long panegyric to the sultan ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd), was for several years adviser to Saʿīd D̲j̲unbulāṭ and tutor to his children, and finally became a magistrate ¶ in Beirut in 1276/1859. A collaborator in the revue T̲h̲amarāt al-funūn and an important fi…

ʿAttāb

(133 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. asīd b. abiʾl-ʿīṣ b. umayya al-umawī , a Companion of the Prophet, who was converted on the day of the capture of Mecca; shortly afterwards, during the battle of Ḥunayn (8/629), he was appointed governor of Mecca by Muḥammad, and continued to hold this post under Abū Bakr. He agreed to marry Ḏj̲uwayriya bint Abī Ḏj̲ahl in order to prevent ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib from taking a second wife in addition to Fāṭima. The date of his death varies between 12 and 23/634-44. (Ed.) Bibliography Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar al-ʿAsḳalānī, Iṣāba, no. 5391 Muṣʿab al-Zubayrī, Nasab Ḳurays̲h̲, index Muḥammad b. Ḥabīb, Muḥabbar, i…

Ḥud̲j̲ra

(115 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), room, apartment, used (with the definite article) especially of the room of ʿĀʾis̲h̲a where the Prophet and his two successors, Abū Bakr and ʿUmar, were buried; it is now one of the holiest places of Islam [see al-madīna ]. From the same word is also derived Ḥud̲j̲ariyya , a term used in Egypt for the slaves who were lodged in barracks near to the royal residence. Under the Fāṭimids, these slaves were organized by al-Afḍal into a sort of military bodyguard under the command of an amīr who held the title of al-Muwaffaḳ. They consisted at this period of 3000 men (see al-Maḳrīzī, Ḵh̲iṭaṭ

Ibn Kīrān

(307 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad al-Ṭayyib b. ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd b. ʿAbd al-Salām b. Kīrān (1172-1227/1758-1812), faḳīh and littérateur of Fās. He received a traditional education from the local scholars, and himself taught rhetoric to numerous pupils, including Ibn al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ [ q.v.], Ḥamdūn, Ibn ʿAd̲j̲ība, al-Kūhin [ q.vv.] and the sultan Mawlāy Sulaymān (1205-38/1792-1823), who continually showed his high opinion of Ibn Kīrān by consulting him and by entrusting to him, with other fuḳahāʾ , the applying of his ordinances. His work is largely preserv…

Ibn Mīt̲h̲am

(480 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Ismāʿīl b. S̲h̲uʿayb b. Mīt̲h̲am (often read as al-Hayt̲h̲am) b. Yaḥyā al-Tammār (whence the less common name for him, Ibn al-Tammār ), al-Asadī (al-Ṣābūnī, according to Ibn Ḥazm, Fiṣal , iv, 181), Imāmī theologian of the 2nd/8th century. Mīt̲h̲am was a Companion of the Prophet (Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Iṣāba , no. 8472) who had adopted the cause of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib and had settled at Kūfa, where his great-grandson was born at an uncertain date; nor is the date of his death known. Having left his natal town for B…

Marwānids

(152 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the branch of the Umayyad dynasty of Arab caliphs in early Islam, who formed the second, and most long-lasting line of this dynasty, the first line being that of Sufyānids, that of Muʿāwiya I b. Abī Sufyān b. Ḥarb [ q.v.], his son and his grandson (41-64/661-83). With the death of the child Muʿāwiya II b. Yazīd [ q.v.], the caliphate passed to Muʿāwiya I’s second cousin Marwān b. al-Ḥakam b. Abi ’l-ʿĀṣ, of the parallel branch of the Aʿyāṣ [ q.v. in Suppl.]. Marwān and his descendants now formed the Marwānid line of the Umayyads (64-132/684-750), his son and successor ʿAbd al-Malik [ q.v.] being t…

Karūk̲h̲

(152 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a town in the region of Bādg̲h̲īs [q.v.] of modern northwestern Afg̲h̲ānistān and, according to Ibn Ḥawḳal (4th/10th century), the biggest town of the region after the capital Harāt. It had a Friday mosque and was famed for its fruits, especially apricots and raisins. Its particular claim to fame in mediaeval times was as an enduring centre of the K̲h̲awārid̲j̲ on the eastern Iranian fringes. In 259/873 the Ṣaffārid amīr Yaʿḳūb b. al-Layt̲h̲ had to cope with a serious rebellion of the eastern K̲h̲awārid̲j̲ centred on K…

Djambul Djabaev

(314 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a popular Ḳazak̲h̲ poet, illiterate and thus representing oral poetic tradition. Born in 1846 in Semireče of a nomadic family, he took the name Djambul (Džambul) from a mountain; later, in 1938, this name was to be given in his honour to the town of Awliyā Ata [ q.v.] and to an oblast ′ of Ḳazak̲h̲istān. From an early age he was devoted to music and singing, and by them earned his living while still a youth; taking his inspiration from popular grievances, he often improvised poems which he sang, accompanying himself on the dombra ; the best known are entitled “The P…

Malāḥim

(447 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), pl. of malḥama [ q.v.], which is the subject of the article below mainly devoted to the Malḥamat Dāniyāl and its several versions culminating in an apocalyptic current, at first in connection with the announcing of the approach of the Mahdī [ q.v.], and then oriented towards the predictions concerning the fate of different dynasties. These oracles gave birth to the elaborating of so-called malāḥim (or ḥidt̲h̲ān ) works, which have been already spoken of in the article d̲j̲afr , and the subject is only raised again here in order to note the use of…

ʿAyn al-Warda

(71 words)

Author(s): Ed.
is a locality which, according to Yāḳūt, is identical with Raʾs ʿAyn [ q.v.]. It owes its fame to the great battle of 24 Ḏj̲umādā I 65/ 6 Jan. 685, in which the S̲h̲īʿites of Kūfa were slaughtered by the Syrians. See Weil, Chalifen , i, 360 ff.; Müller, Der Islam im Morgen- und Abendland , i, 374; al-Ṭabarī, index and especially i, 257 and ii, 554 f. (Ed.)

al-Muʾallafa Ḳulūbuhum

(199 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), lit. “those whose hearts are won over”, the term applied to those former opponents of the Prophet Muḥammad who are said to have been reconciled to the cause of Islam by presents of 100 or 50 camels from Muḥammad’s share (the fifth or k̲h̲ums [ q.v. in Suppl.]) of the spoils of the battle of Ḥunayn [ q.v.], after Muḥammad’s forces had defeated the Hawāzin [ q.v.] confederation, and divided out at al-D̲j̲iʿrāna. The list (given in Ibn His̲h̲ām, 880-1, tr. Guillaume, 594-5; al-Wāḳidī, ed. J.M.B. Jones, 939 ff., tr. Wellhausen, 373 ff.; cf. al-Ṭabarī, i, 1679…

Ḥafṣ b. Sulaymān

(308 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. al-Mug̲h̲īra , Abū ʿUmar b. Abī Dāwūd al-Asadī al-Kūfī al-Fāk̲h̲irī al-Bazzāz , transmitter of the “reading” of ʿĀṣim [ q.v.]. Born about 90/709, he became a merchant in cloth, which gained for him the surname of Bazzāz. His fame rests solely on the knowledge he had acquired of the “reading” of the master of Kūfa, whose son-in-law he was. After the death of the latter and the foundation of Bag̲h̲dād he settled in the capital, where he had numerous pupils, then went to spread the “reading” of his father-in-law in…

D̲j̲ebed̲j̲i

(355 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(T. “armourer”), the name given to a member of the corps of “Armourers of the Sublime Porte” ( Ḏj̲ebed̲j̲īyān-i dergāh-i ʿālī ), a Ḳapi̊ Ḳulu [ q.v.] Corps closely associated with the Janissaries [ q.v.]. Their function was to manufacture and repair all arms, ammunition and other equipment belonging to the Janissaries and, on campaign, to transport this equipment to the front, distribute it to the Janissaries and to collect it at the end of the campaign, keeping a record of losses and repairing damaged items. The Corps was presumably founded shortly after the Janissaries and, unt…

Ḥayātī-Zāde

(230 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Ottoman family of physicians and ʿulamāʾ the prominent members of which are: (1) Muṣṭafā Feyḍī, said to have been a convert from Judaism (born Mos̲h̲e ben Raphael Abravanel) and to have acted as interpreter during the interrogation of the ‘Messiah’ S̲h̲abbětay Ṣebī ([ q.v.], see also dönme ), became reʾīs al-aṭibbāʾ [see ḥekīm-bas̲h̲i̊ ] in 1080/1669-70 and died in 1103/1691-2. He is the author of a ‘k̲h̲amsa’ entitled al-Rasāʾil al-mus̲h̲fiyya fi ’l-amrāḍ al-mus̲h̲kila , on the nature, symptoms and treatment of various diseases, based on the L…

al-Anbārī, Abū Muḥammad

(96 words)

Author(s): Ed.
al-ḳāsim b. muḥ. b. bas̲h̲s̲h̲ār , traditionist and philologian, d. 304/916 or 305/917. He wrote a commentary on the Mufaḍḍaliyyāt which was revised by his son, Muḥammad: The Mufaḍḍalīyāt ... according to the recension and with the commentary of Abū M. al-Q. b. M. al-Anbārī , ed. Ch. J. Lyall, Oxford 1918-21. (Ed.) Bibliography Fihrist, 75 Zubaydī, Ṭabaḳāt, 144 al-Ḵh̲aṭīb al-Bag̲h̲dādī, Taʾrīk̲h̲ Bag̲h̲dād, xii, 440-1 Yāḳūt, Irs̲h̲ād, vi, 196-8 Ibn al-Ḳifṭī, Inbāh al-Ruwāt, iii, 28 A. Haffner, in WZKM, xiii, 344 ff. F. Kern, in MSOS, xi/2, 262 ff. Brockelmann, S I, 37.

al-Dānī

(260 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū ʿAmr ʿUthmān b. Saʿīd b. ʿUmar al-Umawī , Mālikī lawyer and above all, “reader” of the Ḳurʾān, born at Cordova in 371/ 981/2. After having made his pilgrimage to Mecca and spent some time in Cairo between 397/1006 and 399/1008, he returned to his birthplace but was soon forced to flee, first to Almeria and finally to Denia (Dāniya, whence his nisba ), where he settled down and died in 444/1053. Among more than 120 works which he wrote and enumerated himself in an urd̲j̲ūza , only about ten are known (see Brockelmann, I, 407, S I, 719); two of them deal …

al-Ṣag̲h̲ānī

(89 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ʿAbd al-Muʾmin b. Ḥasan, adīb , floruit during the 7th/13th century. ¶ He is noted only for his poetic version of the animal fable collection, originally translated into Arabic by Ibn al-Muḳaffaʿ [ q.v.], Kalīla wa-Dimna [ q.v.]. This version he called Durrat al-ḥikam fī amt̲h̲āl al-Hunūd wa ’l-ʿAd̲j̲am , and he completed it on 20 D̲j̲umādā 640/15 November 1242 (according to the Vienna ms.) or possibly some 25 years later (according to the other extant ms. of Munich); see Brockelmann, S I, 234-5. (Ed.) Bibliography Given in the article.

sayyidī/sīdī Muḥammad III b. ʿAbd Allāh

(1,597 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, fifth ruler (1171-1204/1759-90) of the Moroccan dynasty of the ʿAlawids [see ʿalawīs ] and one of the most remarkable. Born in 1134/1722, he received a traditional education at the court and, in 1159/1746, his father, Mawlāy ʿAbd Allāh b. Ismāʿīl [ q.v.] appointed him viceroy ( k̲h̲alīfa ) at Marrakesh, where he was to make a lasting impression with his construction activities and which he was virtually to make his capital, without however neglecting the other cities of Morocco. Harassed by hostile tribes before being …

Ḥafṣ al-Fard

(404 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū ʿAmr or Abū Yaḥyā , theologian, concerning whose life practically nothing is known. According to Ibn al-Nadīm ( Fihrist , 180; Cairo ed., 255), he was a native of Egypt, and, if we accept the traditional chronology of al-S̲h̲āfiʿī’s biography (but see J. Schacht, in Studia Orientalia Joanni Pedersen ... dicata , 322), it is probably there that he fell out with al-S̲h̲āfiʿī who is said to have “excommunicated” him (Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Lisān al-mīzān , ii, 330-1); this incident probably occurred between 188/804 and 195/810-1, so that it is unlikely that Ḥafṣ was the pupil of the ḳāḍī

Ibn Sūda

(800 words)

Author(s): Ed..
( Sawda ), name of a number of Mālikī scholars and ḳāḍī s of Fez belonging to an Andalusian family which had emigrated to Tāwda (present name Fās al-Bālī), about 80 km. north-north-west of Fez, and was therefore known by the name of Tāwdī. 1. Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Ibn Abī Muḥammad Ḳāsim Ibn Sūda al-Murrī al-G̲h̲arnāṭī , died at Fez on 25 S̲h̲awwāl 1004/22 June 1596, was ḳāḍī of Taza, of Marrākus̲h̲ and of Fez (see al-Ifrānī, Ṣafwat man intas̲h̲ar , 100; al-Ḳādirī, Nas̲h̲r al-mat̲h̲ānī , i, 34; al-Kattānī, Salwat al-anfās , ii, 61; Lévi-Provençal, Chorfa , index). ¶ 2. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad Ibn Sūda …

Edebiyyāt-i Ḏj̲edīde

(46 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, “new literature”, the name given to a Turkish literary movement associated with the review T̲h̲erwet -i Funūn [ q.v.] during the years 1895-1901—that is, during the editorship of Tewfīḳ Fikret [ q.v.]. See further turks, literature, and the articles on the individual authors. (Ed.)

Ḥayfā

(2,128 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, modern Haifa, a port at the foot of Mount Carmel. The name does not occur in the Bible, but appears frequently in the Talmud and in later Jewish sources, and is mentioned by Eusebius as ʿΕφα. In the early Muslim centuries Haifa was overshadowed by ʿAkkā [ q.v.], and is first described by Nāṣir-i K̲h̲usraw, who was there in 438/1046. He speaks of the palm-groves and numerous trees of this village ( dih ), and mentions the nearby sands of the kind used by Persian goldsmiths and called by them Makkī sand. He also found shipwrights who, he said, made the large, sea-going ships called Ḏj̲ūdī ( Safar-nāma…

Nāwūsiyya

(164 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Nawūsiyya , the name of an extremist S̲h̲īʿī sect ( rawāfiḍ ) attached to a certain Ibn Nāwūs or Ibn Nawus (sometimes changed into Ibn Mānūs), whose personal name varies according to the sources (ʿAd̲j̲lān, ʿAbd Allāh, Ḥamlān, etc.), or else attached to a place in the vicinity of Hīt called Nāwūsa (see Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, 72, 217; al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ , 179: Yāḳūt, s.v.; al-Idrīsī, index; Le Strange, Lands , 64-5). The Nāwūsiyya were characterised by the idea (sometimes attributed to the caliph Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Manṣūr, 138-58/754-75 [ q.v.]) that the imām

ʿAnāḳ

(109 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, name given by the Arabs to the daughter of Adam, the twin sister of Seth, wife of Cain and mother of ʿŪd̲j̲ [ q.v.]; see Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, Tarbīʿ (Pellat) index.—In zoology, ʿanāḳ denotes a kind of lynx, the caracal (from the Turkish ḳara ḳulaḳ "black-ear", Persian siyāh gūs̲h̲ ) found in much of Asia and Africa, which is thought to walk in front of the lion and, by its cry, to announce the latter’s approach.—In astronomy, ʿAnāḳ al-Banāt is the ζ of the Great Bear, and ʿAnāḳ al-Arḍ , ϒ Andromedae; see A. Benhamouda, Les Noms arabes des étoiles , in AIEO, Algiers, ix, 1951, 84, 97. (Ed.)

Ibn Ḥayyūs

(253 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Fityān Muḥammad b. Sulṭan b. Muḥammad b. Ḥayyūs al-G̲h̲anawī , Syrian poet of the 5th/11th century. Born at Damascus in Ṣafar 394/December 1003, he seems to have been at first attached to the Banū ʿAmmār [see ʿammār ] of Tripoli in Syria, although he is referred to as being in Aleppo in 429/1037-8; his sympathy with the Fāṭimids of Egypt caused him to fall out of favour with the Banū ʿAmmār, who had become independent, and in 464/1072 he was summoned to Aleppo by the Mirdāsid [ q.v.] Maḥmūd b. Naṣr (457-67/1065-75), in whose praise he began to write. On the death of his patron, he wrote a mart̲…

al-Marwazī

(92 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Sukkarī , Arabic poet of Marw, floruit later 4th/10th or early 5th/11th century. Al-T̲h̲aʿālibī quotes specimens of his light-hearted and witty poetry, and also of an interesting muzdawad̲j̲a in which he turned Persian proverbs into Arabic rad̲j̲az couplets, a conceit said to be one of his favourite activities. (Ed.) Bibliography T̲h̲aʿālibī, Yatīma, Damascus 1304/1886-7, iv, 22-5, Cairo 1375-7/1956-8, iv, 87-90 C. Barbier de Meynard, Tableau littéraire du Khorassan et de la Transoxiane au IV e siècle de l’hégire, in JA, Ser. 5, i (1853), 205-7.

al-Suwaynī

(83 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Saʿd b. ʿĀlī Bā Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ (d. 857/1453), ʿAlawī sayyid of Ḥaḍramawt. He was the student of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Bā ʿAlawī of Tarīm, from the Saḳḳāf branch of the sayyids [see bā ʿalawī ], and in turn the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of Abū Bakr b. ʿAbd Allāh al-ʿAydarūs, the patron saint of Aden [see ʿadan ], d. 914/1508 [see ʿaydarūs ]. It was this last who was to compose the manāḳib of al-Suwaynī. (Ed.) Bibliography See R.B. Serjeant, The Saiyids of Hadramawt, London 1957.

K̲h̲umayn

(91 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a small town in the province of Ḳum in modern Iran (lat. 33° 38′ N., long. 50° 03′ E.) some 70 km/42 miles to the south-southeast of Arāk/Sulṭānābād [ q.v.]. It is unmentioned in the mediaeval Islamic geographers, but now has fame as the birthplace of the Āyatallāh Rūḥ Allāh K̲h̲umaynī (1902-89 [ q.v. in Suppl.]). It is at present administratively in the s̲h̲ahrastān of Maḥallāt. In ca. 1950 it had a population of 7,038, which in 2003 had risen to 59,300. ¶ (Ed.) Bibliography Razmārā (ed.), Farhang-i d̲j̲ug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi Īrānzamīn, i, 81-2.

K̲h̲unāṣira

(313 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, an ancient fortified settlement situated some 60 km. to the south-east of Aleppo and 100 km. to the north-east of Ḥamāt, on a route through the desert—on the fringes of which it lies—connecting Aleppo with Bag̲h̲dād. The foundation of the place is attributed to K̲h̲unāsir(a) b. ʿAmr of the Banū Kināna (Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, Tab. 290 and ii, 349), but it is probably older than this. Yāḳūt (s.v.), who cites also al-K̲h̲unāṣir b. ʿAmr, the representative of Abraha al-As̲h̲ram, may be echoing a later legend. In the Umayyad period, this chef-lieu of the

Çakmak

(401 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Mustafa Fevzi , also called Kavak̲lı, marshal in the Turkish army. Born in Istanbul in 1876, he was the son of an artillery colonel. He entered the war academy (Harbiye, [ q.v.]) where he became a lieutenant in 1895, joined the staff course, and was gazetted as a staff captain in 1898. After spending some time on the general staff, he was posted to Rumelia where he became successively a Colonel, divisional commander, and Army Corps Chief of Staff. He served on the staff of the army of the Vardar during the Balkan War, and du…

Īlāf

(678 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Ḳurʾānic term (CVI, 1-2) which probably refers to economic relations entered into by the Ḳurays̲h̲īs well before the advent of Islam, but which presents problems of reading and interpretation which are not easily solved. In the first place, this Sūra CVI, which is very short and certainly very early (no. 3 in the classification by R. Blachère), begins abruptly, after the ba…

al-G̲h̲azzāl

(380 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. al-Mahdī al-G̲h̲azzāl al-Andalusī al-Malaḳī , the secretary of the sultan of Morocco Sīdī Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh (1171-1204/1757-89), who entrusted to him various diplomatic missions. In 1179/1766 he was the head of a delegation sent to negotiate an exchange of captives with Charles III of Spain; he was received with great honour in Madrid, and was able to return to Morocco with a Spanish mission which made a peace treaty with the sultan and an agreement abo…

Rustam b. Farruk̲h̲ Hurmuzd

(214 words)

Author(s): ed.
(thus in al-Ṭabarī; in al-Masʿūdī, b. Farruk̲h̲-zād), Persian general and commander of the Sāsanid army at the battle of al-Ḳādisiyya [ q.v.] fought against the Arabs in Muḥarram 15/February-March 536 or Muḥarram 16/February 637, the battle in which he was killed. His father is described as the ispabad̲h̲ [ q.v.] of K̲h̲urāsān, for which province Rustam was deputy. In the lengthy account by al-Ṭabarī of the battle of al-Ḳādisiyya, derived mainly from Sayf b. ʿUmar, there is much folkloric material, doubdess derived from materials used by the ḳuṣṣāṣ [see ḳāṣṣ ], …

Ibn Ḥamādu

(357 words)

Author(s): Ed.

ʿİtḳnāme

(130 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ʿi̊ti̊ḳnāme , also ʿi̊tāḳnāme , an Ottoman term for a certificate of manumission, given to a liberated slave [see ʿabd ]. The document normally gives…

Mās̲h̲āʾ Allāh

(416 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), a phrase occurring in the Ḳurʾān (VI, 128; VII, 188; X, 50; XVIII, 37; LXXXVII, 7; cf. XI, 109-10, LXXII, 8) and widely used in the Islamic lands of the Middle East with the general meaning of “what God does, is well done”. The formula denotes that things happen according to God’s will and should therefore be accepted with humility and resignation. In a cognate signification, the phrase is often used to indicate a vague, generally a great or considerable, but some times a small, number or quantity of time (Lane, Lexicon , s.v., who refers to S. de Sacy, Relation de l’Egypte, 246, 394). One …

Kanbō

(77 words)

Author(s): Ed.

Istiḳlāl

(331 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, an Arabic verbal noun, from the tenth form of the root ḳ-l-l . In Classical and Middle Arabic this form is used with a variety of meanings (see Dozy and other dictionaries), and especially to convey the notion of separate, detached, unrestricted, not shared, or sometimes even arbitrary. It occurs occasionally in a political context— e.g., of a dynasty, a region, a people or a city quarter not effectively subject to some higher authority. Such occurrences are, however, rare, and the word was in no sense a political technical term. In Ottoman officia…

Sonḳor

(112 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Sunḳur (t.), one of the many words in Turkish denoting birds of prey. In the modern Turkic languages, and probably always, it means the gerfalcon,

Ayāz

(96 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the Amīr, lord of Hamad̲h̲ān, played an important rôle in the struggles for the throne between the rival Sald̲j̲ūḳ princes Barkiyāruḳ and Muḥammad I. After having first taken the side of the latter, in 494/1100 he went over to the side of Barkiyāruḳ, …

Ahl al-Ḥall wa’l-ʿAḳd

(213 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(this, though illogical, is the normal order of the words), “those who are qualified to unbind and to bind”, the representatives of the community of the Muslims who act on their behalf in appointing and deposing a caliph or ¶ another ruler [see bayʿa]. They must be Muslims, male, of age, free, ʿadl [ q.v.], and capable of judging who is best qualified to hold the office. No fixed number of “electors” is required; according to the prevailing opinion, even the appointment made by one “elector” in the presence of two qualified witnesses is valid. This…

D̲j̲isr

(104 words)

Author(s): Ed.

Su

(108 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), the common Turkish word for “water”, originally suv (which explains the form suy before vowel-initial possessive suffixes, e.g.

Muḥammad b. ʿUmar b. Muḥammad, Andalusian mathematician and astronomer (d. 447/1056) known by his surname of Ibn Burg̲h̲ūt̲h̲

(344 words)

Author(s): Ed.
He is cited among the “famous ¶ pupils” of Ibn al-Ṣaffār [ q.v.] by Ṣāʿid al-Andalusī, who presents him moreover as very knowledgeable in grammar, Ḳurʾān, theoretical and practical law, and appreciates highly his character and conduct. He mentions as his principal pupils Ibn al-Layt̲h̲, Ibn al-D̲j̲allal and Ibn al-Ḥayy. The first, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad, was an expert in the field of arithmetic and geometry and devoted himself to astronomical observations, at the same time as performing the functions of ḳāḍī of S̲h̲urriyūn (Surio), in the region of Játiva. …

Wardar

(316 words)

Author(s): Ed,

ʿĀriyya

(259 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) or ʿāriya , also iʿāra , the loan of non-fungible objects ( prêt à usage, commodatum ). It is distinguished as a separate contract from the ḳarḍ or loan of money or other fungible objects ( prêt de consommation, mutuum ). It is defined as putting some one temporarily and gratuitously in possession of the use of a thing, the substance of which is not consumed by its use. The intended use must be lawful. It is a charitable contract and therefore "recommended" ( mandūb ), and the beneficiary or borrower enjoys the privileged position of a trustee ( amīn ); he is not, in …

Gulbāng

(177 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a Persian word meaning the song of the nightingale, and hence by extension fame, repute, and loud cries of various kinds. In Turkish usage it is applied more particularly to the call of the muezzin [see ad̲h̲ān ] and to the Muslim war-cry ( Allāhu Akbar and Allāh Allāh

Irāde

(108 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, literally “will”, a term adopted in Ottoman official usage from 1832 to designate decrees and orders issued in the name of the Sultan. The formal procedure was for draft decrees prepared by ministers and officials to be addressed to the Sultan’s chief secretary ( Serkātib-i s̲h̲ahriyārī ), who read them to the Sultan and received and noted his comments. If he approved, the chief secretary then communicated the text to the Grand Vizier, as the Sultan’s will. Under the constitution, the Sultan’s function was limited to giving his assent to the decisions …

Parendā

(132 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a small town and fortress, formerly in the native state of Ḥaydarābād, now in the S̲h̲olapur District of Maharas̲h̲tra State of the Indian Union (lat. 18° 16′ N., long 75° 27′ E.) The fortress is attributed, like many of those in the Deccan, to the Bahmanī minister Maḥmūd Gāwān [ q.v.], i.e. to the third quarter of the 9th/15th century, but may well be earlier [see …

al-Lamaṭī

(331 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, an ethnic designation stemming from Lamaṭa, a quarter of the Moroccan town of Sid̲j̲ilmāssa, borne in particular by two mystics: 1. Aḥmad al-Ḥabīb b. Muḥammad al-G̲h̲umārī b. Ṣālīḥ al-Ṣiddīḳī (since he traced his genealogy back to ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Abī Bakr) al-Ṣid̲j̲ilmāssī , who belonged to the S̲h̲ād̲h̲iliyya order [ q.v.]; he had numerous pupils, including Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Hilālī [see al-Hilālī in Suppl.] and his cousin through his female relatives, Aḥmad b. al-Mubārak (see below). He died in the odour of sanctity at Sid̲j̲ilmāssa on 4 Muḥarram 1165/23 November 1751. …

al-ʿUdayd

(74 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, a small settlement on the Ḵh̲awr al-ʿUdayd, a creek on the southeastern coast of the Ḳaṭar [ q.v.] peninsula on the southern Gulf shores (iat 24° 33′ N., long. 51° 30′ E.). It lies in the area of the undefined frontier between Ḳaṭar and Abū Ẓaby [ q.v.], one of the constituent shaykhdoms of the United Arab Emirates [see …

Ṭorg̲h̲ud Eli

(104 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of three districts of Anatolia in early Ottoman times. 1. In 699/1299-1300, ʿOt̲h̲mān I b. Ertog̲h̲rul gave his commander Ṭorg̲h̲ud Alp [ q.v.] the district of Inegöl just to the …

Paṭrīk

(94 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, patriarch, the form found in Ottoman Turkish (see Redhouse, Turkish and English lexicon, s.v.) for the Patriarchs of the Greek Orthodox and Eastern Christian Churches in the empire, of whom by the 19th century there were seven. It stems from the Arabic form biṭrīḳ/baṭrīḳ [ q.v.] “patricius”, confused with baṭriyark/baṭraḳ “patriarch”, also not infrequently found in mediaeval Arabic usage as faṭrak .

Minangkabau

(239 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or menangkabau, the most numerous of the peoples of the island of Sumatra [ q.v.] in the Indonesian Republic (1980 population estimate, 6 million). They inhabit the Padang highlands of west-central Sumatra, but there are also appreciable numbers of Minangkabau emigrants, including to Negro Sembilan in the Malay peninsula [ q.v.]. Originally under Indonesian cultural and religious influence, as the centre of the Hindu-Malayan empire of Malayu, by the early 17th century much of their land had become Muslim through the influence of the Sultanate of Atjèh [ q.v.] at the northern tip of…
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