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Parabyston

(73 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (παράβυστον/ parábyston, literally 'pushed aside') referred to an Athenian law court held in an enclosed space, apparently on the Agora (perhaps next to the route of the Panathenaea procession; s. Athens with map). This court dealt with matters that fell within the jurisdiction of the Eleven ( héndeka ) (Paus. 1,28,8; Harpocration, s.v.). Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) Bibliography A.L. Boegehold, The Lawcourts at Athens (Agora 28), 1995, 6-8; 11-15; 111-113; 178f.

Poristae

(74 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (πορισταί/ poristaí, 'providers', from πορίζειν/ porízein, 'provide, supply'), officials in Athens in the last years of the  Peloponnesian War, whose duty was presumably to find sources of money for the city. They are mentioned for the first time in 419 BC, before Athens was in serious financial difficulty (Antiph. Or. 6, 49), and for the last time in 405 (Aristoph. Ran. 1505). Poristai are not attested in inscriptions. Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)

Dikastai kata demous

(185 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] ( dikastaì katà dḗmous) are itinerant judges who in Athens visited the demes to resolve minor matters of litigation. Appointed first by Peisistratus ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 16,5) to counteract the power of the nobles in their places of residence, they were probably abolished after the fall of the tyrants. They were revived in 453/2 BC (Ath. Pol. 26,3) to relieve the increasingly overburdened jury courts of minor cases. Their number then totalled 30, perhaps one judge per trittys. In the last years of the Peloponnesian War they were probably unable to visit a…

Aristokratia

(364 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἀριστοκρατία; aristokratía, ‘power in the hands of the best’). In the Greek states there was no institution to ennoble families but in the archaic period the families that were most successful after the  Dark Ages and stood out by wealth and status considered themselves the best ( aristoi). The place of a governing king was taken by a government of members of these leading families: some early testimonials explicitly mention that appointments were made aristíndēn, from the ranks of the best (for example, in Ozolian Locris: ML, 13; Tod, 34). In modern r…

Areopagus

(700 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (Ἄρειος πάγος; Áreios págos). The ‘Ares Hill’ in Athens north-west of the Acropolis. It gave the old council, which met there, its name (‘Areopagus’). There are no noteworthy remains on the hill, the place of the sessions was probably located on its north-east side. Probably, the council was initially simply called the boule and only named after the hill when  Solon had created another council. In Solon's time the council consisted of all former   archontes , who joined at the end of their office term (not so in [1]). It probably had about 150 members. Presumably, the counci…

Politeia

(402 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
(πολιτεία/ politeía) can denote either the rights of citizenship exercised by one or more citizens (Hdt. 9,34,1; Thuc. 6,104,2) or a state's way of life, and esp. its formal constitution (Thuc. 2,37,2). [German version] I. Citizenship Citizenship of a Greek state was the privilege of only free, adult males of citizen parentage: commonly, a father with politeía was required; the law of Pericles [1] (451 BC) required a father and mother with politeía (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 26,4). Men not of citizen descent could be rewarded politeía for proven benefaction, but could not acquire citize…

Archontes

(1,619 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
[German version] [I] Office (ἄρχοντες, ἄρχων; árchontes, árchōn). In general, the term applied to all holders of   archai . However, the term was frequently used as the title of a particular office, originally, at least, the highest office of the state. Archontes in this sense of the term are found in most states of central Greece, including Athens, and states dependent on or influenced by Athens. According to Aristot. Ath. Pol. 3, the kings were initially replaced by archons who were initially elected for life, later for a period of ten years, and finally for …

Autonomia

(364 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (αὐτονομία; autonomía). In the sense of ‘having (one's) own laws’, and not, therefore, being required to obey the laws of others, autonomia can be used as a synonym for eleuthería ( Freedom). This referred in particular to the freedom in the internal matters of an alliance, the structure of which was hegemonic and whose members hoped that the aforementioned freedom would be maintained whilst they assigned decisions regarding matters external to the alliance. The word autonomia was perhaps therefore supposed to have been coined as the expression of this …

Ekklesiasterion

(156 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἐκκλησιαστήριον; ekklēsiastḗrion). Meeting-place of a Greek public assembly. Among the cities where the word ekklesiasterion is used are Olbia (SIG3 218) and Delos during the period of the Athenian klerouchoi in the 2nd cent. BC (SIG3 662). In Athens, the regular meeting-place was the Pnyx in the south-west part of the city, where three different building stages from the 5th and the 4th cent. were identified. From the late 4th cent., the theatre of Dionysus came to be used more and more as a meeting place. As oppo…

Cleonymus

(376 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Cobet, Justus (Essen)
(Κλεώνυμος; Kleṓnymos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, put two important proposals forward in 426/5 BC Athenian politician; in the year 426/5 BC he put forward two important proposals: one concerned  Methone in Thrace, the other the collection of tributes from the  Delian League (IG I3 61,32-56; 68). C. was probably a member of the council in that year. In 415 he was one of the most enthusiastic supporters of an investigation into the religious scandals ( Herms, mutilation of the; And. 1.27). Aristophanes derided him as a glutt…

Nomographos

(377 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(νομογράφος/ nomográphos, ‘law-writer’) [German version] I. Greece In some Greek cities individual, specially qualified men were entrusted during the archaic period with the task of writing laws for the pólis. This could include writing down the existing legal practice as well as creating new laws. Known nomográphoi are, for example, Zaleucus in Locri Epizephyrii, Charondas in Catane, Draco [2] and later Solon in Athens. At times, but not always, this commission was associated with a regular office of state. Thus, Solon was at the same time an árchōn (Archontes [1]) in Athens but D…

Diapsephismos, diapsephisis

(166 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (διαψηφισμός, διαψήφισις; diapsēphismós, diapsḗphisis). Literally, a ballot using pebbles to select alternatives. Both terms were occasionally used to designate votes in legal proceedtings (e.g. Xen. Hell. 1,7,14; cf. the verb diapsēphízesthai e.g. in Antiph. 5,8). In Athens, however, they refer specifically to ballots with the purpose of confirming or refuting the citizenship of people who at a certain time laid claim to that right. That happened in 510 BC, when the tyranny of the Peisistratids ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 13,5: diapsēphismós) was overthrown, agai…

Panhellenes, Panhellenism

(618 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] The idea of Panhellenism is based on the tendency to place greater significance on the similarities that connect all Greeks as Greeks than on the perceptions of differences. 'Panhellenism' is not a term used in Antiquity, although in the Iliad (2, 530) and elsewhere in early Greek verse panhéllēnes is used to describe the Greeks (Hes. Op. 528; Archil. fr. 102 West). The Trojan War (see Troy) was presented as an untertaking in which the Greeks united in order to regain Helen [1] from the Trojans - although the latter are not described in Homer as being un-Greek. In the Archaic …

Katacheirotonia

(108 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (καταχειροτονία; katacheirotonía) denotes the delivery of a verdict of guilty in a Greek court by means of raising the hand ( cheir). Sentencing by ballot ( psḗphos) is called katapsḗphisis. In Athens the word katacheirotonia was used for the people's verdict of guilty in cases of eisangelía (e.g. Lys. 29, 2; Dem. Or. 51,8), and also for negative votes of the public assembly after a probolḗ (complaint against a person; e.g. Dem. Or. 21,2), or after an apóphasis (recommendation) of the Areios pagos (e.g. Din. 2,20; it is probably referred to by [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 59,2). Rho…

Hyperbolus

(225 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (Ὑπέρβολος; Hypérbolos). Athenian statesman (411 BC) from the deme Perithoedae. Contrary to the accusations levelled against him he was Athenian by birth. He seems to have acquired his wealth from the fabrication or sale of lamps (cf. Aristoph. Equ. 1315). Both Aristophanes (e.g. Equ. 1304) and Thucydides (8,73,3) describe him as ‘common’ ( mochthērós). As a  demagogue in the style of Cleon he strove for a leading position after Cleon's death in 422 BC and was a member of the council in 421/420 (Plato Comicus 166f. CAF = 182 PCG; cf. IG I3 82). According to Plutarch, in …

Demiourgos

(1,214 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster)
[German version] [1] Poet of epigrams of unknown dating Epigram poet of an unknown period (with a peculiar, otherwise undocumented name), author of an insignificant distich on Hesiod (Anth. Pal. 7,52). Degani, Enzo (Bologna) Bibliography FGE 38. [German version] [2] Union of craftsmen and officials Dēmiourgoí (δημιουργοί, ‘public workers’) were occupied with public matters at various levels, depending on time and place. 1. In the Linear B tablets from Pylos dḗmos is found but not demiourgoi; it has been suggested [2] but not universally accepted that in the Mycenaean world demiourgoi…

Episkopos, Episkopoi

(1,802 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Greek official The lexical meaning of epískopos equates to ‘supervisor’. In the Greek world, episkopos habitually referred to an official, similar to   epimelētaí and   epistátai , but used less frequently. The Delian League sent epískopoi, who were Athenian officials, into allied cities, e.g. in order to set up a democratic constitution (Erythrae: ML 40; cf. Aristoph. Av. 1021-1034). Rhodian officials also included episkopoi (Syll.3 619), Massilia appointed an episkopos for its colony of Nicaea (ILS 6761), and Mithridates VI sent one to Ephesus …

Proboulos

(167 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
(πρόβουλος/ próboulos). [German version] [1] Member of a preliminary deliberative body Member of a small body with the function of preliminary deliberation, e.g. in Corcyra (IG IX 1, 682; 686 = [1. 319, 320]). In Athens a board of ten próbouloi was appointed in 413 BC after the military disaster in Sicily in the Peloponnesian War (Thuc. 8,1,3), seems to have taken over some functions of the council ( Boulḗ ) and the prytáneis , and in 411 helped to bring the oligarchy of the 'Four Hundred' ( Tetrakósioi ) to power ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 29,2). Aristotle regarded próbouloi as characteristical…

Logistai

(197 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (λογισταί/ logistaí, ‘calculators’, tax officials). In 5th cent. BC. Athens, a collegium of 30 logistai is mentioned in the first three tribute lists of the Delian League (IG I3 259-261) and the first financial decree of Callias (ML 58 = IG I3 52, A. 7-9). It is presumably identical with the collegium which appears (without membership numbers) in the list of loans from the Sacred Money (ML 72 = IG I3 369) and in a document from Eleusis (IG I3 32,22-28). In the 4th cent. the authorities had an interim account (Lys. 30,5; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 48,3) presented t…

Syngraphai

(160 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (συγγραφαί; syngraphaí). Documents which form the basis of a contract, for instance for public works (e.g. ML 44 = IG I3 35, Athens; IG VII 3073 = Syll.3 972, Lebadea) or leases (e.g. Syll.3 93 = IG I3 84, Athen; IG XII 7, 62 = Syll.3 963, Arcesine) or loans (e.g. IG XII 7, 67 B = Syll.3 955, Arcesine). [1: 620, 623, 628]; more on this syngraphe. In Athens in the 5th cent. BC, proposals drafted for the assembly (ekklesia) by a specially commissioned board of syngrapheis (e.g. ML 73 = IG I3 78). These boards were discredited by their involvement in setting up the oligarchi…

Timokratia

(155 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (τιμοκρατία/ timokratía). The modern term 'timocracy' denotes a form of constitution in which people's political rights depend on their wealth (cf. τίμημα, tímēma, 'assessment'), similar to 'plutocracy'. In general, a constitution in which this principle was applied to a significant extent would be called oligarchia by the Greeks, but ploutokratia is also found (Xen. Mem. 4,6,12). In Aristot. Eth. Nic. 8,1160a-b timokratia is used to denote the good form of demokratia ), which Aristotle otherwise calls politeia . Among the subdivisions of demokratia and oligarchi…

Ephialtes

(540 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Ἐφιάλτης; Ephiáltēs). Mythology  Aloads. [German version] [1] Son of Eurydemus of Malis Son of Eurydemus of Malis, he is supposed to have shown  Xerxes the path over the mountains at  Thermopylae, in the hope of a large reward. This enabled the Persians to circumvent the Greek army under Leonidas and attack it from the rear. E. himself is said to have led the elite corps of Hydarnes along this path, and so contributed to the defeat of the Spartans. Herodotus was already aware of another version, thought by…

Autokrator

(333 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Αὐτοκράτωρ; Autokrátōr). [German version] A. Greek The meaning ‘exercising control over oneself’ expresses the opposite of subjugation to the will of another. The Thebans used this argument to claim that their support of the Persians in 480 was attributable to a ruling   dynasteia , not to the whole city, which acted as its own autocrator (Thuc. 3,62,3-4). Envoys and officials are often described as autokratores when entitled to more power than is usual in these positions. This background is evident, for example, when the Athenians declare the leaders of th…

Kome

(894 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(κώμη; kṓmē, plural κῶμαι; kômai). [German version] A. Greece in the 5th and 4th cents. BC With the meaning ‘village’, kome signified in the Greek world a small community. Thucydides regarded life in scattered, unfortified kômai as the older and more primitive form of communal living in a political unit (Thuc. 1,5,1; on Sparta: 1,10,1; on the Aetolians: 3,94,4). Under the Aristotelian model of pólis formation, families first group together in a kṓmē, and then the kômai group together in a pólis (Aristot. Pol. 1,1252b 15-28; cf. 3,1280b 40-1281a 1). Scattered living in a kome is typical f…

Archairesia

(76 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἀρχαιρεσία; archairesía). Appointment of officials ( archai). In the Greek world an official was usually appointed for a year either by election ( hairesis in the proper meaning, but the term can be used for any method of appointing officials) or by casting lots ( klerosis). Many states annually convened for an electoral meeting in which honours were conferred and for which a particularly large attendance was desired (e.g. IPriene, 7). Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) Bibliography Busolt/Swoboda.

Polemarchos

(334 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (πολέμαρχος/ polémarchos, plural polémarchoi, 'leader in war') was the title of military officialsin various Greek states. In the stories of the rise of tyrants, Cypselus [2] in Corinth (Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F 57,5) and Orthagoras [1] in Sicyon (POxy. XI 1365 = FGrH 105 F 2) are said to have been polémarchoi. But it is unlikely that men outside the ruling aristocracy would be appointed to such an office or that the polémarchos of archaic Corinth would have civilian judicial duties like that of classical Athens. In the Spartan army of the fifth-f…

Aeisitoi

(100 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἀείσιτοι; aeísitoi). Aeisitoi are entitled, not just occasionally but regularly, to participate in the banquets prepared by the Greek states (cf. Poll. 9,40). In Athens one so honoured was accorded   sitesis in the  Prytaneion (e.g. IG II/III2 I 1,450b) [2; 3]; as aeisitoi were designated also the officials who were assigned to the council and who ate with the   prytaneis (e.g. Agora XV 86) [1]. Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) Bibliography 1 Agora XV, 1974, 7-8 2 A. S. Henry, Honours and Privileges in Athenian Decrees, 1983, 275-78 archontes 3 M. J. Osborne, Entertainmen…

Deka

(286 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (οἱ δέκα; hoi déka) ‘the Ten’; a committee of ten men, elected after the overthrow of the Thirty in 403 BC to rule the oligarchy of Athens. According to Lysias (12,58) and some other sources, they were to work towards a peace settlement (accepted by [2]), but there is no hint of this in Xenophon (Hell. 2,4,23f.) and it is probably not so (cf. [1]), although the democrats around  Thrasybulus may have hoped that the change of regime in Athens would be followed by a change in direction.…

Ephodion

(65 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἐφόδιον; ephódion, ‘travel money’). In Greece, ephodion denotes the allowance for travel expenses paid to an ambassador (e.g. in Athens: Tod 129; cf. the parody in Aristoph. Ach. 65-67; in Chios: SIG3 402). In the Hellenistic and Roman periods a rich citizen could aid his city by declining such a payment due to him (e.g. IPriene 108). Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)

Petalismos

(113 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (πεταλισμός; petalismós). Petalismos was the name for a ballot using the leaves (πέταλα/ pétala) of the olive tree. At Syracusae, the petalismos was the equivalent of the Athenian ostrakismós , i.e. a procedure for sentencing a leading individual to a period of banishment without finding him guilty of a misdemeanour. Diodorus Siculus (11,87) mentions the petalismos for the year 454/3 BC: it was introduced in the wake of a failed attempt to set up a tyrannis; its consequence was a five-year exile, but it was soon abolished again, as the fear of falling victim to the petalismo…

Strategos

(1,303 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(στρατηγός/ stratēgós, 'army leader'; pl. strategoi). In many Greek states the formal title for a military commander. [German version] I. Classical Greece In Athens, strategoi are occasionally mentioned earlier (e.g. Peisistratus [4] as strategos; Hdt. 1,59,4; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 17,2), but it was only after the tribal reorganization of Cleisthenes [2], probably first in 501/0 BC, that a regular board of strategoi was appointed: one from each of the 10 phylai, elected annually by the assembly (but candidates may have been pre-selected in the phylai, see [2]), and eligible for …

Corinthian League

(450 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] Modern term for the union of Greek states brought into being in 338/7 BC at an assembly in Corinth by  Philippus II of Macedonia after the battle of  Chaeronea (338 BC). The league evidently included all Greek states with the exception of Sparta, and was associated with a treaty establishing a ‘general peace’ (  koinḕ eirḗnē ). The members' oath and list of league members have survived in part in the form of an inscription (IG II2 236 = Tod 177; further information in Dem. Or. 17). The customary obligations of the treaty among its co-signatories also incl…

Boule

(1,326 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
(Βουλή; Boulḗ) . [German version] A. General In Greek communities the boule was a council assembly, usually that responsible for current public duties, which also had to prepare the work of the public assembly (  ekklēsía ). Composition and responsibilities could change according to the respective form of constitution. In Homeric times the council consisted of nobles convened by the king as advisors; in oligarchically organized communities the boule could become a relatively powerful body, compared with a comparatively weak public assembly, by restricting eligi…

Synoikismos

(484 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (συνοικισμός/ synoikismós, lit. 'living together'). In the Greek world, the combination of several smaller communities to form a single larger community. Sometimes the union was purely political and did not affect the pattern of settlement or the physical existence of the separate communities: this is what the Athenians supposed to have happened when they attributed the Attic synoikismos to Theseus, commemorated by a festival in classical times, the Synoikia (Thuc. 2,15) — whereas …

Archai

(511 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἀρχαί; archaí, ‘office holder’). In most Greek states the powers of hereditary kings were divided in the  Dark Ages and the archaic period and distributed among a series of officials ( archai or   archontes ), who were usually appointed for a year, often without the option of re-election. This process cannot be traced in detail because the sources tend toward a too schematic reconstruction. Apart from the offices that were responsible for the state as a whole, special offices were created on occ…

Aisymnetes

(276 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (αἰσυμνήτης; aisymnḗtēs). Formed from aísa (‘fate’) and   mna (‘to have in mind’): ‘one who has fate in mind (and announces it to the one it affects)’. The Phaeacians (Hom. Od. 8,258-9) name nine aisymnetai, who are responsible for contests ( agones), in the Iliad 24,347 a prince's son appears as aisymnḗtēs. Aristotle sees in the aisymnetes of ancient Greece a kind of monarch, a ‘chosen tyrant’, as demonstrated in  Pittacus of Mytilene around 600 (Pol. 3,1285a 29 - b 1). In the 5th cent. the word appears in Teos synonymously with ‘tyrant’ (Syll.3 38 = ML 30,A; SEG 31,985…

Epimeletai

(325 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἐπιμεληταί; epiméletai). Functionaries, who ‘take care of something’ ( epimeleîsthai). The word is used as the title for several Greek officials; see also epískopoi, epistátai. 1. The author of the Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia mentions for Athens the epimeletai of wells (43,1), of the market (51,4), of the festival of Dionysia (56,4), and of the Eleusinian Mysteries (57,1). Also documented are epimeletai as court officials who deal with the tributes in the Delian-Athenian League (ML 68), epimeletai of shipyards (such as IG II2 1629, 178-179; Dem. Or. 22,63…

Pylagoras

(153 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (πυλαγόρας/ pylagóras; also πυλαγόρος/ pylagóros, Hdt. 7,213 f,. or πυλάγορος/ pylágoras). literally a participant in the Pýlaia [2] meetings, i.e. the meetings of the  amphiktyonía of Anthela (near Thermopylae) and Delphi. Each of the 12 éthnē of the amphiktyonía was represented in the Council by two hieromnḗmones , who could both speak and vote, and they could send further representatives who could speak but not vote. The latter were called pylágoroi in literary texts and a few inscriptions of the Roman period, but agoratroí in Hellenistic inscriptions. It has…

Demagogue

(216 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (δημαγωγός, dēmagōgós, ‘leader of the people’). Aristophanes uses demagogue to mean a political leader in the mould of  Cleon (for example in Equ. 191-193; 213-222). The word was possibly coined in the 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC in Athens for the new style of populist politician whose position depended less on the clothing of office than the ability to speak persuasively at meetings of the popular assembly and at jury trials. The older word for a political leader was prostátēs. Thucydides and Xenophon generally used prostátēs, but each of them twice used dēmagōgós to ref…

Naukraria, naukraros

(381 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ναυκραρία/ naukraría, ναύκραρος/ naúkraros). In ancient times, naukraría (pl. naukraríai) denoted a subdivision of the Athenian citizenry; naúkraros (pl. naúkraroi) were the leaders of such subdivisions. The meaning of the terms is controversial. Generally, the naúkraros was traditionally interpreted as ‘ship's captain’ (deriving from naûs, ‘ship’), but other derivations are proposed, e.g. from naós (‘temple’; [4. 56-72]; cf. [3. 153-175], [1. 11-16]) or from naíein (‘live’); [5. 10]). However, none of these more recent interpretations is …

Euclides

(2,633 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Et al.
(Εὐκλείδης; Eukleídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian archon in 403/2 BC Athenian archon in 403/2 BC. During his year in office Athens made a new start following the Oligarchy of the Thirty (e.g., see And. 1,87-94) and, among others, officially adopted the Ionian alphabet (Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 155). Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) Bibliography Develin 199 LGPN 2, Εὐκλείδης (9). [German version] [2] of Megara Student of Socrates Student of Socrates, founder of the  Megarian School; born between 450 and 435, probably died early in the 360s. In Plato's Phaedon (59c) E. is named among those …

Psephisma

(328 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ψήφισμα, Pl. ψηφίσματα/ psēphísmata), literally a decision made by voting using 'voting stones' ( psêphoi) as opposed to voting by show of hands ( cheirotonía ). But in normal Greek usage, psephisma was applied to decrees and cheirotonía to elections, irrespective of the method of voting.  Psephisma is the most widespread word for 'decree'; dógma is fairly frequent; gnṓmē usually means 'proposal' but is sometimes used for 'decree', especially in north-western Asia Minor and in the adjacent islands (e.g. IK Ilion 1 = Syll.3 330); also found are hádos, rhḗtra and tethmós…

Cheirotonia

(152 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (χειροτονία; cheirotonía, ‘raising the hand’). Method of voting in popular assemblies and other Greek committees. In large assemblies votes thus given were probably not counted: the chairman would have to decide where the majority voice lay. Distinct from cheirotonía is voting by psēphophoría (‘throwing-in of ballot stones’), which made possible the precise counting of votes in a secret ballot. Notwithstanding the method actually used, the tendency in Athens and generally was to use the term cheirotoneín in the case of elections and the term psēphízesthai in the …

Zetetai

(181 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ζητηταί/ zētētaí, 'investigators') were appointed ad hoc in Athens to enquire into breaches of law; the lexicographers (e.g. Harpocration [2], s. v. Ζ.) attribute an 'office' ( archḗ) to them, which was constructed in Athens from time to time. Z. are recorded in three instances: in 415 BC z. were assigned to look into the Mutilation of the Herms (Herms, Mutilation of the) and related religious offences (And. 1,40;  cf. 1,14; 1,36). Three members of the board are known (Diognetus, Peisander [7], Charicles [1]); Peisander was a…

Epidosis

(53 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἐπίδοσις; epídosis). Voluntary tax requested by Greek states during special emergencies to supplement the revenue from regular taxes and contributions furnished through public office. In Athens, epidóseis are documented since the 4th cent. (see for example Dem. Or. 21,161); they were probably introduced by Eubulus. Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)

Nesiotai

(273 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
(νησιῶται/ nēsiôtai). [German version] [1] See Hecatonnesi See Hecatonnesi Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) [German version] [2] Aegean league of islanders, with Delos as its centre, c. 315 BC League ( k oinon ) of islanders in the Aegean with Delos as its centre, probably founded by Antigonus [1] Monophthalmus in 315/4 BC rather than by Ptolemaeus in 308 BC. After the defeat of Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes 286 BC, the league was taken over by Ptolemaeus. It served as a political alliance and celebrated festivities in honour of its patron. Under the Ptolemies, there were a nēsíarchos (‘island ruler…

Decate

(231 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (δεκάτη; dekátē), ‘the tenth (part)’, primarily refers to various forms of tithe: 1. Crop yield taxation, e.g. in Athens under  Peisistratus (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 16,4; but perhaps it is a ‘twentieth’, eikostḗ, in Thuc. 6,54,5, and decate is a generic term in the Ath. Pol.), in Crannon (Polyaenus, Strat. 2,34), in Delos (IG XI 2, 161, 27) and in Pergamum (IPergamon 158, 17-18; a twentieth on wine and a tenth on other field crops). The lex Hieronica for Sicily, too, includes a decate (Cic. Verr. 2,3,20). 2. Building taxation, e.g. in Delos (IG XI 2, 161, 26) and Egypt…

Epicheirotonia

(84 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἐπιχειροτονία; epicheirotonía). Epicheirotonia generally means voting (literally: ‘raising one's hand’). In particular epicheirotonia was used in the 4th cent. in Athens to mean a vote of confidence in officials that was cast in every prytany ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 43,5; 61,2; but epicheirotonia used in connection with an ostracism in 43,5 is probably an error for diacheirotonía) and a vote of confidence conducted annually for each of the four different subject areas of law (Dem. Or. 24,20-23). Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)

Isonomia

(250 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἰσονομία; isonomía). The concept of isonomia, (equality before the law) - along with other compounds formed with the element iso- (‘equal’) - seems to have played a significant role in political discourse in Greece during the late 6th and early 5th cents. BC. In the constitutional debate at the Persian Court, Herodotus uses isonomia to refer to democracy (3,80,6; 83,1), and in other places (3,142,3; 5,37,2) he employs isonomia to designate a constitutional government in contrast to one that is tyrannical ( Tyrannis); in the latter sense he also uses the words isēgoría

Tettarakonta

(191 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (οἱ τετταράκοντα/ hoi tettarákonta, 'the Forty'). In Athens, a college of forty judges appointed by lot, four each out of the ten phylai ( phyle [1]) after 404/3 BC. They were assigned to a phyle other than their own and handled cases concerning defendants of that phyle. They decided private suits for sums up to 10 drachmae on their own, and referred private suits ( dike [2]) for larger sums to the diaitetai [2]. However, it was possible to appeal against the decision of the diaitetes to a dikasterion presided over by one of the Forty. The college succeeded the dikastai kata de…

Athenian League (Second)

(475 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (4th cent. BC). The  Delian League had broken up in 404 at the end of the Peloponnesian War. One could remember the power which Athens had had over its allies, but Sparta's behaviour with respect to the Greeks in the early 4th cent. also led to dissatisfaction. In the King's Peace of 386, the Greeks in Asia Minor were given over to the Persians and all other Greeks were declared independent. In 384, Athens formed, explicitly in the context of this peace, an alliance with Chios (IG II2 34 = Tod 118). In 378, Athens established, after the liberation of Thebes from Spa…

Nomophylakes

(473 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(νομοφύλακες / nomophýlakes, ‘guardians of the law’) [German version] I. Classical Period In the Classical Period, nomophýlakes were officials responsible for ensuring compliance with the laws ( nómoi). In Athens, the Areopagus (Areios Pagos) was said to have performed the function of the nomophylakía  until the reforms of Ephialtes [2] (462 BC) ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 3,6; [4,4]; 8,4; 25,2). According to one version in a fragment of Philochorus (FGrH 328 F 64), Ephialtes appointed a college of seven nomophýlakes, who also held some religious offices, but it is more likely…

Epimachia

(105 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἐπιμαχία; epimachía). Thucydides (1,44,1; 5,48,2) uses the term epimachia for a purely defensive alliance, which obliges the participants to give assistance only in the case of an attack, as opposed to the symmachía, which is an offensive as well as defensive alliance to the full extent, wherein the participants have ‘the same friends and enemies’. The Greeks, however, failed to always make a clear distinction between the two terms: the  Athenian League of the 4th cent. was a defensive alliance, but the treatise which promoted it consistently uses symmáchein and rel…

States, confederation of

(621 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] In Greece federal states were regional units composed of separate poleis (Polis) and organised in such a way that at any rate foreign policy was in the hands of the federal organisation (Synhedrion), but the individual poleis retained their own citizenship and a greater degree of autonomy than was enjoyed by each of the demes (Demos [2]) of Attica. 'Tribal states' in the less urbanised parts of Greece were similar, with a federal organisation and smaller local units which had a degree of autonomy: as poleis were established these tended to develop into federal sta…

Demos

(1,287 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(δῆμος; dêmos). [German version] [1] The entire citizenry Demos, meaning ‘people’, could refer to either the entire citizenry of a community or only the ‘common people’ as distinct from its more privileged members. As an extension of the first meaning it also served to designate the popular assembly, so that political decisions in many states were seen as being ‘issued by the council and the people’ (ἔδοξεν τῇ βουλῇ καὶ τῷ δήμῳ). Adjectives such as dēmotikós and the description of a democratic leader as προστάτης τοῦ δήμου (‘champion of the people’; e.g. in Thuc. 3,82,…

Polis

(1,781 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
(πόλις, πτόλις/ pólis, ptólis; pl. πόλεις/ póleis; 'city state'). [German version] I. Topographical background and early development Depending on the particular context, p olis may have topographical, personal or legal-political connotations: a) a fortified settlement on a height, Homeric pólis akrḗ or akrotátē (Hom. Il. 6,88; 20,52), synonymous with the Acropolis in Athens until the late 5th cent. (Thuc. 2,15,3-6); b) an urban settlement; c) an urban settlement including environs, 'state territory'; d) municipal community, community of polîtai (see below II.). In the sense …

Delian League

(858 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (5th cent. BC). The Persian offensive on Greece was repelled in 480-79 BC, but nobody could know at the end of 479 that the Persians would never return. In 478 the Greeks continued the war under the leadership of Sparta, but the Spartan commander  Pausanias soon made himself so unpopular that Athens, either of its own record (Aristot., Ath. Pol. 23,4) or at the urging of its allies, decided to take over leadership (Thuc. 1,94-5). At this point, Athens established a standing allian…

Katalogeis

(200 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (καταλογεῖς; katalogeîs) are known as Athenian Commissioners of Enrolment. During the oligarchical overthrow of 411 BC, 100 men no younger than 40 years of age were chosen as katalogeis - ten from each phyle - in order to draw up a register of 5,000 Athenians intended to have full citizenship ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 29,5). The speech by Lysias for Polystratus (Lys. 20) was aimed at defending one of these katalogeis, who was also a member of the Four Hundred. The latter claimed to have served the initiators of the 5,000 only reluctantly, to have propo…

Dokimasia

(411 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (Δοκιμασία; Dokimasía). In the Greek world it means the procedure of determining whether certain conditions have been met. In Athens the following dokimasíai are attested: 1. The dokimasía of young men who at the end of their eighteenth year were presented to the father's dḗmos to be recognized as a member of the deme and a citizen. The dḗmos, a college of judges and the council took part in this procedure. 2. The dokimasía of the   bouleutaí (council members) in the council and before a college of judges, that of the archontes likewise …

Epoikia

(119 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἐποικία; epoikía). Epoikia was occasionally used instead of apoikía for Greek colonies, e.g. the early 5th-cent. BC Locrian colony near Naupactus (ML 20). The Athenian decree of 325/4 BC regarding the foundation of a colony on the Adriatic coast contains the reconstructed [ apoi] kía as well as époi[ koi]. It has been claimed that strictly speaking epoikia and époikoi did not refer to the original settlement, but to its later reinforcement with additional settlers [1]. This special meaning may occasionally have been intended, but it is u…

Ostrakismos

(836 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ὀστρακισμός, 'trial by sherds' from óstrakon , pl. óstraka, 'pottery sherd'). A procedure in Athens that permitted expulsion of a man from the country for ten years without having been convicted of an offence, but without confiscating his property. According to the (Pseudo-) Aristotelian Athēnaíōn Politeía (22,1; 22,3), ostracism was introduced by Cleisthenes [2] (508/7 BC), but not applied until 488/7. A fragment by Androtion (FGrH 324 F 6) reports that ostracism had been established immediately before its first applicatio…

Apodektai

(87 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἀποδέκται; apodéktai, ‘receivers’). A ten-man board of officials in Athens, with members chosen by lot from each of the ten phylai. They were charged by the boule with receiving state funds and remitting them to the central treasury in the 5th cent. BC, and apportioning them to various spending authorities ( merizein) in the 4th, following routine procedures. They had their own powers of jurisdiction towards tax farmers in cases of up to 10 drachmae (Arist. Ath. Pol. 47,5-48,2; 52,3). Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)

Mastroi

(148 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (μαστροί/ mastroí, ‘searchers’, ‘trackers’) is the name given in some Greek towns to official accountants with functions similar to those of the eúthynoi ( eúthynai ) or logistaí (e.g. Delphi: Syll.3 672; Pallene: Aristot. fr. 657 Rose). The accounting process is called mastráa/mastreía, e.g. in Elis (IvOl 2 = Buck 61) and Messenia (IG V 1, 1433,15-16), the person liable to account, hypómastros, e.g. in Messenia (IG V 1, 1390 = Syll.3 736,51,58). After the synoikismos of Rhodes, the councils of the three original towns of Ialysus, Camirus and Lindus …

Logographos

(255 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (λογογράφος; logográphos). Writer of Greek court speeches. The ten classical Attic rhetors were called logográphoi. The word was, however, also frequently used in a derogatory sense (e.g. Aeschin. 1,94; 3,173). As in principle the parties in the proceedings in Athens had to represent the matter themselves before the court, the ‘orator’, if he was not appearing on his own matter, remained undetected in the background: he was not a representative of a party or an attorney ( syndikos ), but a ‘speech writer’ (which is how logographos should be literally translated). H…

Antidosis

(152 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἀντίδοσις; antídosis, exchange). In Athens someone designated to discharge a leitourgia ( Liturgy) could take measures to avoid it by naming somebody richer who was not exempt from it, but who had escaped it. He could ask him to assume the leitourgia or, if the other man denied, insist on an exchange of their respective fortunes. Such an exchange was in practice fully possible [1; 3], although this is contested [2]. If the person so named wanted neither the leitourgia nor an exchange, then the plaintiff was forced to assume the leitourgia or seek a   diadikasia

Zeugitai

(274 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ζευγῖται, literally 'yoke-men', from ζεῦγος/ zeûgos = 'yoke', 'team'), the third of Solon's [1] four property-classes in Athens ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 7,3 f.). The name indicates either that they were the men rich enough to serve in the army as hoplîtai , 'yoked together' in a phálanx [2. 135-140; 5], or, less probably, the men rich enough to own a yoke of oxen [1. 822 f.]. According to Ath. Pol. (loc.cit.), they were the men whose land yielded between 200 and 300 médimnoi ('bushels'), best interpreted as barley or the equivalent value in other crops [3. 14…

Symmoria

(314 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (συμμορία/ symmoría, 'company'). In Athens in the fourth cent. BC, a group of men liable for payment of the property tax called eisphora or for the leitourgía (Liturgy I) of the trierarchy (Trierarchia). In 378/7 all payers of eisphorá were organised in 100 symmoriai for administrative convenience (Cleidemus FGrH 323 F 8): each member continued to be taxed on his own property, but later the liturgy of proeisphorá was created, by which the three richest members of each symmoria had to advance the whole sum due from their symmoria. There were addit…

Hellenotamiai

(236 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἑλληνοταμίαι). The title Hellenotamiai (‘Stewards of Greece’) was borne by the treasurers of the  Delian League. The exchequer they managed, originally located on Delos, was probably transferred to Athens in the year 454/3 BC (Thuc. 1,96,2; Plut. Aristides 25,3; Pericles 12,1; cf. IG I3 259 = ATL List 1), because the annually elected boards were numbered in a continuous sequence starting in 454/3. From the beginning, however, the Hellenotamiai were Athenians, were appointed by Athens (Thuc. ibid., cf. [1. 44f., 235-237]),…

Thesmothetai

(440 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (θεσμοθέται/ thesmothétai 'establishers of law'). In Athens, a college of six men who were added to the archon, the basileus and the polemarchos to form the college of nine archons. In the fifth or fourth cent. a tenth official was created, known as the 'secretary' (Grammateis) to the thesmothetai, after which one archon was appointed from each of Cleisthenes’ ten tribes (Phyle). Their place of work, the thesmotheteion, became the working-place and eating-place for all the archons (Ath. Pol. 3. 5, schol. Plat. Phaid. 235 d). The thesmothetai were responsible not for…

Apostoleis

(83 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (ἀποστολεῖς). Athenische Behörde, die für die Aussendung von Flottenexpeditionen verantwortlich war und anscheinend jeweils ad hoc bei besonderen Gelegenheiten gebildet wurde. 357/6 v. Chr. waren sie zusammen mit den epimeletaí der Werften dafür zuständig, Streitfälle unter Trierarchen vor Gericht zu bringen (Demosth. or. 47,26); 325/4 wurden 10 A. gewählt, die unter der Aufsicht des Rates tätig sein sollten (IG II/III2 II 1, 1629 = Tod, 200, 251-58). Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) Bibliography P. J. Rhodes, The Athenian Boule, 1972, 119-120.

Demos

(1,208 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Tinnefeld, Franz (München)
(δῆμος). [English version] [1] Das Volk als Ganzes D., im Wortsinne “Volk”, konnte entweder die gesamte Bürgerschaft einer Gemeinde bezeichnen oder nur die “gewöhnlichen Leute” im Unterschied zu den mehr privilegierten Mitgliedern der Gemeinde. In Erweiterung der erstgenannten Bed. diente es auch zur Benennung der Versammlung der Bürgerschaft, so daß die polit. Entscheidungen in vielen Staaten als “von Rat und Volk erlassen” gelten (ἔδοξεν τῇ βουλῇ καὶ τῷ δήμῳ). Von der zweiten Bed. abgeleitet sind Adjektive wie dēmotikós und die Bezeichnung eines demokratischen Führers …

Syngraphai

(167 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J.
[English version] (συγγραφαί). Dokumente, die als Grundlage für Verträge dienten, z. B. bei der Vergabe öffentlicher Arbeiten (z. B. ML 44 = IG I3 35, Athen; IG VII 3073 = Syll.3 972, Lebadeia), dem Abschluß von Pachtverträgen (z. B. Syll.3 93 = IG I3 84, Athen; IG XII 7, 62 = Syll.3 963, Arkesine) oder der Ausgabe von Darlehen (z. B. IG XII 7, 67 B = Syll.3 955, Arkesine; dazu [1. 620, 623, 628]; dazu genauer syngraphḗ ). In Athen wurden im 5. Jh. v. Chr. auch die von einem eigens damit beauftragten Gremium von syngrapheís erarbeiteten Vorlagen für die Volksversammlung ( ekklēsía ) als s. b…

Ephialtes

(510 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Köln) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Engels, Johannes (Köln)
(Ἐφιάλτης). Mythologie Aloaden. [English version] [1] Sohn des Eurydemos aus Malis Sohn des Eurydemos aus Malis, soll den Xerxes in der Hoffnung auf eine große Belohnung auf einen Fußpfad über das Gebirge an den Thermopylen aufmerksam gemacht haben. Auf diese Weise konnten die Perser das griech. Heer unter der Führung des Leonidas umgehen und im Rücken angreifen. E. soll selbst das Elitekorps des Hydarnes über diesen Pfad geführt und damit zum Untergang der Spartaner beigetragen haben. Bereits Herodot kann…

Pylagoras

(150 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (πυλαγόρας; auch πυλαγόρος, Hdt. 7,213 f. oder πυλάγορος). Bezeichnet wörtl. einen Teilnehmer an den Pýlaia [2]-Treffen, d. h. den Versammlungen der amphiktyonía von Anthela (in der Nähe der Thermopylai) und Delphoi. Jeder der 12 “Stämme” ( éthnē) der amphiktyonía war im Rat durch zwei hieromnḗmones mit Rede- und Abstimmungsrecht vertreten und konnte weitere Vertreter senden, die zwar Rederecht hatten, aber nicht abstimmen durften. Diese letzteren werden in lit. Texten und einigen wenigen Inschr. aus röm. Zeit pylágoroi genannt, in Inschr. aus hell. Zeit…

Syntaxis

(213 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J.
[English version] (σύνταξις, Pl. syntáxeis; aus syn: “zusammen” und táttein: “legen”). Beiträge im Sinne einer “Umlage”, d. h. unter bewußter begrifflicher Verschleierung des dahinterstehenden Zwanges. Der Begriff s. wurde im 4. Jh. v. Chr. von Kallistratos [2] für die finanziellen Beiträge der Bündner im Zweiten Attischen Seebund geprägt (Theop. FGrH 115 F 98), nachdem die Athener versprochen hatten, keinen phóros (wie im verhaßten Attisch-Delischen Seebund des 5. Jh.) zu erheben (z. B. IG II2 43 = Tod 123,23); tatsächlich blieben die s. bis zu einem gewissen Maß unte…

Poletai

(183 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (πωληταί), “Verkäufer”, hießen in Athen die Beamten, die für die Vergabe öffentlicher Aufträge (z. B. Steuereinziehung, Bearbeitung von Heiligem Land und Ausbeutung der Silberminen) und den Einzug von konfisziertem Vermögen zuständig waren. Die Abschlüsse erfolgten in Anwesenheit des Rats ( bulḗ ), der bis zur Zahlung Buch führte; die Verkaufserlöse aus konfisziertem Vermögen wurden von den neun árchontes [1] bestätigt. Die p. werden in Verbindung mit Solon erwähnt ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 7,3); in klass. Zeit bildeten sie ein Gremium von ze…

Bürokratie

(894 words)

Author(s): Gizewski, Christian (Berlin) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] I. Allgemein Der Begriff B. entstammt nicht der ant. polit. Terminologie, sondern ist eine neuzeitliche frz.-griech. Hybridbildung (altfrz. “bure”, “burrel” aus lat. burra). B. meint, auch kritisch, spezifische Organisationsformen des modernen Staates [1]. Als “Idealtypus” im Sinne Max Webers kann B. generell eine Sonderform legaler Herrschaft bezeichnen, deren Inhaber in der Verwaltung Funktionäre verwendet, die hauptberuflich, laufbahnartig und besoldet bestimmte sachliche, von der Privatsphäre getr…

Psephisma

(314 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (ψήφισμα, Pl. ψηφίσματα/ psēphísmata) bedeutet wörtl. eine Entscheidung, die durch Abstimmung mit “Stimmsteinen” ( psḗphoi) getroffen wurde, im Gegensatz zur Abstimmung durch Handaufheben ( cheirotonía ). Im üblichen griech. Sprachgebrauch wurde jedoch, ungeachtet der jeweiligen Abstimmungsmethode, ps. für Beschlüsse und cheirotonía für Wahlen verwendet. Ps. ist das am weitesten verbreitete Wort für “Dekret” ( dógma ist häufig in diesem Sinne gebraucht; gnṓmē meint gewöhnlich “Vorschlag”, manchmal aber auch - v. a. in NW-Kleinasien und auf…

Symmachia

(459 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J.
[English version] (συμμαχία, die “Symmachie”). Bündnis (wörtl. Abmachung zw. zwei oder mehreren Staaten, “gemeinsam zu kämpfen”; syn: “zusammen mit”; máchesthai: “kämpfen”); es konnte für einen begrenzten Zeitraum oder für immer geschlossen werden. Thukydides (1,44,1; 5,48,2) unterscheidet zw. s. (einer Offensiv- wie Defensivallianz), und epimachía (einem reinen Defensivbündnis) doch war diese Unterscheidung nicht weit verbreitet; so benutzt etwa der Beitrittsaufruf zum als Defensivallianz konzipierten zweiten Attischen Seebund durchgehend das Verb symmacheín und…

Antidosis

(160 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (ἀντίδοσις, Vermögenstausch). In Athen konnte ein zur Leistung einer leitourgía (Leiturgia) Bestimmter versuchen, dies zu vermeiden, indem er jemand benannte, der reicher und nicht von dieser Leistung befreit, aber nicht dazu verpflichtet worden war. Er konnte ihn auffordern, entweder die leitourgía von sich aus zu leisten oder, falls dieser abstritt, mehr zu besitzen, mit ihm das Vermögen zu tauschen. Ein Vermögenstausch war in der Realität wohl durchaus möglich [1; 3], obwohl dies auch bestritten wird [2]. War der Aufgeforderte weder zur leitourgía noch zum…

Kleonymos

(344 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Cobet, Justus (Essen)
(Κλεώνυμος). [English version] [1] Athen. Politiker, brachte 426/5 v. Chr. zwei wichtige Anträge ein Athen. Politiker, brachte im J. 426/5 v.Chr. zwei wichtige Anträge ein: der eine betraf Methone in Thrakien, der andere die Eintreibung der Tribute aus dem Attisch-Delischen Seebund (IG I3 61,32-56; 68). Vermutl. war K. in diesem J. Mitglied des Rates. Im J. 415 gehörte er zu den eifrigsten Befürwortern einer Untersuchung der rel. Skandale (Hermokopidenfrevel; And. 1,27). Aristophanes verspottet ihn als Schlemmer, Lügner und Feigling (Eq…

Epoikia

(114 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (ἐποικία). E. wurde zuweilen anstelle von apoikía für eine griech. Kolonie verwendet, so etwa für die lokrische Kolonie des frühen 5. Jh. v.Chr. bei Naupaktos (ML 20). In dem athenischen Beschluß von 325/4 v.Chr. zur Gründung einer Kolonie in der Adria findet sich das rekonstruierte [ apoi] kía und époi[ koi]. Es wurde behauptet, e. und époikoi im strengen Sinne würden sich nicht auf die urspr. Siedlung, sondern auf ihre spätere Verstärkung durch Neusiedler beziehen [1]. Diese Bed. mag zuweilen beabsichtigt gewesen sein, aber es ist …

Tettarakonta

(190 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J.
[English version] (οἱ τετταράκοντα, “die Vierzig”). In Athen ein Kollegium von 40 Richtern, das nach 404/3 v. Chr. zu je vier aus den zehn Phylen ( phylḗ [1]) erlost wurde. Sie wurden jeweils einer anderen als der eigenen Phyle zugeordnet und behandelten Fälle, in die Angehörige dieser Phyle als Beklagte verwickelt waren. Sie entschieden in privatrechtlichen Verfahren bis zum Streitwert von zehn Drachmen selbständig und verwiesen Privatverfahren ( díkē [2]) mit höheren Streitsummen an die diaitētaí [2]. Es war jedoch möglich, gegen deren Entscheidung Berufung bei einem dikastḗrio…

Poristai

(65 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (πορισταί, “Beschaffer”, von πορίζειν, “beschaffen, versorgen”) hießen athenische Beamte in den letzten Jahren des Peloponnesischen Krieges, deren Aufgabe es verm. war, Geldquellen für die Stadt aufzutun. Sie werden zum ersten Mal 419 v. Chr. erwähnt, bevor Athen in ernsthafte finanzielle Schwierigkeiten geriet (Antiph. or. 6, 49), und zuletzt 405 (Aristoph. Ran. 1505). P. sind nicht inschr. bezeugt. Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)

Strategos

(1,176 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. | Ameling, Walter | Tinnefeld, Franz
(στρατηγός, “Stratege”; Pl. stratēgoí). Im allg. Sinn “Heerführer”, in vielen griech. Staaten formelle Amtsbezeichnung für mil. Kommandeure. [English version] I. Klassisches Griechenland In Athen wird der Begriff s. gelegentlich schon vor Kleisthenes [2] gebraucht (z. B. Peisistratos [4] als s.: Hdt. 1,59,4; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 17,2), doch wurde erst nach dessen Phylenreform - verm. zuerst 501/500 v. Chr. - ein ordentliches Kollegium von s. gebildet: Aus jeder der 10 Phylen wählte die Volksversammlung jährlich je einen s. (wobei in den Phylen vielleicht eine Vorauswa…

Agyrrhios

(123 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] Athenischer Politiker aus dem Demos Kollytos, tätig von ca. 405-373 v. Chr. Er führte zwischen dem Ende des Peloponnesischen Kriegs und ca. 392 die Zahlung einer Obole für den Besuch der Volksversammlung ein und erhöhte später die Summe von 2 auf 3 Obolen (Aristot.Ath.pol. 41,3). Deshalb wurde ihm wohl fälschlich die Einführung des Theorikon zugeschrieben (Harpokr. s. v. θεωρικά). 389 folgte er Thrasyboulos als Kommandeur der athenischen Flotte in der Ägäis (Xen. hell. 4,8,31). E…

Kyrbeis

(192 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (κύρβεις). Zur Bezeichnung der Schriftträger der Gesetze Drakons [2] und Solons war in Athen neben dem Begriff áxōnes auch das Wort k. üblich. Die Herkunft des Wortes ist unbekannt. Entgegen der Meinung, die k. seien von den áxōnes zu unterscheiden, sind sie wahrscheinlicher nur eine andere Bezeichnung für die gleichen Gegenstände [1] (ML 86 = IG I3 84; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 7,1; Plut. Solon 25,1f.). Nicht gut begründet ist die Annahme, eine kýrbis sei eine pyramidenförmige und/oder mit einer Abdeckung versehene Stele und die angemessene Bezeichnung …

Verwaltung

(3,863 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter | Renger, Johannes | Rhodes, Peter J. | Eck, Werner | Tinnefeld, Franz
[English version] I. Allgemein Die Staaten des Alt. verfügten über keine von Regierungstätigkeit und Rechtsprechung unabhängige exekutive V. im Sinne der modernen Gewaltenteilung. Die bei Aristot. pol. 1297b 35-1301a 15 angedeutete Dreiteilung ( tría mória, 1297b 37) der Verfassungen in einen beschließenden/gesetzgebenden Teil ( to buleuómenon), ein ausführendes Element (“über die Ämter”: to perí tas archás) und die Rechtsprechung ( to dikázon) ist eher dem Schematismus des Autors zuzuschreiben als einem polit. Konzept, zumal sich die genannten Bereiche i…

Katalogeis

(169 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (καταλογεῖς) sind aus Athen als Registraturbeamte bekannt. Während des oligarch. Umsturzes von 411 v.Chr. wurden 100 Männer im Mindestalter von 40 J. als k. gewählt - jeweils zehn aus einer Phyle -, um ein Verzeichnis der 5000 Athener zu erstellen, die das volle Bürgerrecht haben sollten ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 29,5). Die Rede des Lysias für Polystratos (Lys. 20) dient der Verteidigung eines dieser k., der zugleich Mitglied der Vierhundert war und behauptet, er habe den Hintermännern der 5000 nur widerwillig gedient, eine Liste von 9000 Männer…

Isopoliteia

(143 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (ἰσοπολιτεία). Der Begriff i. (“gleiches Bürgerrecht”), wird seit dem 3. Jh. v.Chr. verwendet, um (anstelle von politeía ) die Vergabe des Bürgerrechts durch einen griech. Staat an Einzelpersonen (z.B. IG V 2,11 = Syll.3 501) oder aber hauptsächlich an ganze Gemeinden (z.B. IG V 2, 419 = Syll.3 472) zu bezeichnen. Die moderne Forsch. unterscheidet zw. der i., dem Austausch von Rechten zwischen Staaten, die ihre Unabhängigkeit bewahrten, und der sympoliteía , dem Zusammenschluß von zwei oder mehreren Staaten zu einem einzigen. Der…

Demagoge

(200 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (δημαγωγός, dēmagōgós, “Volks-Führer”). D. wird von Aristophanes ein polit. Führer vom Schlag eines Kleon genannt (etwa in Equ. 191-193; 213-222). Möglicherweise wurde das Wort in der 2. H. des 5. Jh.v.Chr. in Athen für den neuen Typ populistischer Politiker geprägt, deren Stellung nicht von der Bekleidung von Ämtern abhing, sondern von der Fähigkeit, in Volksversammlungen und vor Geschworenengerichten überzeugend zu sprechen. Das ältere Wort für einen polit. Führer war prostátēs. Thukydides und Xenophon verwenden in der Regel prostátēs, aber auch je zweimal d…

Epimeletai

(301 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (ἐπιμεληταί). Funktionäre, die “Sorge tragen” ( epimeleísthai); das Wort wird als Titel für eine Reihe von griech. Beamten gebraucht; siehe auch epískopoi, epistátai. 1. Der Autor der aristotelischen Athenaion Politeia erwähnt für Athen e. der Brunnen (43,1), des Markts (51,4), des Festes der Dionysien (56,4) und der Eleusinischen Mysterien (57,1). Ebenfalls bezeugt sind e. als Gerichtsbeamte, die mit den Tributen im Delisch-Attischen Seebund befaßt sind (ML 68), e. der Werften (etwa IG II2 1629, 178-179; Demosth. or. 22,63), der Symmorien zur Aussta…

Apodektai

(76 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (ἀποδέκται, “Einnehmer”). Ein zehnköpfiges Beamtenkollegium in Athen, dessen Mitglieder jeweils durch Los aus den zehn Phylen bestimmt wurden. Sie nahmen unter Aufsicht der boulḗ die Staatseinkünfte entgegen, die sie im 5. Jh. v. Chr. in den zentralen Staatsschatz abführten, im 4. Jh. nach gesetzlichen Vorgaben auf verschiedene Ausgabebehörden verteilten ( merízein). Gegenüber den Steuerpächtern verfügten sie (in Fällen bis zu 10 Drachmen) über eine eigene Rechtssprechungsbefugnis (Aristot.Ath.pol. 47,5-48,2; 52,3). Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)

Ekklesia

(760 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (ἐκκλησία). Versammlung der erwachsenen männlichen Bürger, der in griech. Staaten die letzte Entscheidungskompetenz zustand. Sie wird manchmal auch (h)ēliaía (mit dialektbedingten Unterschieden) oder auch agorá genannt. Die Häufigkeit der Sitzungen, Zuständigkeitsbereiche, der Grad der Einschränkung selbständigen Handelns durch den Kompetenzumfang von Beamten und/oder des Rates und der Umfang der Mitglieder der e. differieren je nach Art der polit. Organisation; so können Oligarchien die Armen durch das Erfordernis eines Mindestvermögens von der e.

Aristoteles

(5,233 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Frede, Dorothea (Hamburg) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Et al.
(Ἀριστοτέλης). [English version] [1] Athenischer Oligarch Athenischer Oligarch, der als athenischer Verbannter 404 v. Chr. von Lysandros nach Sparta gesandt wurde (Xen. hell. 2,2,118). Später gehörte er zu den 30 Tyrannen in Athen (Xen. hell. 2,3,2; Triakonta), von denen er mit der Bitte um eine spartanische Besatzungstruppe nach Sparta geschickt wurde (Xen. hell. 2,3,13). Traill, PAA, 174765. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [English version] [2] Rhodischer Gesandter 166/5 v. Chr. Rhodier, bat 166/5 v. Chr. als Gesandter in Rom vergeblich den Senat um die Erneuerung der amicitia (Pol…

Archai

(496 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (ἀρχαί, “Amtsträger”). In den meisten griech. Staaten kam es in den Dark Ages und der archa. Epoche zur Aufteilung der Macht eines erblichen Königs auf eine Anzahl von Beamten ( archaí oder árchontes ), die gewöhnlich für ein Jahr und häufig ohne Möglichkeit der Wiederwahl bestellt wurden. Dieser Prozeß läßt sich nicht im Detail verfolgen; die Quellen neigen zu einer allzu systematischen Rekonstruktion. Neben den Ämtern, die für den Staat als Ganzes zuständig waren, wurden manchmal auch spezie…

Kosmetes

(281 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
(κοσμητής, “Ordner”). [English version] [1] athen. Beamter zum Training der Epheben In Athen der hauptverantwortliche Beamte für das Training der Epheben nach der Reorganisation der ephēbeía um 335/4 v.Chr. Der k. wurde vom Volk gewählt, vermutl. aus den über 40 J. alten Bürgern ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 42,2). In der Zeit der zweijährigen Ausbildung war ein k. wohl beide J. für ein Kontingent von Epheben verantwortlich. Er wird in vielen Ephebenlisten vom 4. Jh. v.Chr. bis zum 3. Jh. n.Chr. genannt; hierhin gehören auch die kaiserzeitlichen Hermenporträts att. kosmētaí. Hurschmann…

Dioiketes

(71 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (διοικητής). Im ptolem. Ägypten wurde wie auch anderswo in der griech. Welt das Wort dioíkēsis zur Bezeichnung der Verwaltung im allg. und der Finanzverwaltung im bes. verwendet. Den Titel d. führte der leitende Beamte der Finanzverwaltung des Königs (s. etwa OGIS 59; Cic. Rab. Post. 28). Auch lokale Finanzbeamte mochten diesen Titel getragen haben (Pol. 27,13,2 mit Walbank, Commentary on Polybius, ad. loc.). Dioikesis Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)

Naukraria, naukraros

(360 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (ναυκραρία, ναύκραρος). Als n. (Plur. naukraríai) bezeichnete man in archa. Zeit eine Untergliederung der athenischen Bürgerschaft; naúkraros (Plur. naúkraroi) hießen die Anführer der jeweiligen Abteilung. Die Bed. der Begriffe ist strittig. In der Regel wurde naúkraros als “Schiffsführer” gedeutet (hergeleitet von naus, “Schiff”), doch werden auch andere Ableitungen vorgeschlagen, etwa von naós (“Tempel”; [4. 56-72]; vgl. [3. 153-175], [1. 11-16]) oder von naíein (“leben”); [5. 10]). Keine dieser neueren Deutungen ist jedoch den älteren…

Ephodion

(61 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (ἐφόδιον, “Wegegeld”). E. bezeichnet in Griechenland die an Gesandte gezahlte Entschädigung für Reisekosten (z.B. in Athen : Tod 129; vgl. die Parodie in Aristoph. Ach. 65-67; in Chios: SIG3 402). In hell. und röm. Zeit konnte ein reicher Bürger seiner Stadt helfen, indem er einen Lohn, der ihm zustand, ablehnte (z.B. IPriene 108). Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
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