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Aristokratia

(364 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἀριστοκρατία; aristokratía, ‘power in the hands of the best’). In the Greek states there was no institution to ennoble families but in the archaic period the families that were most successful after the  Dark Ages and stood out by wealth and status considered themselves the best ( aristoi). The place of a governing king was taken by a government of members of these leading families: some early testimonials explicitly mention that appointments were made aristíndēn, from the ranks of the best (for example, in Ozolian Locris: ML, 13; Tod, 34). In modern r…

Areopagus

(700 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (Ἄρειος πάγος; Áreios págos). The ‘Ares Hill’ in Athens north-west of the Acropolis. It gave the old council, which met there, its name (‘Areopagus’). There are no noteworthy remains on the hill, the place of the sessions was probably located on its north-east side. Probably, the council was initially simply called the boule and only named after the hill when  Solon had created another council. In Solon's time the council consisted of all former   archontes , who joined at the end of their office term (not so in [1]). It probably had about 150 members. Presumably, the counci…

Politeia

(402 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
(πολιτεία/ politeía) can denote either the rights of citizenship exercised by one or more citizens (Hdt. 9,34,1; Thuc. 6,104,2) or a state's way of life, and esp. its formal constitution (Thuc. 2,37,2). [German version] I. Citizenship Citizenship of a Greek state was the privilege of only free, adult males of citizen parentage: commonly, a father with politeía was required; the law of Pericles [1] (451 BC) required a father and mother with politeía (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 26,4). Men not of citizen descent could be rewarded politeía for proven benefaction, but could not acquire citize…

Autonomia

(364 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (αὐτονομία; autonomía). In the sense of ‘having (one's) own laws’, and not, therefore, being required to obey the laws of others, autonomia can be used as a synonym for eleuthería ( Freedom). This referred in particular to the freedom in the internal matters of an alliance, the structure of which was hegemonic and whose members hoped that the aforementioned freedom would be maintained whilst they assigned decisions regarding matters external to the alliance. The word autonomia was perhaps therefore supposed to have been coined as the expression of this …

Ekklesiasterion

(156 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἐκκλησιαστήριον; ekklēsiastḗrion). Meeting-place of a Greek public assembly. Among the cities where the word ekklesiasterion is used are Olbia (SIG3 218) and Delos during the period of the Athenian klerouchoi in the 2nd cent. BC (SIG3 662). In Athens, the regular meeting-place was the Pnyx in the south-west part of the city, where three different building stages from the 5th and the 4th cent. were identified. From the late 4th cent., the theatre of Dionysus came to be used more and more as a meeting place. As oppo…

Diapsephismos, diapsephisis

(166 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (διαψηφισμός, διαψήφισις; diapsēphismós, diapsḗphisis). Literally, a ballot using pebbles to select alternatives. Both terms were occasionally used to designate votes in legal proceedtings (e.g. Xen. Hell. 1,7,14; cf. the verb diapsēphízesthai e.g. in Antiph. 5,8). In Athens, however, they refer specifically to ballots with the purpose of confirming or refuting the citizenship of people who at a certain time laid claim to that right. That happened in 510 BC, when the tyranny of the Peisistratids ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 13,5: diapsēphismós) was overthrown, agai…

Panhellenes, Panhellenism

(618 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] The idea of Panhellenism is based on the tendency to place greater significance on the similarities that connect all Greeks as Greeks than on the perceptions of differences. 'Panhellenism' is not a term used in Antiquity, although in the Iliad (2, 530) and elsewhere in early Greek verse panhéllēnes is used to describe the Greeks (Hes. Op. 528; Archil. fr. 102 West). The Trojan War (see Troy) was presented as an untertaking in which the Greeks united in order to regain Helen [1] from the Trojans - although the latter are not described in Homer as being un-Greek. In the Archaic …

Katacheirotonia

(108 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (καταχειροτονία; katacheirotonía) denotes the delivery of a verdict of guilty in a Greek court by means of raising the hand ( cheir). Sentencing by ballot ( psḗphos) is called katapsḗphisis. In Athens the word katacheirotonia was used for the people's verdict of guilty in cases of eisangelía (e.g. Lys. 29, 2; Dem. Or. 51,8), and also for negative votes of the public assembly after a probolḗ (complaint against a person; e.g. Dem. Or. 21,2), or after an apóphasis (recommendation) of the Areios pagos (e.g. Din. 2,20; it is probably referred to by [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 59,2). Rho…

Hyperbolus

(225 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (Ὑπέρβολος; Hypérbolos). Athenian statesman (411 BC) from the deme Perithoedae. Contrary to the accusations levelled against him he was Athenian by birth. He seems to have acquired his wealth from the fabrication or sale of lamps (cf. Aristoph. Equ. 1315). Both Aristophanes (e.g. Equ. 1304) and Thucydides (8,73,3) describe him as ‘common’ ( mochthērós). As a  demagogue in the style of Cleon he strove for a leading position after Cleon's death in 422 BC and was a member of the council in 421/420 (Plato Comicus 166f. CAF = 182 PCG; cf. IG I3 82). According to Plutarch, in …

Proboulos

(167 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
(πρόβουλος/ próboulos). [German version] [1] Member of a preliminary deliberative body Member of a small body with the function of preliminary deliberation, e.g. in Corcyra (IG IX 1, 682; 686 = [1. 319, 320]). In Athens a board of ten próbouloi was appointed in 413 BC after the military disaster in Sicily in the Peloponnesian War (Thuc. 8,1,3), seems to have taken over some functions of the council ( Boulḗ ) and the prytáneis , and in 411 helped to bring the oligarchy of the 'Four Hundred' ( Tetrakósioi ) to power ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 29,2). Aristotle regarded próbouloi as characteristical…

Logistai

(197 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (λογισταί/ logistaí, ‘calculators’, tax officials). In 5th cent. BC. Athens, a collegium of 30 logistai is mentioned in the first three tribute lists of the Delian League (IG I3 259-261) and the first financial decree of Callias (ML 58 = IG I3 52, A. 7-9). It is presumably identical with the collegium which appears (without membership numbers) in the list of loans from the Sacred Money (ML 72 = IG I3 369) and in a document from Eleusis (IG I3 32,22-28). In the 4th cent. the authorities had an interim account (Lys. 30,5; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 48,3) presented t…

Syngraphai

(160 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (συγγραφαί; syngraphaí). Documents which form the basis of a contract, for instance for public works (e.g. ML 44 = IG I3 35, Athens; IG VII 3073 = Syll.3 972, Lebadea) or leases (e.g. Syll.3 93 = IG I3 84, Athen; IG XII 7, 62 = Syll.3 963, Arcesine) or loans (e.g. IG XII 7, 67 B = Syll.3 955, Arcesine). [1: 620, 623, 628]; more on this syngraphe. In Athens in the 5th cent. BC, proposals drafted for the assembly (ekklesia) by a specially commissioned board of syngrapheis (e.g. ML 73 = IG I3 78). These boards were discredited by their involvement in setting up the oligarchi…

Timokratia

(155 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (τιμοκρατία/ timokratía). The modern term 'timocracy' denotes a form of constitution in which people's political rights depend on their wealth (cf. τίμημα, tímēma, 'assessment'), similar to 'plutocracy'. In general, a constitution in which this principle was applied to a significant extent would be called oligarchia by the Greeks, but ploutokratia is also found (Xen. Mem. 4,6,12). In Aristot. Eth. Nic. 8,1160a-b timokratia is used to denote the good form of demokratia ), which Aristotle otherwise calls politeia . Among the subdivisions of demokratia and oligarchi…

Kolakretai

(175 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (κωλακρέται; kōlakrétai). The etymological meaning of kolaketrai (from κωλᾶς and ἀγρεῖν) might be ‘thigh collector’ (for sacrificial purposes?). In Athens, kolaketrai were a group of ten financial officials. Kolaketrai existed already in Solon's time ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 7,3) and are attested in the 5th cent. BC as officials who issued payments from the central state treasury. Since access to the treasury implied a particularly great danger of corruption, they did not serve for a full year but only for the duration of one prytany (IG I3 73,224; also [3]; Prytane…

Katoptai

(113 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (κατόπται; katóptai, ‘observer’, ‘inspector’). Katoptai was generally used as a title in Boeotia as the name for a committee which supervised the expenses of officials, and indeed in the Boeotian League ( Boeotia with map; cf. the allusion to the katoptikòs nómos, IG VII 3073 = Syll.3 972, 88) as well as in the individual cities (e.g. Acraephia: IG VII 4131; Orchomenus: IG VII 3171-73); according to IG VII 3202, Orchomenus had two katoptai. The katoptai were also responsible for public works (e.g. Oropus: IG VII 303, 22; Acraephia: IG VII 3073). The city…

Nomothetai

(694 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (νομοθέται; nomothétai, ‘lawmakers’). Officials responsible for compiling or enacting legislation. A text from Corcyra seemingly indicates that the nomothétai there compiled and recorded the final version of a decision taken in principle by the popular assembly (IMagn 44). In Cyme [3], a decision by the popular assembly had to be submitted by the law's proponent ( eisagōgeús ) to a ‘tribunal of nomothetai ’( nomothetikòn dikastḗrion (IK 5,12). If it is assumed that Thucydides (8,97,2) used the term correctly, then nomothétai were appointed in Athens in the p…

Tetrakosioi

(464 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
(οἱ τετρακόσιοι/ hoi tetrakósioi, 'the four hundred'). A group of 400 Athenians, assigned to political tasks as a council (see 1), or usurping those same tasks (see 2). [German version] [1] Under Solon A 'probouleutic' council in Athens consisting of 100 members from each of the four (Ionian) tribes (Phyle[1]), created by Solon in 594/3 BC to advise the ekklesia (Ath. Pol. 8,4, Plut. Sol. 19,1 f.). Its existence has been doubted, but probably mistakenly [5. 92-96]. It was replaced after 508/7 BC by Cleisthenes' council of five hundred [1; 2. 153-156]. Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) …

Synteleia

(108 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (συντέλεια/ syntéleia), 'joint contribution', in particular to the costs of liturgies in Athens; after 357, used of groups of men contributing to the costs of a trireme (in a strict sense, of the men who contributed to the costs but were not trierarchs, but used sometimes of all contributors including trierarchs) [1], and recommended by Demosthenes for festival liturgies (Demosth. 20. Lept. 23). The word is used also for membership of federal bodies such as the Boeotian federation (e.g. Diod. Sic 15,38,4; cf. télein ind Hdt. 6,108,5) and the Achaean League (e.g.…

Dokimasia

(411 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (Δοκιμασία; Dokimasía). In the Greek world it means the procedure of determining whether certain conditions have been met. In Athens the following dokimasíai are attested: 1. The dokimasía of young men who at the end of their eighteenth year were presented to the father's dḗmos to be recognized as a member of the deme and a citizen. The dḗmos, a college of judges and the council took part in this procedure. 2. The dokimasía of the   bouleutaí (council members) in the council and before a college of judges, that of the archontes likewise …

Epoikia

(119 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἐποικία; epoikía). Epoikia was occasionally used instead of apoikía for Greek colonies, e.g. the early 5th-cent. BC Locrian colony near Naupactus (ML 20). The Athenian decree of 325/4 BC regarding the foundation of a colony on the Adriatic coast contains the reconstructed [ apoi] kía as well as époi[ koi]. It has been claimed that strictly speaking epoikia and époikoi did not refer to the original settlement, but to its later reinforcement with additional settlers [1]. This special meaning may occasionally have been intended, but it is u…

Ostrakismos

(836 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ὀστρακισμός, 'trial by sherds' from óstrakon , pl. óstraka, 'pottery sherd'). A procedure in Athens that permitted expulsion of a man from the country for ten years without having been convicted of an offence, but without confiscating his property. According to the (Pseudo-) Aristotelian Athēnaíōn Politeía (22,1; 22,3), ostracism was introduced by Cleisthenes [2] (508/7 BC), but not applied until 488/7. A fragment by Androtion (FGrH 324 F 6) reports that ostracism had been established immediately before its first applicatio…

Apodektai

(87 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἀποδέκται; apodéktai, ‘receivers’). A ten-man board of officials in Athens, with members chosen by lot from each of the ten phylai. They were charged by the boule with receiving state funds and remitting them to the central treasury in the 5th cent. BC, and apportioning them to various spending authorities ( merizein) in the 4th, following routine procedures. They had their own powers of jurisdiction towards tax farmers in cases of up to 10 drachmae (Arist. Ath. Pol. 47,5-48,2; 52,3). Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)

Mastroi

(148 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (μαστροί/ mastroí, ‘searchers’, ‘trackers’) is the name given in some Greek towns to official accountants with functions similar to those of the eúthynoi ( eúthynai ) or logistaí (e.g. Delphi: Syll.3 672; Pallene: Aristot. fr. 657 Rose). The accounting process is called mastráa/mastreía, e.g. in Elis (IvOl 2 = Buck 61) and Messenia (IG V 1, 1433,15-16), the person liable to account, hypómastros, e.g. in Messenia (IG V 1, 1390 = Syll.3 736,51,58). After the synoikismos of Rhodes, the councils of the three original towns of Ialysus, Camirus and Lindus …

Antidosis

(152 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἀντίδοσις; antídosis, exchange). In Athens someone designated to discharge a leitourgia ( Liturgy) could take measures to avoid it by naming somebody richer who was not exempt from it, but who had escaped it. He could ask him to assume the leitourgia or, if the other man denied, insist on an exchange of their respective fortunes. Such an exchange was in practice fully possible [1; 3], although this is contested [2]. If the person so named wanted neither the leitourgia nor an exchange, then the plaintiff was forced to assume the leitourgia or seek a   diadikasia

Zeugitai

(274 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ζευγῖται, literally 'yoke-men', from ζεῦγος/ zeûgos = 'yoke', 'team'), the third of Solon's [1] four property-classes in Athens ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 7,3 f.). The name indicates either that they were the men rich enough to serve in the army as hoplîtai , 'yoked together' in a phálanx [2. 135-140; 5], or, less probably, the men rich enough to own a yoke of oxen [1. 822 f.]. According to Ath. Pol. (loc.cit.), they were the men whose land yielded between 200 and 300 médimnoi ('bushels'), best interpreted as barley or the equivalent value in other crops [3. 14…

Symmoria

(314 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (συμμορία/ symmoría, 'company'). In Athens in the fourth cent. BC, a group of men liable for payment of the property tax called eisphora or for the leitourgía (Liturgy I) of the trierarchy (Trierarchia). In 378/7 all payers of eisphorá were organised in 100 symmoriai for administrative convenience (Cleidemus FGrH 323 F 8): each member continued to be taxed on his own property, but later the liturgy of proeisphorá was created, by which the three richest members of each symmoria had to advance the whole sum due from their symmoria. There were addit…

Hellenotamiai

(236 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἑλληνοταμίαι). The title Hellenotamiai (‘Stewards of Greece’) was borne by the treasurers of the  Delian League. The exchequer they managed, originally located on Delos, was probably transferred to Athens in the year 454/3 BC (Thuc. 1,96,2; Plut. Aristides 25,3; Pericles 12,1; cf. IG I3 259 = ATL List 1), because the annually elected boards were numbered in a continuous sequence starting in 454/3. From the beginning, however, the Hellenotamiai were Athenians, were appointed by Athens (Thuc. ibid., cf. [1. 44f., 235-237]),…

Thesmothetai

(440 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (θεσμοθέται/ thesmothétai 'establishers of law'). In Athens, a college of six men who were added to the archon, the basileus and the polemarchos to form the college of nine archons. In the fifth or fourth cent. a tenth official was created, known as the 'secretary' (Grammateis) to the thesmothetai, after which one archon was appointed from each of Cleisthenes’ ten tribes (Phyle). Their place of work, the thesmotheteion, became the working-place and eating-place for all the archons (Ath. Pol. 3. 5, schol. Plat. Phaid. 235 d). The thesmothetai were responsible not for…

Sitesis

(218 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (σίτησις/ sítēsis). Provision of food at public expense, on a particular occasion or regularly. There were three categories of recipients [5.308f.]: (a) Officials had the right of sitesis during their term of office; in Athens the prytáneis ate in the tholos (Ath. Pol. 43,3), and secretaries ( grammateîs ) and other officials ate with them [1.7-20] (these officials are called aeísitoi , 'regular eaters'; [1.86,84]). The archons (árchontes) ate in the thesmotheteîon (Schol. Plat. Phd. 235d; location unknown). (b) Recipients of major honours were given…

Dioiketes

(83 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (διοικητής; dioikētḗs). In Ptolemaic Egypt as well as in other parts of the Greek world, the word dioíkēsis was used to designate the administration in general and the financial administration in particular. The title of dioiketes was held by the official in charge of the king's financial administration (see, for instance, OGIS 59; Cic. Rab. Post. 28). Local financial officials may also have held this title (Pol. 27,13,2 with Walbank, Commentary on Polybius, ad. loc.).  Dioikesis Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)

Euthynai

(257 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (εὔθυναι; eúthynai). The term euthynai (‘straightening out’) was used specifically in reference to the audits of the official conduct of administrators after their departure from office. In Athens, this procedure was split into two parts: on the one hand, there was the lógos (‘statement of accounts’), which looked into the way officials handled public funds, carried out by a committee of ten logistaí (‘auditors’) plus one synḗgoros each (‘legal advisor’) ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 54,2), and on the other the euthynae in a stricter sense, offering the opportunity …

Prohedria

(286 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (προεδρία/ pro(h)edría). The right to occupy a place in the front row in institutions of various kinds; it was conferred by the state on prominent fellow citizens and visitors and is recorded for many poleis. In the 6th cent. BC pro(h)edría was bestowed by Delphi on Croesus of Lydia (Hdt. 1,54,2), and Olympia gave it to a Spartan próxenos (SEG 11, 1180a). In Athens among the recipients of pro(h)edría were the oldest living descendents of Harmodius and Aristogiton (Isaeus 5,47); Demosthenes [2] provided the ambassadors of Philip [4] II of Macedonia with pro(h)edría at the…

Phoros

(1,696 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
(φόρος/ phóros, plural phóroi, 'tribute', 'contribution', from phérein, 'carry', 'take', 'bring'). [German version] A. Definition Phóroi were payments by states to a superior power or to an organization to which they belonged. In particular phoros was the term for the financial contributions made by the members of the Delian League. Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) [German version] B. Size and administration At the foundation of the Delian League in 478/7 BC, the contributions of members were assessed by Aristides [1] from Athens; they were either to provide sh…

Gynaikonomoi

(161 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (γυναικονόμοι; gynaikonómoi). The officials who were responsible in various Greek towns for compliance with laws regarding the behaviour of women, especially at festivals and at funerals, were called gynaikonomoi (‘Women's overseers’). Aristotle regarded this office as neither democratic nor oligarchical but as aristocratic (Pol. 4, 1300a4-8; 6, 1323a3-6). Actually gynaikonomoi are however found in states in varying ways, for instance in Thasos ([2. no. 141, 154-155]; 4th-3rd cents. BC), Gambrea (Syll.3 1219; 3rd cent. BC) or Sparta (IG V 1, 170; 3…

Triakosioi

(298 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
(οἱ τριακόσιοι/ hoi triakósioi, 'the Three Hundred'). Collective name in ancient Athens for a group of 300 men, with various functions: [German version] [1] Group of the wealthiest Athenian citizens, 4th cent. BC A group of the 300 wealthiest citizens in 4th cent. BC Athens, made up of the three richest members of each of the 100 tax groups (Symmoria), created in order to raise the eisphora , a property tax. They were liable for the liturgy (I) of the proeisphora , by which they had to advance the whole sum due from their tax group, and then recover fo…

Hodopoioi

(107 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ὁδοποιοί; hodopoioí). The hodopoioi (‘road masters’) in Athens in the 4th cent. BC were an authority made up of 5 persons (perhaps appointed from phyles grouped as pairs) who were in charge of public slaves to keep the roads in a good condition ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 54,1). The assertion of Aeschines (Ctes. 25) that in the time of  Eubulus [1] the administrators of the theorika were hodopoioí can only mean that these officials supervised the hodopoioi or supplied them with the means but not that the authority had been abolished [2. 237f.]. Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) Bibliog…

Neoroi

(189 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (νεωροί/ neōroí). Public officials in Greek states who bore responsibility for shipyards ( neṓria). Athenian inscriptions from the 5th cent. BC mention neōroí (IG I3 154; IG I3 127 = ML 94) and hoi epimeloménoi tōi neōríōi (‘those who care for the shipyard’; IG I3 153); epimelētaí are found at the end of the 5th cent. (IG I3 236); in the 4th cent. the title epimelētaí tōn neōríōn was frequently used. These epimelētaí of the 4th cent. were responsible for the ships and the entire contents of the shipyards. They distributed materials to the trierarchs (…

Epigrapheis

(46 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἐπιγραφεῖς; epigrapheîs). In the 390s BC in Athens, the epigrapheis kept registers of people whom they obliged to pay a special wealth tax, the eisphora (Isoc. Or. 17, 41; Lys. fr. 92 Sauppe).  Eisphora Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) Bibliography R. Thomsen, Eisphora, 1964, 187-189.

Epistatai

(291 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἐπιστάται; epistátai, ‘chairmen’, ‘superiors’). Title for various officials of the Greek world; see also epimelētaí, epískopoi. 1. Epistatai are most frequently found within the administration of both sacred treasures and public works. In Athens, committees of epistatai existed to oversee several of the public building projects of the Periclean era (e.g. ML 59 regarding the Parthenon), to supervise the treasure of the goddesses of Eleusis (IG I3 32; II2 1672), as well as other sacred funds. Epistatai of this nature were also found in other locations, suc…

Syntaxis

(227 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (σύνταξις/ sýntaxis, pl. syntáxeis; from táttein 'to arrange' and syn- 'together'). Term devised by Callistratus [I 2] in the 4th cent. BC for financial contributions to the (Second) Athenian League (Theopomp. FGrH 115 f 98) purposely concealing the compulsion behind it, after the Athenians had promised not to collect phoros ('tribute') as they had done in the hated Delian League of the 5th. cent. BC (e.g. IG II2 43 = Tod 123,23): the syntaxeis were at any rate to some extent under the control of the synhedrion of the allies (e.g. IG II2 123 = Tod 156). The term was used by…

Katoikos

(147 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (κάτοικος; kátoikos). Katoikos (pl.: kátoikoi) denotes usually the ‘inhabitant(s)’ (e.g. [Aristot.] Oec. 2, 1352a 33; Welles 47). In the Hellenistic period katoikos developed into a technical term for citizens who were earlier called klerouchoi , to whom plots of land were allocated in settlements so that they then became eligible for military service. The expression is first found in the phrase kátoikoi híppeis in Egypt in the year 257 BC. (PMich. 1, 9, 6-7). Katoikíai (settlements of katoikoi) are particularly attested in Egypt (e.g. PTeb(t). 30,7; Corpu…

Apostoleis

(83 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἀποστολεῖς; apostoleîs). Athenian government office responsible for sending out naval expeditions and apparently formed ad hoc when special occasions arose. In 357/6 BC they were responsible together with the   epimeletai of the docks for bringing disputes among the trierarchs to court (De. Or. 47,26). In 325/4 10 apostoleis were elected, whose activities were supposed to be under the council's supervision (IG II/III2 II 1, 1629 = Tod, 200, 251-58). Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) Bibliography P. J. Rhodes, The Athenian Boule, 1972, 119-120.

Trittyes

(655 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (τριττύες/ trittýes, sing. τριττύς/ trittýs, 'a third'). At Athens, name for the subdivisions both of the four ancient phylaí (Phyle [1]) and of the ten new phylaí of Cleisthenes [2]. Little is known of the twelve old trittyes. An ancient identification with the phatríai (Phratria; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. Fr. 3 Kenyon = Fr. 2 Chambers) seems to be incorrect. The trittýes may have comprised four naukraríai (Naukraria, naukraros) each, but this is not attested. One of the trittýes was called Leukotaínioi ('white-ribboned'). In the territorial organization of Attic…

Astynomoi

(156 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἀστυνόμοι, ‘municipal administration’). This office is mostly found in Ionian communities. In his survey of officials required by a town, Aristotle mentioned the astynomoi immediately with market supervisors, the agoranómoi (Pol. 6,1321b 18-27), as responsible for the proper state of public and private buildings, the repair and maintenance of buildings and roads and for boundary disputes. There could also be special officials for the walls, wells and ports. In Athens 10 astynomoi, who were annually determined by lot, officiated in the 4th cent. B…

Triakonta

(358 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (οἱ τριάκοντα/ hoi triákonta, 'the Thirty'). In Athens, the oligarchic body of thirty men who ruled in 404/3 BC after the Peloponnesian War (Oligarchia). They were appointed at the urging of the Spartan Lysander [1], with a double commission, to make proposals for constitutional reform, and to rule the state until the reform was accomplished. They began a process of legal revision, aiming to purge the excesses of the demokratia ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 35,2-3), but before long they obtained the support of a garrison from Sparta and…

Grammateis

(479 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (γραμματεῖς; grammateîs). In the Greek world, grammateis were protocolists, secretaries with a wide range of tasks. Generally, they are distinguished from the árchontes (‘officials’), but like them, they were appointed by the citizenry for a set period of time, either by election or by lot. In Athens, the chief secretary of the state was referred to as the ‘council secretary’ or ‘secretary at the prytany’. He was responsible for the publication of documents resulting from the activities of the council or the citizens' assemb…

Probole

(94 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (προβολή/ probolḗ). Generally a 'putting forward', e.g. of candidates for an office (Plat. Leg. 6,765 b1). In Athens, name of a procedure by which the assembly ( Ekklēsía ) could be asked to vote on certain kinds of accusation before a lawsuit was brought; Demosthenes' [2] attack on Meidias [2] (Dem.. Or. 21) began with a probolḗ. Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) Bibliography A. R. H. Harrison, The Law of Athens, vol. 2, 1971, 59-64  J. H. Lipsius, Das attische Recht, 1905-1915, 211-219  D. M. MacDowell, The Classical Law in Athens, 1978, 194-197.

Nautodikai

(207 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ναυτοδίκαι/ nautodíkai, ‘Overseers of trials involving seafarers’). Officials in Athens responsible for court cases between seafarers, whether traders or klēroûchoi . N autodíkai were documented for the first time around 445 BC (IG I3 41, 90-91) when they brought cases to court within a specific month. For the year AD 397, a complaint can be found in Lysias [1] (17,5) that the nautodíkai had failed to complete a court case about businessmen ( émporoi ) in a specific month, but it was not a matter concerning trade. The nautodíkai were also responsible for complaints …

Kyrbeis

(212 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (κύρβεις; kýrbeis). In Athens, name of the medium on which the Laws of Dracon [2] and Solon were written. The word áxōnes , was also used. The origin of the word is unknown. Contrary to the opinion that kyrbeis should be differentiated from the áxōnes, they are more probably only different descriptions of the same objects [1] (ML 86 = IG I3 84; [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 7,1; Plut. Solon 25,1f.). The assumption that a kýrbis was a stele, pyramid-shaped and/or equipped with a cover, and the appropriate designation for a stele from Chios from the 6th cent. BC …

Isoteleia

(197 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἰσοτέλεια; isotéleia (equality of duties), i.e. of civic duties) was a privilege that a Greek state could bestow on non-citizens, if it wanted to raise them above the normal status of metics (  métoikoi ), but did not wish to grant them full citizenship. Since the isoteleia normally freed one from taxes and other burdens to which non-citizens were subject, the same status could be called either isoteleia or   atéleia (freedom from duties) (for example in Athens: IG II2 53: atéleia, 287: isotéleia). In Athens, isotelḗs could be added to a man's name as a designatio…

Poletai

(173 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (πωληταί/ pōlētaí), 'sellers'. In Athens, the officials responsible for selling public contracts (e.g. for collecting taxes, and for working sacred land and the silver mines) and confiscated property. The contracts were made in the presence of the council ( boulḗ ), which kept a record until payment was made; the sales of confiscated property were ratified by the nine árchontes [1]. The pōlētaí are mentioned in connection with Solon ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 7,3); in the classical period they were a board of ten, appointed annually one from each phyle ([Aristot.] Ath. P…

Agyrrhius

(137 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (Ἀγύῤῥιος; Agýrrhios). Athenian politician from the deme Collytus, active from c. 405-373 BC. He introduced between the end of the Peloponnesian War and c. 392 the payment of an obol for visiting the assembly and later raised the sum from two to three oboles (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 41,3). Therefore probably in error, the introduction of the   theorikon was ascribed to him (Harpocr. s. v. θεωρικά; theōriká). In 389 he succeeded  Thrasyboulus as commander of the Athenian fleet in the Aegean (Xen. Hell. 4,8,31). He spent several years in prison as debt…

Demosioi

(143 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (δημόσιοι; dēmósioi, amplified with ὑπηρέται; hypērétai, ‘servants’). Public slaves who were used by Greek states for a variety of lowly administrative tasks. In Athens they looked after the official records (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 47,5; 48,1), helping the astynómoi in keeping the city clean (Ath. Pol. 50,2) and the hodopoioí in road maintenance (Ath. Pol. 54,1), as well as working in the courts (Ath. Pol. 63-65; 69,1). In the 4th cent. they were used to check coins in silver mints (Hesperia 43, 1974, 157-88); in the 2nd cent., and…

Peloponnesian League

(646 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] Modern term for a group of allied states led by Sparta, which existed from the 6th cent. until 365 BC. The alliance never encompassed the whole of the Peloponnese (Argos [II 1] always refused to acknowledge Sparta's leadership), but did at times include states outside the Peloponnese (e.g. Boeotia in 421 BC: Thuc. 5,17,2). It began to form in the middle of the 6th cent., when Sparta gave up its policy of expansion through conquest and direct annexation and made neighbouring Tegea …

Scythians

(173 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] [1] See Scythae See Scythae. Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) [German version] [2] Group of slaves in Athens, c. 400 BC In late 5th and early 4th cent. BC Athens used a body of Scythian archers as public slaves (Demosioi) who were to keep order at the meetings of the Council and Assembly (e.g. Aristoph. Ach. 54; Equ. 665). They were also called Speusínioi after their alleged founder Speusinus (Suda, s.v. τoξóται; Poll. 8,132). A force of 300 was bought in the mid 5th cent. (And. Or. 3,5 = Aeschin. Leg. 173). According to the lexica they lived on th…

Hendeka, hoi

(194 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (οἱ ἕνδεκα; hoi héndeka). The ‘Eleven’, an office of eleven men, were in charge of the prison in Athens and of the execution of prisoners who had been sentenced to death. They executed ordinary criminals ( kakoûrgoi) or exiles who were apprehended in Athens and turned over to them by means of the   apagōgḗ , without a trial if the prisoner confessed, or they presided over the trial if the prisoner denied his guilt. They also presided over trials that were instituted by means of   éndeixis and over cases that were meant to force the confiscation of…

Parabyston

(73 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (παράβυστον/ parábyston, literally 'pushed aside') referred to an Athenian law court held in an enclosed space, apparently on the Agora (perhaps next to the route of the Panathenaea procession; s. Athens with map). This court dealt with matters that fell within the jurisdiction of the Eleven ( héndeka ) (Paus. 1,28,8; Harpocration, s.v.). Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) Bibliography A.L. Boegehold, The Lawcourts at Athens (Agora 28), 1995, 6-8; 11-15; 111-113; 178f.

Poristae

(74 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (πορισταί/ poristaí, 'providers', from πορίζειν/ porízein, 'provide, supply'), officials in Athens in the last years of the  Peloponnesian War, whose duty was presumably to find sources of money for the city. They are mentioned for the first time in 419 BC, before Athens was in serious financial difficulty (Antiph. Or. 6, 49), and for the last time in 405 (Aristoph. Ran. 1505). Poristai are not attested in inscriptions. Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)

Dikastai kata demous

(185 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] ( dikastaì katà dḗmous) are itinerant judges who in Athens visited the demes to resolve minor matters of litigation. Appointed first by Peisistratus ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 16,5) to counteract the power of the nobles in their places of residence, they were probably abolished after the fall of the tyrants. They were revived in 453/2 BC (Ath. Pol. 26,3) to relieve the increasingly overburdened jury courts of minor cases. Their number then totalled 30, perhaps one judge per trittys. In the last years of the Peloponnesian War they were probably unable to visit a…

Archairesia

(76 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἀρχαιρεσία; archairesía). Appointment of officials ( archai). In the Greek world an official was usually appointed for a year either by election ( hairesis in the proper meaning, but the term can be used for any method of appointing officials) or by casting lots ( klerosis). Many states annually convened for an electoral meeting in which honours were conferred and for which a particularly large attendance was desired (e.g. IPriene, 7). Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) Bibliography Busolt/Swoboda.

Polemarchos

(334 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (πολέμαρχος/ polémarchos, plural polémarchoi, 'leader in war') was the title of military officialsin various Greek states. In the stories of the rise of tyrants, Cypselus [2] in Corinth (Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F 57,5) and Orthagoras [1] in Sicyon (POxy. XI 1365 = FGrH 105 F 2) are said to have been polémarchoi. But it is unlikely that men outside the ruling aristocracy would be appointed to such an office or that the polémarchos of archaic Corinth would have civilian judicial duties like that of classical Athens. In the Spartan army of the fifth-f…

Aeisitoi

(100 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἀείσιτοι; aeísitoi). Aeisitoi are entitled, not just occasionally but regularly, to participate in the banquets prepared by the Greek states (cf. Poll. 9,40). In Athens one so honoured was accorded   sitesis in the  Prytaneion (e.g. IG II/III2 I 1,450b) [2; 3]; as aeisitoi were designated also the officials who were assigned to the council and who ate with the   prytaneis (e.g. Agora XV 86) [1]. Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) Bibliography 1 Agora XV, 1974, 7-8 2 A. S. Henry, Honours and Privileges in Athenian Decrees, 1983, 275-78 archontes 3 M. J. Osborne, Entertainmen…

Deka

(286 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (οἱ δέκα; hoi déka) ‘the Ten’; a committee of ten men, elected after the overthrow of the Thirty in 403 BC to rule the oligarchy of Athens. According to Lysias (12,58) and some other sources, they were to work towards a peace settlement (accepted by [2]), but there is no hint of this in Xenophon (Hell. 2,4,23f.) and it is probably not so (cf. [1]), although the democrats around  Thrasybulus may have hoped that the change of regime in Athens would be followed by a change in direction.…

Ephodion

(65 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἐφόδιον; ephódion, ‘travel money’). In Greece, ephodion denotes the allowance for travel expenses paid to an ambassador (e.g. in Athens: Tod 129; cf. the parody in Aristoph. Ach. 65-67; in Chios: SIG3 402). In the Hellenistic and Roman periods a rich citizen could aid his city by declining such a payment due to him (e.g. IPriene 108). Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)

Petalismos

(113 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (πεταλισμός; petalismós). Petalismos was the name for a ballot using the leaves (πέταλα/ pétala) of the olive tree. At Syracusae, the petalismos was the equivalent of the Athenian ostrakismós , i.e. a procedure for sentencing a leading individual to a period of banishment without finding him guilty of a misdemeanour. Diodorus Siculus (11,87) mentions the petalismos for the year 454/3 BC: it was introduced in the wake of a failed attempt to set up a tyrannis; its consequence was a five-year exile, but it was soon abolished again, as the fear of falling victim to the petalismo…

Corinthian League

(450 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] Modern term for the union of Greek states brought into being in 338/7 BC at an assembly in Corinth by  Philippus II of Macedonia after the battle of  Chaeronea (338 BC). The league evidently included all Greek states with the exception of Sparta, and was associated with a treaty establishing a ‘general peace’ (  koinḕ eirḗnē ). The members' oath and list of league members have survived in part in the form of an inscription (IG II2 236 = Tod 177; further information in Dem. Or. 17). The customary obligations of the treaty among its co-signatories also incl…

Boule

(1,326 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
(Βουλή; Boulḗ) . [German version] A. General In Greek communities the boule was a council assembly, usually that responsible for current public duties, which also had to prepare the work of the public assembly (  ekklēsía ). Composition and responsibilities could change according to the respective form of constitution. In Homeric times the council consisted of nobles convened by the king as advisors; in oligarchically organized communities the boule could become a relatively powerful body, compared with a comparatively weak public assembly, by restricting eligi…

Synoikismos

(484 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (συνοικισμός/ synoikismós, lit. 'living together'). In the Greek world, the combination of several smaller communities to form a single larger community. Sometimes the union was purely political and did not affect the pattern of settlement or the physical existence of the separate communities: this is what the Athenians supposed to have happened when they attributed the Attic synoikismos to Theseus, commemorated by a festival in classical times, the Synoikia (Thuc. 2,15) — whereas …

Archai

(511 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἀρχαί; archaí, ‘office holder’). In most Greek states the powers of hereditary kings were divided in the  Dark Ages and the archaic period and distributed among a series of officials ( archai or   archontes ), who were usually appointed for a year, often without the option of re-election. This process cannot be traced in detail because the sources tend toward a too schematic reconstruction. Apart from the offices that were responsible for the state as a whole, special offices were created on occ…

Aisymnetes

(276 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (αἰσυμνήτης; aisymnḗtēs). Formed from aísa (‘fate’) and   mna (‘to have in mind’): ‘one who has fate in mind (and announces it to the one it affects)’. The Phaeacians (Hom. Od. 8,258-9) name nine aisymnetai, who are responsible for contests ( agones), in the Iliad 24,347 a prince's son appears as aisymnḗtēs. Aristotle sees in the aisymnetes of ancient Greece a kind of monarch, a ‘chosen tyrant’, as demonstrated in  Pittacus of Mytilene around 600 (Pol. 3,1285a 29 - b 1). In the 5th cent. the word appears in Teos synonymously with ‘tyrant’ (Syll.3 38 = ML 30,A; SEG 31,985…

Nomothetai

(638 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (νομοθέται, “Gesetz-Erlasser”). Amtsträger, die für den Entwurf oder den Erlaß von Gesetzen verantwortlich waren. Ein Text aus Korkyra weist womöglich darauf hin, daß dort die n. nach der grundsätzlichen Entscheidung der Volksversammlung die endgültige Fassung zusammenstellten und aufzeichneten (IMagn 44). In Kyme [3] mußte ein Beschluß der Volksversammlung von dem dazu bestimmten Antragsteller des Gesetzes ( eisagōgeús ) vor einen “Nomothetengerichtshof” ( nomothetikón dikastḗrion gebracht werden (IK 5,12). In Athen wurden, falls Thukydides (8,…

Skythai

(156 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J.
[English version] [1] s. Skythen s. Skythen Rhodes, Peter J. [English version] [2] Gruppe von Sklaven in Athen, um 400 v. Chr. Eine Gruppe von skythischen Bogenschützen, die im Athen des späten 5. und frühen 4. Jh. v. Chr. als öffentliche Sklaven ( dēmósioi ) für Ordnung bei den Volks- und Ratsversammlungen sorgen sollten (z. B. Aristoph. Ach. 54; Equ. 665). Sie wurden nach ihrem angeblichen Begründer Speusinos auch Speusínioi genannt (Suda, s. v. toxótai; Poll. 8,132). In der Mitte des 5. Jh. wurden 300 s. angeschafft (And. or. 3,5 = Aischin. leg. 173). Nach Aussage der L…

Rhabdophoroi

(97 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (ῥαβδοφόροι, “Stabträger”, auch als ῥαβδοῦχοι/ rhabdúchoi, “Stabhalter” bezeichnet). Das Wort wurde für verschiedene Beamte verwendet, die einen Stock oder Stab als Amtsinsignie führten, insbes. für Funktionäre bei Wettbewerben und anderen Festen, und zwar für die Schiedsrichter (Plat. Prot. 338a 8) ebenso wie für deren Gehilfen, die der Einhaltung der Regeln Nachdruck verliehen (für Athen: Aristoph. Pax 734; für Olympia: Thuk. 5,50,4). In röm. Kontext wurden die griech. Bezeichnungen rh. und rhabdúchoi für die lictores ( lictor ) gebr…

Katoptai

(105 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (κατόπται, “Beobachter”, “Prüfer”). K. wurde als Titel in Boiotien allgemein zur Bezeichnung eines Gremiums benutzt, das die Abrechnungen von Beamten kontrollierte, und zwar sowohl im Boiotischen Bund (Boiotia mit Karte; vgl. den Hinweis auf den katoptikós nómos, IG VII 3073 = Syll.3 972, 88) wie auch in den einzelnen Städten (z.B. Akraiphia: IG VII 4131; Orchomenos: IG VII 3171-73); nach IG VII 3202 hatte Orchomenos zwei k. Die k. waren auch für öffentl. Arbeiten zuständig (etwa Oropos: IG VII 303, 22; Akraiphia: IG VII 3073). Die Stadt Thisbe b…

Amphiktyonia

(557 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (ἀμφικτυονία). Vermutlich entstanden aus amphi-ktiones = “die in der Umgebung leben” (Androt. FGrH 324 F 58), obwohl die Griechen es gewöhnlich von einem eponymen Heros Amphiktyon ableiteten (z. B. Hdt. 7,200; Theop. FGrH 115 F 63). A. bezeichnet einen Bund, der sich um ein Heiligtum gruppiert und dessen Kult pflegt. In der Regel lebten die Kultgenossen in der Nähe des Heiligtums, die bedeutendste jedoch, die A. von Anthela und Delphoi, umfaßte schließlich Mitglieder aus vielen Teile…

Symmoria

(294 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J.
[English version] (συμμορία). Eine Gruppierung im Athen des 4. Jh. v. Chr., die zur Zahlung der Vermögenssteuer ( eisphorá ) oder zur Leistung der leiturgía (Liturgie I.) der Trierarchie verpflichtet war. 378/7 wurden aus Gründen der Verwaltungsvereinfachung alle zur eisphorá Verpflichteten in 100 symmoríai eingeteilt (Kleidemos FGrH 323 F 8); dabei wurde der einzelne vorerst weiter nach seinem Eigentum besteuert, doch hatten später seit der Schaffung der leiturgía der proeisphorá die drei reichsten Mitglieder jeder s. die Gesamtsteuersumme ihrer s. im voraus zu entrich…

Apostoleis

(83 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (ἀποστολεῖς). Athenische Behörde, die für die Aussendung von Flottenexpeditionen verantwortlich war und anscheinend jeweils ad hoc bei besonderen Gelegenheiten gebildet wurde. 357/6 v. Chr. waren sie zusammen mit den epimeletaí der Werften dafür zuständig, Streitfälle unter Trierarchen vor Gericht zu bringen (Demosth. or. 47,26); 325/4 wurden 10 A. gewählt, die unter der Aufsicht des Rates tätig sein sollten (IG II/III2 II 1, 1629 = Tod, 200, 251-58). Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) Bibliography P. J. Rhodes, The Athenian Boule, 1972, 119-120.

Syngraphai

(167 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J.
[English version] (συγγραφαί). Dokumente, die als Grundlage für Verträge dienten, z. B. bei der Vergabe öffentlicher Arbeiten (z. B. ML 44 = IG I3 35, Athen; IG VII 3073 = Syll.3 972, Lebadeia), dem Abschluß von Pachtverträgen (z. B. Syll.3 93 = IG I3 84, Athen; IG XII 7, 62 = Syll.3 963, Arkesine) oder der Ausgabe von Darlehen (z. B. IG XII 7, 67 B = Syll.3 955, Arkesine; dazu [1. 620, 623, 628]; dazu genauer syngraphḗ ). In Athen wurden im 5. Jh. v. Chr. auch die von einem eigens damit beauftragten Gremium von syngrapheís erarbeiteten Vorlagen für die Volksversammlung ( ekklēsía ) als s. b…

Pylagoras

(150 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (πυλαγόρας; auch πυλαγόρος, Hdt. 7,213 f. oder πυλάγορος). Bezeichnet wörtl. einen Teilnehmer an den Pýlaia [2]-Treffen, d. h. den Versammlungen der amphiktyonía von Anthela (in der Nähe der Thermopylai) und Delphoi. Jeder der 12 “Stämme” ( éthnē) der amphiktyonía war im Rat durch zwei hieromnḗmones mit Rede- und Abstimmungsrecht vertreten und konnte weitere Vertreter senden, die zwar Rederecht hatten, aber nicht abstimmen durften. Diese letzteren werden in lit. Texten und einigen wenigen Inschr. aus röm. Zeit pylágoroi genannt, in Inschr. aus hell. Zeit…

Syntaxis

(213 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J.
[English version] (σύνταξις, Pl. syntáxeis; aus syn: “zusammen” und táttein: “legen”). Beiträge im Sinne einer “Umlage”, d. h. unter bewußter begrifflicher Verschleierung des dahinterstehenden Zwanges. Der Begriff s. wurde im 4. Jh. v. Chr. von Kallistratos [2] für die finanziellen Beiträge der Bündner im Zweiten Attischen Seebund geprägt (Theop. FGrH 115 F 98), nachdem die Athener versprochen hatten, keinen phóros (wie im verhaßten Attisch-Delischen Seebund des 5. Jh.) zu erheben (z. B. IG II2 43 = Tod 123,23); tatsächlich blieben die s. bis zu einem gewissen Maß unte…

Trittyes

(607 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J.
[English version] (τριττύες, Sing. τριττύς/ trittýs, “Drittel”). In Athen Bezeichnung der Untergliederungen sowohl der vier alten Phylen ( phylḗ [1]) als auch der zehn neuen Phylen des Kleisthenes [2]. Über die alten zwölf t. ist wenig bekannt. Eine ant. Gleichsetzung mit den Phratrien (Phratrie; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. Fr. 3 Kenyon = Fr. 2 Chambers) scheint nicht zuzutreffen; möglicherweise umfaßten die t. je vier naukraríai ( naukraría ), doch läßt sich dies nicht belegen; eine der t. hieß Leukotaínioi (“mit weißen Bändern”). In der von Kleisthenes [2] geschaffenen territori…

Tetrakosioi

(486 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J.
(οἱ τετρακόσιοι, “die Vierhundert”). Bezeichnung einer Gruppe von 400 Athenern, die als Gremium polit. Aufgaben zu erfüllen hatten ( t. [1]) oder solche für sich in Anspruch nahmen ( t. [2]). [English version] [1] unter Solon Der von Solon [1] 594/3 v. Chr. geschaffene “Rat der 400”, der aus je 100 Mitgliedern der vier (ionischen) Phylen ( phylḗ [1]) bestand und vorberatende Funktionen für die ekklēsía ausübte ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 8,4; Plut. Solon 19,1 f.). Seine Existenz wird wohl fälschlich bezweifelt [5. 92-96]; er wurde nach 508/7 …

Synteleia

(96 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J.
[English version] (συντέλεια, “Mitzahlung”). Die gemeinsamen Aufwendungen einer Gruppe v. a. für die Kosten einer leiturgía (Liturgie I.) in Athen, speziell seit 357 v. Chr. Bezeichnung der Gruppe, der die Ausrüstung einer Triere obliegt. Im engeren Sinn umfaßt s. die Gruppe ohne den Trierarchen, zuweilen ist er auch eingeschlossen [1]. Demosthenes empfiehlt das System auch für Festliturgien (or. 20,23). Auch verwendet für den Mitgliedschaftsbeitrag in Föderalstaaten wie etwa dem Boiotischen Bund (z. B. Diod. 15,38,4; vgl. teleín bei Hdt. 6,108,5) und dem Achaiischen…

Epigrapheis

(47 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (ἐπιγραφεῖς). Die e. führten in Athen in den 390er-Jahren v.Chr. die Register der Leute, deren Vermögen sie für eine spezielle Vermögenssteuer, die Eisphora, zahlungspflichtig machte (Isokr. or. 17, 41; Lys. fr. 92 Sauppe). Eisphora Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) Bibliography R. Thomsen, Eisphora, 1964, 187-189.

Prohedria

(269 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (προεδρία). Das Vorrecht, bei Veranstaltungen verschiedener Art einen Platz in vorderster Reihe einzunehmen; es wurde vom Staat hervorragenden Mitbürgern und Besuchern gewährt und ist für viele Poleis bezeugt. Im 6. Jh. v. Chr. wurde die p. von Delphoi Kroisos von Lydien verliehen (Hdt. 1,54,2), und Olympia gab sie an einen spartanischen próxenos (SEG 11, 1180a). In Athen gehörten zu den Empfängern der p. die ältesten lebenden Nachkommen von Harmodios und Aristogeiton (Isaios 5,47); Demosthenes [2] besorgte an den Dionysia von 346 v. Chr. …

Dekate

(212 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (δεκάτη), “der zehnte (Teil)”, steht vornehmlich für verschiedene Formen einer Zehntabgabe: 1. Bodenertragsteuer, etwa in Athen unter Peisistratos (Aristot. Ath. pol. 16,4; doch vielleicht trifft das “Zwanzigstel”, eikostḗ, bei Thuk. 6,54,5 zu, und d. in der Ath. pol. ist ein Gattungsbegriff), in Krannon (Polyain. 2,34), in Delos (IG XI 2, 161, 27) und in Pergamon (IPergamon 158, 17-18; ein Zwanzigstel auf Wein und ein Zehntel auf andere Feldfrüchte). Auch die lex Hieronica für Sizilien sieht eine d. vor (Cic. Verr. 2,3,20). 2. Gebäudesteuer, etwa in Delos (I…

Ekklesiasterion

(134 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (ἐκκλησιαστήριον). Versammlungsplatz einer griech. Volksversammlung. Unter den Orten, an denen das Wort e. gebraucht wird, finden sich Olbia (SIG3 218) und Delos zur Zeit der athenischen Kleruchie im 2. Jh.v.Chr. (SIG3 662). In Athen war der reguläre Versammlungsort die Pnyx im Südwesten der Stadt, wo drei Baustufen aus dem 5. und 4. Jh. identifiziert wurden. Seit dem späten 4. Jh. wurde das Dionysos-Theater zunehmend als Versammlungsort benutzt. Anders als die Römer saßen die Griechen bei ihren Versammlungen…

Thesmotheten

(440 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J.
[English version] (θεσμοθέται, “Rechtssetzer”). Bezeichnung einer Gruppe von sechs Männern in Athen, die zusammen mit dem árchōn, dem basileús und dem polémarchos das Kollegium der neun árchontes bildeten. Im 5. oder 4. Jh. v. Chr. wurde eine zehnte Position geschaffen, bekannt als “Sekretär” ( grammateús; grammateís ) der Th.; seither wurde aus jeder der zehn Phylen des Kleisthenes [2] einer der zehn Amtsträger bestellt. Am Wirkungsort der Th., dem thesmotheteíon, arbeiteten und speisten alle árchontes ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 3,5; schol. Plat. Phaid. 235d). Die Th. waren nic…

Parabyston

(63 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (παράβυστον, wörtl. “beiseite geschoben”) bezeichnet einen athenischen Gerichtshof an einem beengten Platz, offenbar auf der Agora (vielleicht neben der Panathenäen-Straße; s. Athenai mit Plan). Hier wurden Fälle verhandelt, die in der Zuständigkeit der Elfmänner ( héndeka ) lagen (Paus. 1,28,8; Harpokration, s.v.). Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) Bibliography A.L. Boegehold, The Lawcourts at Athens (Agora 28), 1995, 6-8; 11-15; 111-113; 178f.

Katacheirotonia

(90 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (καταχειροτονία) bezeichnet den Schuldspruch eines griech. Gerichts durch Heben der Hand ( cheir). Die Verurteilung durch Stimmstein ( psḗphos) heißt katapsḗphisis. In Athen steht das Wort k. für den Schuldspruch des Volkes in Fällen der eisangelía (z.B. Lys. 29, 2; Demosth. or. 51,8) und bei ablehnenden Voten der Volksversammlung nach einer probolḗ (Beschwerde über eine Person; z.B. Demosth. or. 21,2) oder nach einer apóphasis (Empfehlung) des Areios pagos (z.B. Deinarch. 2,20; darauf bezieht sich wahrscheinlich [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 59,2). Rhodes, Peter J.…

Attischer Seebund

(443 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (4.Jh. v.Chr.). Der Attisch-Delische Seebund war 404 am Ende des Peloponnesischen Krieges zerbrochen. Man erinnerte sich zwar der Gewalt, die Athen über seine Verbündeten ausgeübt hatte, aber Spartas Verhalten gegenüber den Griechen im frühen 4.Jh. bot seinerseits Anlaß zur Unzufriedenheit. Im Königsfrieden von 386 wurden die Griechen in Kleinasien den Persern überlassen und alle anderen Griechen für unabhängig erklärt. 384 schloß Athen ausdrücklich im Rahmen dieses Friedens ein Bündnis mit Chios (IG II2 34 = Tod 118). 378 gründete Athen nach der Bef…

Attisch-Delischer Seebund

(820 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (5.Jh. v.Chr.). Der persische Angriff auf Griechenland war 480-79 v.Chr. zurückgewiesen worden, aber niemand konnte Ende 479 wissen, daß die Perser niemals wiederkommen würden. 478 setzten die Griechen den Krieg unter Führung Spartas fort, aber der spartanische Kommandeur Pausanias machte sich bald so unbeliebt, daß Athen von sich aus (Aristot., Ath. pol. 23,4) oder auf Anregung durch die Verbündeten beschloß, die Führung zu übernehmen (Thuk. 1,94-5). Daraufhin gründete Athen ein…

Diobelia

(105 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (διωβελία). Eine Zahlung von zwei oboloí in Athen. Dem Autor der aristotelischen Athenaion Politeia zufolge (28,3) wurde die d. von Kleophon eingeführt, worauf ein gewisser Kallikrates versprach, die Summe zu erhöhen, die d. aber tatsächlich abschaffte. Die d. ist für die Jahre zwischen 410 und 406/5 v.Chr. durch Inschr. bezeugt (406 zeitweise auf einen Obolos reduziert) und wurde 405/4 wohl durch eine Getreideverteilung ersetzt. Die Grundlage der Zahlung ist ungewiß, doch wurde sie wahrscheinlich während des Dekele…

Synoikismos

(472 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J.
[English version] (συνοικισμός). In der ant. griech. Welt der Zusammenschluß mehrerer kleinerer Gemeinden zu einem einzigen größeren Gemeinwesen. In manchen Fällen handelte es sich um eine ausschließlich polit. Vereinigung, von der die Siedlungsstruktur oder die physische Existenz der einzelnen Gemeinden nicht berührt wurde; so nach der Vorstellung der Athener der dem Theseus zugeschriebene s. Attikas, an den in klass. Zeit das jährlich gefeierte Fest der Synoíkia erinnerte (Thuk. 2,15); doch neigt die mod. Forsch. zur Meinung, daß nach dem Zusammenbruch der …

Cheirotonia

(138 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (χειροτονία, “Handaufheben”). Form der Abstimmung in Volksversammlungen und anderen griech. Gremien. Wahrscheinlich wurden in großen Versammlungen die so abgegebenen Stimmen nicht gezählt; vielmehr hatte der Vorsitzende zu entscheiden, für welche Seite die Mehrheit stimmte. Abzuheben von der ch. ist die Abstimmung durch psēphophoría (“Einwurf von Stimmsteinen”), die präzise Stimmenzählung und geheime Abstimmung ermöglichte. Ungeachtet der tatsächlich benutzten Form bestand in Athen und im allg. die Tendenz, bei Wahlen den Begriff cheirotoneín und b…

Zetetai

(173 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J.
[English version] (ζητηταί, wörtl. “Sucher, Nachforscher”) wurden in Athen ad hoc eingesetzt, um Gesetzesverletzungen zu untersuchen; die Lexikographen (z. B. Harpokration [2], s. v. Ζ.) schreiben ihnen ein “Amt” ( archḗ) zu, das in Athen zeitweilig eingerichtet wurde. Z. sind in drei Fällen bezeugt: 415 v. Chr. wurden z. zur Untersuchung des Hermokopidenfrevels und damit verbundener rel. Vergehen eingesetzt (And. 1,40; vgl. 1,14; 1,36). Drei Mitglieder der Kommission sind bekannt (Diognetos, Peisandros [7], Charikles [1]); Peisandros war …

Axones

(99 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (Ἄξωνες; Achsen). In Athen wurden die Gesetze des Drakon und Solon auf numerierten A. aufgezeichnet. Die Bezeichnung kýrbeis , deren Ursprung unbekannt ist, war ein anderer Name für A. (ML 86; Ath. pol. 7,1; Plut. Sol. 25). Vermutlich waren es drei- oder vierseitige hölzerne Pfeiler, die vertikal so auf Achsen montiert waren, daß sie der Betrachter drehen konnte. Im 4.Jh. v.Chr. konnten sie wahrscheinlich noch gelesen und studiert werden, zur Zeit Plutarchs existierten noch kleine Fragmente. Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) Bibliography E. Ruschenbusch, Σόλωνος νόμο…

Epicheirotonia

(70 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (ἐπιχειροτονία). E. bedeutet im allg. Abstimmung (wörtlich: “Handaufheben”). Im bes. bezeichnete e. im Athen des 4. Jh. ein Vertrauensvotum für die Beamten, das in jeder Prytanie abgegeben wurde ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 43,5; 61,2; aber e. in Verbindung mit einem Ostrakismos in 43,5 steht vielleicht irrtümlich für diacheirotonía) und ein jährlich geleistetes Vertrauensvotum für jede der vier Sachgruppen der Gesetze (Demosth. or. 24,20-23). Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)

Nesiotai

(264 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
(νησιῶται). [English version] [1] s. Hekatonnesoi s. Hekatonnesoi Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) [English version] [2] ein Bund von Inselbewohnern in der Ägäis mit dem Zentrum in Delos, um 315 v.Chr. Ein Bund ( koinón ) von Inselbewohnern in der Ägäis mit dem Zentrum in Delos, begründet verm. eher von Antigonos [1] Monophthalmos im J. 315/4 v.Chr. als von Ptolemaios im J. 308, nach der Niederlage des Demetrios [2] Poliorketes 286 v.Chr. jedoch von Ptolemaios übernommen. Der Bund diente als polit. Allianz und fei…

Hendeka, hoi

(165 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[English version] (οἱ ἕνδεκα). Die “Elf”, eine Behörde von elf Männern, waren in Athen für das Gefängnis und die Hinrichtung der zum Tode Verurteilten zuständig. Gewöhnliche Kriminelle ( kakúrgoi) oder Verbannte, die in Athen aufgegriffen und ihnen mittels der apagōgḗ zugeführt wurden, richteten sie ohne Prozeß hin, falls sie geständig waren, oder führten den Vorsitz im Verfahren, wenn sie die Schuld leugneten. Auch in Gerichtsverfahren, die mittels éndeixis eingeleitet wurden, und bei Klagen zur Erzwingung der Konfiskation von Grundstücken f…
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