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Legio fulminata

(165 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut
[German Version] (or fulminatrix, fulminea), literally “thunderbolt legion,” the name given to the Twelfth Legion since the time of Augustus. The name is associated with a meteorological miracle: during the Marcomannic Wars, thanks to a prayer, a thunderstorm blew up that saved the Roman army from dying of thirst and drove back the enemy. The event itself is probably historical, since it is represented on the column of Marcus Aurelius. Interpretations varied according to the religion of the interpre…

Orosius, Paulus

(288 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut
[German Version] (of Braga; attested 414–418), a presbyter from Iberian Bracara who went to Africa in 414. He was close to Augustine, and took documents to Jerome in Jerusalem, where he became an early ¶ opponent of Pelagianism (Pelagius). On his return to Africa he became more prominent in his opposition to Pelagianism. In addition to anti-heretical writings ( Liber Apologeticus, Commonitorium de errore Priscillianistarum et Origenistarum), Orosius wrote his most important work, the Historiarum adversum paganos in seven books, which he completed in 416–417/418, with en…

Theodosius I.

(388 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut
[English Version] Theodosius I., der Große (11.1.347 Spanien – 17.1.395 Mailand). Th. wurde 378, während der durch die Niederlage gegen die Goten in Adrianopel ausgelösten Krise, Heermeister und am 19.1.379 Augustus im Ostteil des Reiches. 389 besiegte er den Usurpator Maximus und war faktisch Herrscher über das gesamte Imperium Romanum, auch wenn Valentinian II. senior Augustus blieb; bis 392 wirkte er im Westen. 394 kehrte er dorthin zurück, besiegte den Usurpator Eugenius und war auch formal Herrscher über das Reich, das nach seinem Tod nicht mehr vereint wurde. Th.' Außenpo…

Orosius

(248 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut
[English Version] Orosius, Paulus (?) ( von Braga; bezeugt 414–418), aus dem iberischen Bracara stammender Presbyter, der 414 nach Afrika kam. Als Vertrauter Augustins brachte er Schriften zu Hieronymus nach Jerusalem, wo er als Vorkämpfer gegen den Pelagianismus (Pelagius/Pelagianer) auftrat. Wieder in Afrika, profilierte er sich weiter als Gegner des Pelagianismus. Neben antihäretischen Schriften (Liber Apologeticus, Commonitorium de errore Priscillianistarum et Origenistarum) vf. O. als sein bedeute…

Theodosius I

(442 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut
[German Version] (Jan 11, 347, Spain – Jan 17, 395, Milan). In 378, during the crisis precipitated by the defeat by the Goths at Adrianopolis, Theodosius was appointed magister militum; on Jan 19, 379, he was appointed co-Augustus for the eastern part of the Empire. In 389 he defeated the usurper Maximus and became de facto ruler of the entire Roman Empire, though Valentinian II remained the senior Augustus. He was active in the West until 392; in 394 he returned to the West, defeated the usurper Eugenius, and was now formally ruler of the Empire, which was never again united after his death. His …