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Sinai-Kloster

(260 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[English Version] . Das griech. orth. Kloster der hl. Katharina von Alexandrien auf dem Sinai hat seine Anfänge in ersten Mönchssiedlungen Ende des 4.Jh. Am Fuß des sog. Moseberges wohnten Eremiten in Felshöhlen im Umkreis einer »Gottesmutterkapelle am Dornbusch«. Als ein Rückzugsturm nicht mehr genügte, ließ Kaiser Justinian I. um 550 eine Schutzmauer und eine Basilika mit einem Mosaik der Verklärung bauen. Nach der arab. Eroberung 633 siedelte der Bischof des Sinai von Pharan/Raitho ins Kloster …

Philotheos

(128 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[English Version] vom Sinai; Hegoumenos (Mönchtum: III.) des Klosters des hl. Dornbuschs, aber kein Bischof, lebte nach sinaitischer Tradition im 9.Jh., wahrscheinlich jedenfalls vor 1100. Als geistiger Schüler des Johannes Klimakus und geprägt vom sinaitischen Hesychasmus schrieb er über die monastische Spiritualität und erlangte große Bekanntheit. Seine 40 n̆ηπτικα` κεϕα´λαια/nēptika´ kepha´laia, »Kap. über die Nüchternheit«, fanden Aufnahme in die Sammlung geistl. Schriften, die Philokalia. Ihn beschäftigte die praktische Askese, die durch…

Sinai, St. Catherine’s Monastery

(324 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] The Greek Orthodox monastery of St. Catherine of Alexandria on Sinai (Sinai/Sinai traditions) had its beginnings in the earliest monastic settlements in the late 4th century. Hermits lived in grottos at the foot of what is called Mount Moses, in the vicinity of a “chapel of the burning bush” dedicated to the Theotokos. Around 550, when retreat to a defensive tower was no longer sufficient, Emperor Justinian I ordered the construction of a defensive wall and a basilica with a mosai…

Meletius Pegas

(176 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] (patriarch of Alexandria, 1549, Chandaka [Heraklion], Crete – Sep 13, 1601, Alexandria). As an Orthodox Greek on Venetian Crete, on Zakynthos and in Italy he received a Humanist education, giving him a good knowledge of Latin theology and Scholasticism. He continued to feel this tension throughout his life. He became a monk, and an abbot at the age of 20, but because of Orthodox catechesis was driven out of Crete. In 1579 he became priest for Alexandria, and assumed responsibility…

Prayer Cord

(170 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] (Gk κομποσχοίνι/ komposchoíni, Russ. čëtki) is used in Orthodox churches when reciting the Prayer of the Heart (Heart, Prayer of the). It is intended to aid concentration and help keep count of repetitions, for instance during more intense exercises including bows or prostrations (metanies). A prayer cord is made from a twisted cotton cord, with 100, 50, 300, or 33 knots along its length, often with pearls set between. The two ends come together in a cross, with a tassel attached. The…

Greek Monasteries

(411 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] Greek monasteries emerged in the 1st millennium ce mainly in Asia Minor, particularly in Cappadocia, Palestine, Egypt and Constantinople. The monasteries in modern-day Greece were founded from the 10th century onwards: Hosios Lukas (1st half of the 10th cent.), Athos (963), Daphni (11th cent., but dates from the 6th cent.) Kaisariani and other small monasteries in Attica (11th cent.), Nea Moni on Chios (mid-11th cent.), the Monastery of John on Patmos (1088), Kechrovouni on Tinos (12th c…

Philotheus of Sinai (Saint)

(155 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] Philotheus was the hēgoumenos (“superior”; Monasticism: III) of the monastery of the burning bush (Sinai, St. Catherine’s monastery), though not a bishop. Local tradition dates him to the 9th century; in any case he probably lived before 1100. As a spiritual disciple of John Climacus informed by Sinaitic Hesychasm, he wrote on monastic spirituality and achieved great renown. His 40 νηπτικὰ κεφάλαια/ nēptiká kephálaia (“chapters on sobriety”) were incorporated into the Philocalia, a standard collection of works on spirituality. He was concerne…

Constantius of Sinai

(219 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] (1770, Constantinople – Jan 5, 1859, Constantinople) was the nephew of the Sinai bishop Cyril II and officiated as archbishop of Sinai from 1804 until his death in 1859. He studied at Constantinople, Iaşi, and Kiev, and was afterwards known as “the Byzantine” on account of his education. In 1795, he became a Sinai monk in Cairo and, in 1797, abbot of the subsidiary monastery in Kiev. In 1804, he was appointed archbishop of Sinai as Constantius II…

Epitaphios

(132 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] (Gk) is a large cloth, embroidered with the burial of Christ, as an icon. In the Orthdox Good Friday vespers, the epitaphios is displayed for veneration in the middle of the church on a table, a symbolic grave decorated with flowers. In the evening service of mourning, it is borne around the church in a procession and in some places also through the streets. During the Easter season, it…

Metéora Monasteries

(537 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] Metéora Monasteries, named after the rock formations of Metéora in Greek Thessaly, which rise steeply like pillars above the Pineios Valley. Probably because of its safe and protected location, hermits began settling there from the 11th century, hiding on the steep rock pinnacles and in caves. The first written evidence is the mention of a Mother of God Monastery from 1336, referring to an originally loose community of hermits which, as a sect of Stagon, stood under the authority …

Sticheron

(181 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] pl. stichera, a poetic hymn strophe in the daily office (Liturgy of the Hours: IV) of the Orthodox Church. It is derived from στῖχος/ stíchos, “verse,” because it is sung in alternation with consecutive psalm verses. At Vespers six to ten stichera follow each of the final verses of Psalms 141/142; at Orthros or Matins, they are used with the Lauds Psalms 148–150. In both services, there are aposticha with other psalm verses. On weekdays the stichera focus on the particular feast or saint’s day; on Sunday…

Nilus of Sinai

(180 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] was the author of a Sinai story, probably from the end of the 4th century. In this autobiography, which reads like fiction, with detailed topographical references, he tells how he and his son became monks on Moses’ mountain, and fell under Saracen attack. Since Nilus of Ancyra (end of 4th cent. – c. 430) in a letter ( Ep. IV 62) reports a similar event in a eulogy of St. Platon, the two have been identified as one and the same person, and this monk from Galatia was wrongly named “Sinaites.” In his monastic and exegetical writings, Nilus …

Cosmas the Aetolian, Saint

(179 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] (1714, Central Greece – Aug 24, 1779, Epirus), a saint in the Greek Orthodox Church, “teacher of the nation,” “apostle-equal,” and “neo-martyr,” whose feast day is August 24. He studied in Sigditsa and the Athos School, and became a monk in the Athos monastery of Philotheou with the name Cosmas (baptismal name: Constas). He was ordained to priesthood in 1759. With the permission of the monastery, he went to Constantinople, taught at the Patriarch…

Koukouselis, John (Saint)

(184 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] (Papadopulos), a prominent Byzantine composer, singer, and musical theorist of the 14th century. Canonized by the Orthodox Church, his feast is celebrated on Oct 1. Almost nothing is known of his life, since only two legendary Greek accounts from the 15th to the 17th centuries exist. Some evidence suggests that he had Bulgarian origins, although he was raised and educated in Constantinople and spent his life as a monk of the Great Laura on Mount Athos. Also called Maistoros or Magistor, Koukouselis initiated a shift of style towards long melismatic melodies i…

Chalki,

(105 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] one of the Princes' islands in the Marmara Sea opposite Istanbul (Constantinople). With the establishment of Chalki Theological College in Holy Trinity monastery in 1844, Chalki became an important training center for monks, bishops and professors. In 1971 the Turkish state closed the accommodation, the grammar school and the theological college, which through its guest students had in the meantime become a place of ecumenical encounter.…

Panagia

(220 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] Panagia, Greek Παναγία, “All-holy,” a title and attribute of the Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus. In Orthodox liturgical usage, Mary is addressed by a title (e.g. Theotokos, Our Lady; Mary, Veneration of: II) instead of by name, with the adjective All-holy generally added. The commonest form is Panagia Theotokos. In the course of time, the adjective came to be used independently as both a title and a personal name. The male Greek forename Panagiotis is a derivative. The use of the prefix pan to express the superlative of the adjective is still in everyday use; Panagia is used …

Meletius Metaxakis

(182 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] (Sep 21, 1871, Parsas, Crete – Jul 7, 1935, Alexandria) studied in Jerusalem, was ordained deacon in Antioch in 1891, and worked until 1909 in Jerusalem as secretary to the patriarchate. In 1910 he became metropolitan of Kition (Cyprus). From 1918 to 1920, as metropolitan of Athens, he was a zealous reformer. He was uncanonically deposed, went to the United States, and became patriarch of Constantinople on Nov 25, 1921, as Meletius IV. He founded metropolitan sees for Western Euro…

Zoe Movement

(259 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] (from Gk ζωή/ zoḗ, “life”), founded in Greece in 1907 as a fellowship of Orthodox theologians; it has monastic features, but is neither a monastery nor an order. It is organized as a registered association, and is thus independent of ecclesiastical supervision; its leaders are mainly lay. It sees its task as ¶ the religious revival and evangelization of the Greek people, especially by preaching, Sunday schools throughout the country, holiday camps, and an immense output of publications, particularly of a conservative ethical and mor…

Christodoulos of Patmos, Saint

(204 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] (c. 1020 – c. 1101) came from Asia Minor near Nicea and became a young monk on Mount Olympus there. In 1043, he became acquainted with the Cluniacensian reform (Cluny) in Rome. In a tumultuous and dangerous time, he lived in several monasteries on the Jordan, in the Anatolian Miletus, on Mount Latros, on the island of Cos, and in Thessalia. Finally, in 1088, he received the island of Patmos as a gift from emperor Alexios I, to found the Monastery…

John the Almsgiver, Saint

(172 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] (born on Cyprus – c. 620, Cyprus), feast day Nov 12. John was married and had children, but after the death of all the members of his family he withdrew to asceticism and, in 610, became patriarch of Alexandria as John V. With him, the imperial church, unpopular in Egypt since the Schism, gained strength, particularly since Heraklios had become emperor and Sergius patriarch of Constantinople at the same time. John gained a reputation especially for his extraordinary benevolence – hence the epithet Ἐλεήμων/ Eleēmōn, the “almsgiver” –, which extended to all church …

Sticheron

(152 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[English Version] Sticheron, Pl. Stichera, poetische Hymnenstrophe im Stundengebet (: IV.) der orth. Kirche, abgeleitet von στι˜χος/stíchos, »Vers«, weil sie im Wechsel mit fortlaufenden Psalmversen gesungen werden. In der Vesper folgen sechs bis zehn S. zu den letzten Versen der Pss 141/142, im Orthros zu den Laudespsalmen 148–150. Zu weiteren Psalmversen gibt es in beiden Gottesdiensten Aposticha. Die S. thematisieren täglich wechselnd den jeweiligen Festtag oder das Heiligenfest und am Sonntag die Aufersteh…

Trembelas

(132 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[English Version] Trembelas, Panagiotis (23.10.1886 Stemnitza-Peloponnes – 19.11.1977 Athen), griech.-orth. Theologieprof. 1918 wurde T. a.o. Prof. für Dogmengesch., 1939–1957 o. Prof. für Praktische Theol. (Katechetik, Liturgie, Homiletik) in Athen. T. war einer der fruchtbarsten Theologen seiner Zeit und vf. eine Vielzahl theol. Werke zu exegetischen, liturgischen, homiletischen und dogmatischen Themen und über 2000 Art. in allen verbreiteten theol. und rel. Zeitschriften Griechenlands. Als führe…

Neilos Sinaita

(161 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[English Version] Neilos Sinaita, Vf. einer sinaitischen Erzählung, wohl noch Ende 4.Jh. In dieser romanhaften Autobiogr. mit detaillierten Ortskenntnissen erzählt er, wie er mit seinem Sohn Mönch am Mosesberg wurde und in einen Sarazenenüberfall geriet. Da Neilos von Ankyra (Ende 4.Jh. – um 430) in einem Brief (ep. IV 62) in einer Verherrlichung des hl. Platon von einem ähnlichen Ereignis berichtet, hat man beide identifiziert und diesen Mönch aus Galatien fälschlich Sinaites genannt. N. von Ankyra ist in seinen monastischen und…

Zoi-Bewegung

(225 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[English Version] (von griech. ζωη´/zoē´, »Leben«), 1907 in Griechenland als orth. Theologen-Bruderschaft gegründet, die zwar monastische Elemente hat, aber weder Kloster noch Orden ist. Sie ist als eingetragener Verein organisiert, also unabhängig von kirchl. Aufsicht, und wird v.a. von Laien getragen. Als ihre Aufgabe sieht sie die rel. Erweckung und Evangelisierung des griech. Volkes, insbes. durch Predigt, flächendeckende Sonntagsschulen, Ferienfreizeiten, Fürsorge und immenses Schrifttum mit v.…

Panagia

(211 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[English Version] Panagia, griech. Παn̆αγι´α, »Allheilige«, Titel und Attribut Marias. Üblicherweise wird Maria im orth. liturgischen Sprachgebrauch anstatt mit ihrem Namen mit einem Titel (Gottesgebärerin [Theotokos], Herrin u.a.; Marienverehrung: II.) angeredet, wozu v.a. das Adjektiv »Allheilige« hinzugefügt wird. Am gebräuchlichsten ist »Panagia Theotokos«. Das Adjektiv P. hat sich im Laufe der Zeit verselbständigt und wird wie ein Titel und Eigenname verwendet. Auch der männliche griech. Vornam…

Myron

(230 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] Confirmation (Catholic) takes place in all Eastern churches as a direct continuation of baptism ¶ (IV, 2). The priest anoints (Anointing; Gk chrisma) the newly baptized with aromatic olive oil (myron or chrism) in the form of the cross on forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, ears, chest, hands, and feet, with the accompanying formula: “Seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. Amen.” Baptism is already understood to mediate the Spirit; confirmation is its consummation and seal. For that reason, it is also bestowed …

Eileton

(87 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] (Gk) is a cloth on the altar on which plate and chalice are placed in the Orthodox liturgy for consecration. It is understood as a symbol of Christ's burial. The antimension was also originally an eileton with relics and a portrayal of the burial sewn in for use in celebrations of the Eucharist on unconsecrated altars. Today the eileton is used as a cover for the antimension. Martin Petzolt Bibliography S. Heitz, Mysterium der Anbetung, 1986, 359 A. Kallis, Liturgie, 1989, 88, 90, 251.

Trembelas, Panagiotis

(172 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] (Oct 23, 1886, Stemnitsa, Greece – Nov 19, 1977, Athens), Greek Orthodox pro-¶ fessor of theology. In 1918 Trembelas was appointed associate professor of the history of dogma in Athens; from 1939 to 1957 he served as full professor of practical theology (catechetics, liturgics, homiletics). He was one of the most prolific theologians of his generation, publishing a great number of theological works on exegetical, liturgical, homiletic, and dogmatic topics, as well as more than 2,000 articles i…

Liturgical Books

(1,664 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl | Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] I. Catholic – II. Orthodox I. Catholic 1. General Introduction and History The binding nature of its basic elements (Scripture reading, the breaking of bread [Eucharist/Communion]) notwithstanding, the liturgy was initially celebrated quite freely with improvised prayers by the presiding priest (Just. 1 Apol. 67). Later on, model texts (Hipp., Traditio Apostolica ) served as points of reference. From the 4th century onwards, the major ecclesiastical centers (Antioch, Alexandria, Rome, Jerusalem, Byzantium…

Footwashing (Pedilavium)

(467 words)

Author(s): Thomas, John Christopher | Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] I. Western Churches – II. Orthodox Churches I. Western Churches Footwashing as a Christian rite finds its origin in John 13:1–20, where Jesus washes his disciples' feet and commands them to wash one another's feet. The rite appears to function as a sacrament in the Johannine community and is a distinctively Christian act in 1 Tim 5:10. Evidence for the practice of footwashing can be found in every century of the church's history. The meaning of rite ranges from an expression of humble ser…

Reader (Lector)

(672 words)

Author(s): Steck, Wolfgang | Petzolt, Martin | Neijenhuis, Jörg
[German Version] I. Catholic Church It seems that there was a synagogue tradition in antiquity of lay persons undertaking the reading in public worship of lessons other than those taken from the Gospels. From the early Middle Ages, readers were given clerical status (Clergy and laity), and assigned to one of the so-called minor orders at the preparatory stage before ordination of priests. Since the reordering of liturgical services by Paul VI’s apostolic decree Ministeria quaedam (Aug 15, 1972), readers are assigned to the laity (as they were orig.), the office of read…

Alexandria

(1,865 words)

Author(s): Weber, Gregor | Mélèze-Modrzejewski, Joseph | Ritter, Adolf M. | Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] I. Ptolemaic Period – II. Ancient Judaism – III. Early Church – IV. Patriarchate I. Ptolemaic Period Egypt. Rhakotis, Arab. Iskandariya, on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, established 332/31 bce by Alexander the Great west of the Canopic branch of the Nile between the sea and Lake Mareotis. Exact topography is uncertain because of later rebuilding, destruction, and changes in water level. Laid out on a rectangular grid by th…

Archbishop

(561 words)

Author(s): Geringer, Karl-Theodor | Petzolt, Martin | Wall, Heinrich de | Mosig, Jörg
[German Version] I. Catholicism – II. Orthodox Church – III. Protestantism– IV. Anglican Church I. Catholicism In the Roman Catholic Church, archbishop is the title of the metropolitan (c. 435) or of the bishop of an archbishopric that belongs to no church province (e.g. Luxembourg, Vaduz); a titular archbishop is a bishop consecrated or designated to the title of a defunct archbishopric (e.g. high officials in the Roman Curia and in the papal diplomatic corps); occasionally the title is bestowed on a meritorious bishop as a mere honorific. Karl-Theodor Geringer Bibliography W. Aymans…

Jugendbewegung

(4,764 words)

Author(s): Herrmann, Ulrich | Schwab, Ulrich | Tzscheetzsch, Werner | Gängler, Hans | Petzolt, Martin | Et al.
[German Version] I. History and Signifiance – II. The Jugendbewegung and the Protestant Church – III. The Catholic Jugendbewegung – IV. Young Workers' Movement – V. The Orthodox Youth Movement – VI. The Jewish Youth Movement I. History and Signifiance 1. Historical context Jugendbewegung (“youth movement”) is the name by which a distinctive middle-class youth movement in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland chose to call itself. It was the focal point of a variety of youth movements extending from the end of the 19th century to the en…

Marriage

(10,960 words)

Author(s): Nehring, Andreas | Otto, Eckart | Deming, Willoughby Howard | Schäfer, Rolf | Nave-Herz, Rosemarie | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Sociology – VI. Systematic Theology – VII. Law – VIII. Practical Theology – IX. Judaism – X. Islam I. Religious Studies The term marriage denotes a relationship entered into between two or more persons of different sex, ritually formalized, intended to be permanent, and recognized by society. In all cultures, definitions of economic and sexual rights and the conveyance of social status to children (Child/Childhood) are part of the socially ¶ defined framework of marriage…
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