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Zeloten

(984 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[English Version] . Die Bez. Z. (ζηλωται´/zēlōtaí, von griech. ζηλο´ω/zēlóō, »eifern«) für die sich im 1.Jh. n.Chr. und v.a. im Ersten Jüdischen Krieg gegen die röm. Herrschaft über Palästina erhebenden Juden findet sich bei Flavius Josephus (Bell. II 651; IV 160f.; VII 268–270), dessen Bellum Judaicum (II–VII) und Antiquitates die wichtigsten hist. Quellen für die Bewegung der Z. und ihre Ideologie darstellen. Die hebr. Bez. qanna'im (von qanna', »eifernd«) findet sich u.a. in bSan 82a. Ihr Name ist auf…

Noachidische Gebote

(366 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[English Version] (hebr. sheva mizwot bene Noach) sind nach jüd. Auffassung die für alle Menschen (Nichtjuden und Juden) verbindlichen Gebote (Mizwot) – im Gegensatz zu den exklusiv den Juden offenbarten Ge- und Verboten der Tora. Diese Vorstellung geht auf die rabb. Auslegung der Offenbarungen an Adam und Noah, die Urväter aller Menschen, zurück (Gen 2,16; 9,1–7). Die Einhaltung der n.G. ermöglicht prinzipiell auch den Nichtjuden ein gottesfürchtiges Leben und schließt sie in den göttlichen Heils…

Theodotos

(186 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[English Version] (Epiker), allein durch Zitate seines griech. Städteepos über die samaritanische Stadt Sichem (hell. Gründungsmythos, Geschehnisse um Jakob, Dina, Simeon und Levi, Beschneidung, Ermordung der Bevölkerung Sichems [Gen 34]) in dem ebenfalls verloren gegangenen Werk »Über die Juden« des Alexander Polyhistor bekannt. Lediglich sechs Frgm. (47 Hexameter) des Th. sind durch Eusebius von Caesarea (praep.) überliefert. Entstanden ist das Werk in Palästina oder Alexandrien vor dem 1.Jh. v.…

Judith/Book of Judith

(481 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[German Version] The book of Judith, named for its protagonist, Judith (“Jewess”), forms part of the Old Testament Apocrypha (II). The original, probably composed in Hebrew (for Gk as the original language, see Engel), from which the extant Greek translation in its various recensions stems, has not been preserved. The old Latin, Syriac, Coptic and Armenian translations were prepared from original Greek texts. Several Hebrew versions of the text exist which are based on a free rendition of the Sept…

Zealots

(1,088 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[German Version] The designation “Zealots” (ζηλωταί/ zēlōtaí, from Gk ζηλόω/ zēlóō, “to be zealous, to strive after”) for those Jews who rebelled against Roman rule in Palestine during the 1st century ce and especially during the First Jewish Revolt is encountered in the works of Flavius Josephus ( Bell. II 651; IV 160f.; VII 268–270), whose Bellum Judaicum (II–VII) and Antiquitates constitute the most important sources for the Zealot movement and its ideology. The Hebrew designation qannaʾim (“zealous ones”) is attested, among other places, in b. Sanh. 82a. Their name goes back …

Gamaliel

(298 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[German Version] 1. Rabban Gamaliel (Gamaliel I) was active in Jerusalem c. 25–50 ce as an outstanding Torah scholar ( Midr. Sota 9:15) and member of the Sanhedrin ( bet-din; Acts 5:34ff.). The traditional view that he was the son or grandson of Hillel is presumably legendary ( b. Šabb. 15a), but does, indeed, suggest continuity in doctrine. The historicity of the teacher-student relationship attributed to him and Paul in Acts22:3 and his intervention ¶ before the Sanhedrin on behalf of releasing the apostles (Acts 5:34–39) is also unclear. 2. Gamaliel II , the son of Simeon and grands…

Pseudo-Philo

(288 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[German Version] was the author of a work (possibly fragmentary) on biblical history from Adam to Saul and ¶ David, which was traditionally attributed to Philo of Alexandria. The version preserved in numerous manuscripts was translated from Greek in the 4th century into pre-Jerome Latin, and goes back to an original Hebrew text, as is shown by the use of notions and terms close to the Hebrew Bible and Targum literature. The narrative embellishments and additions to the biblical text also indicate a close relations…

Early Judaism

(234 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[German Version] The term refers to the period roughly between (a) the end of the Babylonian Exile (539 bce), the rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem (520), and the completion of the Hebrew Bible, and (b) the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple (70 ce) and the beginnings of rabbinic Judaism. The term “early Judaism” thus covers a period that historians, depending on where the focus of their interest lies, also refer to as the Hellenistic-Roman period (300 bce–200 ce), lately also as “Middle Judaism” (Boccaccini) or the Second Temple Period (520 bce–70 ce). It …

Pseudo-Phocylides

(227 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[German Version] is the name given to the author of a Hellenistic Jewish didactic poem of 230 aphorisms written between 100 bce and 100 ce, possibly in Alexandria. It combines material borrowed from the Septuagint – though specifically Jewish beliefs are not much evidence, there is no departure from monotheism – with Hellenistic “popular ethics” (Walter, 191). There is no evidence of Christian influence or use of the New Testament. The work belongs to the wisdom genre of practical guidance on living characteristic of t…

Ascension and Martyrdom of Isaiah

(368 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[German Version] The apocryphal apocalypse “Ascension of Isaiah” consists of two distinct parts: the “Martyrdom of Isaiah” (1–5) and the “Vision of Isaiah” (6–11). The Martyrdom of Isaiah was very likely written in Hebrew in Palestine. The original language of the Vision of Isaiah is Greek; however, where it first originated and the location of the final editing process (3rd–4th cent. ce) are unknown. A complete version of the Vision of Isaiah is only available in an Egyptian translation (4th–6th cent. ce); additionally, some Greek and Latin fragm…

Noachic Laws

(378 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[German Version] In Jewish theology, the seven Noachid (Noahide) laws (Heb. sheva mizwot bene Noach) are the commandments (Mitzvot) binding on all human­king, including Gentiles – in contrast to the commandments and prohibitions of the Torah, revealed exclusively to the Jews. This idea goes back to the rabbinic interpretation of the revelations to Adam and Noah, the forefathers of all humankind (Gen 2:16; 9:1–7). In principle observing the Noahide laws enables Gentiles to live lives pleasing to God and incorp…

Zerubbabel, Apocalypse of

(172 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[German Version] The pseudepigraphic Hebrew Apocalypse of Zerubbabel (Apocalypticism: III, 2), probably written in Palestine in the early 7th century ce, reflects the messianic hopes (Messiah: III, 1) of the Palestinian Jews, who – threatened by the anti-Jewish laws of the Byzantine rulers – set their hopes on a Persian conquest during the Persian-Byzantine wars between 604 and 630 ce. Embedded in a framework that recounts the revelation of messianic redemption by Metatron/Michael to Zerubbabel, the last ruler of the Davidic line and builder of the seco…

Ascension of Moses

(315 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[German Version] Other than a few quotations from the church fathers (e.g. Or. Princ. III 2.1), the only known version of the “Ascension of Mose” ( As.Mos. or T.Mos.) is an incomplete Latin manuscript from the 6th century (palimpsest; 1st ed. 1861 by Ceriani). This Latin translation (5th cent.) of a Greek translation probably goes back to a Hebrew or Aramaic original (Tromp favors a Greek original) written in Judea before the destruction of the temple (original version probably 2nd–1st cent. bce; final version early 1st cent. ce, because Herod the Great is identifiable; …

Zephaniah, Apocalypse of

(240 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[German Version] A prophecy or apocalypse of Zephaniah (Sophonias) is mentioned in ancient and medieval lists of the Old Testament Apocrypha. A Greek quotation is preserved in Clement of Alexandria’s Stromata (V 11.77); a Coptic text is also preserved in two fragmentary 5th-century manuscripts, one Sahidic, the other Akhmimic. The extant manuscript evidence is insufficient to determine with certainty whether we are dealing with portions of a single work or several works composed under the same name (Diebner, 1158). The Akhmi…

Pseudo-Philo

(266 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[English Version] ist der Autor eines Werkes über die bibl. Gesch. von Adam bis hin zu Saul und David (möglicherweise frgm.), das traditionell Philo von Alexandrien zugeschrieben wurde. Die in zahlreichen Hsn. überlieferte, in vorhieronymischen Lat. vf. Übers. (4.Jh.) aus dem Griech. geht auf einen urspr. auf Hebr. vf. Text zurück, wie bes. durch der HB und der Targumlit. nahestehende Begriffe etc. deutlich wird. Auch die erzählerischen Ausschmückungen und Zusätze zur bibl. Vorlage verweisen auf …

Zephanja-Apokalypse

(222 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[English Version] (ApkZeph). Eine Prophetie oder Apokalpyse des Z. (Sophonias) wird in antiken und ma. Verzeichnissen apokr. Schriften zum AT erwähnt. Überliefert ist ein griech. Zitat bei Clemens von Alexandrien (Stromata V 11, 77) sowie ein kopt. Text in zwei frgm. Hsn. (5.Jh. n.Chr.), einer sahidischen und einer achmimischen. Aufgrund des jetzt bekannten Handschriftenbestandes kann nicht sicher entschieden werden, ob es sich um Teile eines oder mehrerer unter demselben Namen verfaßter Werke han…

Serubbavel-Apokalypse

(156 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[English Version] . Die pseudepigraphische hebr. Apokalypse (Apokalyptik: III.,2.) des S. (vermutlich Anfang 7.Jh. n.Chr., Palästina) spiegelt die messianischen Erwartungen (Messias/Messianismus: III.,1.) der jüd.-paläst. Bevölkerung wider, die – durch antijüd. Gesetze der byz. Herrscher bedroht – auf die pers. Eroberung hoffte (pers.-byz. Kriege 604–630 n.Chr.). Eingebettet in eine Rahmenhandlung, die Offenbarung der messianischen Erlösung durch Metatron/Michael an S. (letzter Herrscher aus david…

Pseudo-Phokylides

(191 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[English Version] wird als Autor eines zw. 100 v. und 100 n.Chr. möglicherweise in Alexandrien vf. jüd.-hell. Lehrgedichts (230 Verse) bez. Dieses verbindet Entlehnungen aus der LXX – wobei spezifisch jüd. Glaubensinhalte nicht hervortreten, vom Monotheismus aber nicht abgewichen wird – mit hell. »Popularethik« (Walter 191). Christl. Einflüsse oder die Verwendung des NT sind nicht nachzuweisen. Einzuordnen ist es in den Bereich …

Philo

(180 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[English Version] (Epiker), jüd. Autor eines griech. Epos über die Stadt Jerusalem, das in der hell. Tradition des Städtelobs steht. 24 Hexameter, die in sechs Frgm. aufgeteilt sind, werden von Eusebius von Caesarea (praep. 9,20; 24; 37) überliefert und dort als Zitate aus Alexander Polyhistors »Über die Juden« angeführt, der sie selbst als dem Epos »Über Jerusalem« entnommen zitiert. Die in den Frgm. genannten Themen sind Abraham, die Bindung Isaaks, der Wohnsitz Gottes, Joseph und die Traumdeutu…

Ketubbah

(324 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[German Version] (Heb. כְּתוּבָּה, “that which is written”), marriage contract in which the financial livelihood of the wife is secured in the event of divorce or widowhood (Marriage: IX). The Talmud tractate Ketubbot (“marriage contracts”) deals with the rights and duties of spouses resulting from the marriage contract, but also with other topics such as dowry, divorce, etc. Since the minimum amounts of money to which a wife is entitled in these cases are also specified by law ( m. Ketub. 4:7–12; b. Ketub. 16b), the drawing up of a ketubbah could be waived in talmudic times. …

Philo the Epic Poet

(195 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[German Version] was the Jewish author of a Greek epic on the city of Jerusalem, in the Hellenistic tradition of praise of cities. Eusebius of Caesarea ( Praep. 9.20, 24, 37) transmits 24 hexameters, divided into six fragments, and attributes them to Alexander Polyhistor’s On the Jews, who himself cites them as taken from the epic On Jerusalem. Subjects treated in the fragments are Abraham, the binding of Isaac, the abode of God, Joseph and the dream interpretation, and Jerusalem’s water supply. The epic comprised at least 14 chapters, and was probably written between 200 and 100 bce in Hel…

Theodotus

(185 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[German Version] epic poet, known only through quotations of his Greek epic on the Samaritan city of Shechem (Hellenistic foundation myth, events involving Jacob, Dinah, Simeon, and Levi, circumcision, murder of the Shechemites [Gen 34]) in Alexander Polyhistor’s On the Jews, another lost work. Only six fragments (47 hexameters) of Theodotus’s work are preserved in Eusebius of Caesarea’s Praeparatio evangelica. The epic was produced in Palestine or Alexandria before the 1st century …

Orphiker/Orphik

(1,623 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Wandrey, Irina | Graf, Fritz
[English Version] I. Religionsgeschichtlich 1.Orphisch-dionysische Mysterien Im Unterschied zum frühgriech. Weltgefühl eines kurzen und tatenreichen Lebens ohne postmortale Existenz bildeten sich seit dem 6.Jh. v.Chr. rel. Alternativen, die ein Weiterleben im Jenseits versprechen. Eine davon ist anonym unter dem Namen des Orpheus überliefert; Orpheusmythen handeln von der Rettung aus der sinn- und freudlosen Unterwelt. Eine geschlossene Rel. der Orphiker (O.) hat es nie gegeben, aber über den Grad d…

Orphism

(1,858 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Wandrey, Irina | Graf, Fritz
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Responses I. History of Religions 1. Orphic-Dionysian mysteries. The earliest Greeks anticipated a short and active life without any form of existence after death. The 6th century bce saw the appearance of religious alternatives that promised an afterlife in the beyond. One of these spread anonymously under the name of Orpheus; myths of Orpheus speak of deliverance from a senseless and cheerless netherworld. There was never a coherent religion practiced by Orphics, but there is discussion as to how organized the Orphic community was. Could anyone buy a “pass-¶ port to the beyond” from itiner…

Sibyllinen

(942 words)

Author(s): Hornauer, Holger | Wandrey, Irina | Bauckham, Richard
[English Version] I. Griechisch-römische Sibyllinen S. waren die in der Antike unter dem Namen der Sibylle mindestens seit dem 5.Jh. v.Chr. verbreiteten, stets in griech. Hexametern vf. Sprüche (Pseudepigraphie/Pseudonymität). Zu unterscheiden sind: 1.die Sibyllinischen Orakel (griech. οι῾ Σιβυ´λλης χρησμοι´/hoi Sibýllēs chrēsmoí, »die Orakel der Sibylle«, bzw. τα` Σιβυ´λλεια/tá Sibýlleia, »Sibyllinisches«, und οι῾ χρησμοι` Σιβυλλιακοι´/hoi chrēsmoí Sibylliakoí, lat. oracula Sibyllina), eine v.a. jüd.-christl. Sammlung (s.u. II., III.); 2.die Sib…

Sibylline Oracles and Books

(1,066 words)

Author(s): Hornauer, Holger | Wandrey, Irina | Bauckham, Richard
[German Version] I. Greco-Roman Sibylline Material The Sibylline oracles of antiquity were oracles ascribed to Sibyl, always in Greek hexameters (Pseudepigraphy); the earliest date from the 5th century bce. Two corpora need to be distinguished: (1) the Sibylline Oracles (Gk οἱ Σιβύλλης χρησμοί/ hoi Sibýllēs chrēsmoí, “the oracles of Sibyl,” or τὰ Σιβύλλεια/ tá Sibýlleia, “the sibylline material”) and οἱ χρησμοὶ Σιβυλλιακοί/ hoi chrēsmoí Sibylliakoí, Lat. oraculaSibyllina), a primarily Judeo-Christian collection (see II and III below); and (2) the Sibylline Boo…

Orakel

(1,381 words)

Author(s): Vollmer, Ulrich | Hutter, Manfred | Wandrey, Irina | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich Der vom lat. Substantiv »oraculum« abgeleitete Begriff O. bez. zum einen in engem Anschluß an die urspr. Wortbedeutung die Orakelstätte, also den Ort, an dem ein Götterspruch (orare, »sprechen«) dem Menschen übermittelt wird (s. u. II., 3.), sodann, wie für den antiken Sprachgebrauch ebenfalls üblich, den Orakelspruch selber, ferner das Orakelwesen als Institution, in Einzelfällen schließlich auch eine konkrete, mit der Orakelerteilung befaßte Person (…

Proselytes/Proselytism

(1,656 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina | Carlebach, Elisheva | Grundmann, Christoffer H. | Voss, Gerhard
[German Version] I. Early Judaism The Septuagint uses προσήλυτοι/ prosḗ lytoi, literally “those who have come over,” to translate Hebrew גֵּר/ gēr (“resident alien” [Stranger: II] in the land of Israel, enjoying a special legal status). Toward the end of the ¶ second temple period, proselyte came to denote primarily a convert to Judaism (e.g. Jos. Apion. II 28), with almost the same rights in the Jewish community as someone born a Jew. In early Judaism, three conditions for conversion (VIII) to Judaism were laid down: offering sacrifice (dropped af…

Oracle

(1,534 words)

Author(s): Vollmer, Ulrich | Hutter, Manfred | Wandrey, Irina | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. History of Religion I. Religious Studies The term “oracle,” derived from the Latin noun oraculum, denotes, (1) in close connection with the original meaning of the word, the oracle site, i.e. the place at which a divine statement ( orare, “to speak”) was communicated to a person (s…

Proselyten/Proselytismus

(1,512 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina | Carlebach, Elisheva | Grundmann, Christoffer H. | Voss, Gerhard
[English Version] I. Antikes JudentumMit προση´λυτοι/prosē´lytoi, wörtl. »Hinzugekommene«, übers. die LXX das bibl.-hebr. גֵּר/ger (der im Land Israel ansässige und einen bes. Rechtsstatus genießende »Fremde« [: II.]). Gegen Ende der Epoche des Zweiten Tempels bez. der Begriff Proselyten (P.) …

Rein und unrein

(3,405 words)

Author(s): Stausberg, Michael | Seidl, Theodor | Kollmann, Bernd | Schneider-Ludorff, Gury | Wandrey, Irina | Et al.
[English Version] I. ReligionswissenschaftlichIn differenzierten rel. Systemen bzw. Kulturen stellen die Kategorien r. und u. eine klassifikatorisch-kommunikative Leitdifferenz dar. Diese regelt Grenzen nach Innen (z.B. zw. Klerikern und Laien [Klerus/Klerus und Laien], Frauen und Männern [Frau und Mann]) sowie nach außen (z.B. zw. Glä…

Purification

(2,436 words)

Author(s): Stausberg, Michael | Cancik, Hubert | Seidl, Theodor | Kollmann, Bernd | Schneider-Ludorff, Gury | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies As with many animals, purification is a basic area of human behavior. Mutual purifying implies and generates expectations, trust, solidarity, and hierarchy. Religious actions (e.g. the purifying of statues and pictures of gods) go back to identical structures. Purifying is a fundamental element of ritual actions. Ritual objects, but also the actors themselves, are purified. This process is often self-referential: purification happens not with regard to something unclean, but for the ritual. Purification rites are normally elements of rituals of transition (initiations, weddings, burials, rites of passage). Almost everywhere water serves as the main medium of purification – unless, as in Zoroastrianism (Zarathustra), the purity of the water itself represents a good to be protected, for which reason a preliminary purification by (consecrated) cow’s urine is required. Alongside water, fire (also in the form of incense buring) is the most widespread agent of purification. In addition, special substances are combined (e.g. incense [frankincense]) or prepared. Fasting, wearing new clothes, and abstinence (Asceticism) are other examples from the broad arsenal of purification techniques (cf. Preston). …

Pure and Impure

(4,031 words)

Author(s): Stausberg, Michael | Seidl, Theodor | Kollmann, Bernd | Schneider-Ludorff, Gury | Wandrey, Irina | Et al.
[German Version] I. Comparative Religion In differentiated religious systems or cultures, the categories of clean and unclean, or purity and impurity, represent a key classificatory-communicative distinction which determines the course of inner boundaries (e.g. those between clergy and laity or women and men) and outer boundaries (e.g. between believers and “pagans,” in-group/out-group). It enjoys particular plausibility in the context of dualistic models such as Zoroastrianism, for example (Zarathu…

Reinigung

(2,202 words)

Author(s): Stausberg, Michael | Cancik, Hubert | Seidl, Theodor | Kollmann, Bernd | Schneider-Ludorff, Gury | Et al.
[English Version] I. ReligionswissenschaftlichWie bei vielen anderen Tierarten (Tier) ist R. ein elementarer Bereich menschlichen Verhaltens. Gegenseitiges Reinigen impliziert und generiert Erwartungen, Vertrauen, Solidarität und Hierarchie. Rel. Handlungen (z.B. das Reinigen von Götterstatuen und -bildern) rekurrieren auf identische Strukturen.Reinigen ist ein Grundbestandteil ritueller Handlungssequenzen: Gereinigt werden Requisiten, aber nicht zuletzt die Akteure selbst. Der Prozeß ist dabei oft selbstreferentiell: Gereinigt wir…

Messiah/Messianism

(10,414 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Waschke, Ernst-Joachim | Wandrey, Irina | Dan, Joseph | Karrer, Martin | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Old Testament – III. Judaism – IV. Christianity – V. Dogmatics – VI. Islam I. History of Religions The terms messiah and messianism derive from the Hebrew word māšîaḥ, “anointed one.” Under the impact of foreign rule in Israel and Judah beginning in the 6th century bce, the word took on a new meaning: the Messiah was expected to bring deliverance from foreigners and oppressors, and in part to inaugurate the eschatological age of salvation (see II–IV below). The word's meaning was expanded in the …

Ascension of Christ

(3,139 words)

Author(s): Zeller, Dieter | Schmitt, Armin | Boring, M. Eugene | Farrow, Douglas B. | Mühling-Schlapkohl, Markus | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. History of Dogma and Dogmatics – V. Art History – VI. Judaism I. Religious Studies The attempt to ascend to the abode of the gods is associated with myths and expressions of the impossible (Deut 30:12; Prov 30:4) and of presumption (Isa 14:13f.; the Aloads, Bellerophon). Nevertheless divine help empowers (Wind, cloud, wings, Angels…

Fasting

(4,168 words)

Author(s): Freiberger, Oliver | Podella, Thomas | Böcher, Otto | Bieritz, Karl-Heinrich | Troickij, Aleksandr | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Old Testament – III. Christianity – IV. Ethics – V. Judaism – VI. Islam I. History of Religions “Fasting” is a universally attested cultural technique to produce an expansion of mental and social control, power, or awareness (Asceticism) by restricting the intake of food. Many different types of and reasons for fasting can be found in the history of religions, and they are combined in various ways. Several studies have been produced with regard to individual religions …

Traum/Traumdeutung

(4,811 words)

Author(s): Birbaumer, Niels | Maier, Bernhard | Albani, Matthias | Rösel, Martin | Wandrey, Irina | Et al.
[English Version] I. Neurobiologisch und psychologischT. sind Erlebnisinhalte, die üblicherweise während des Nachtschlafs auftreten und sich von nicht-geträumten realen Erlebnisinhalten durch freie zeitliche, örtliche sowie emotionale Assoziationen auszeichnen und von erwachsenen gesunden Menschen von real erlebten Gedächtnisinhalten unterschieden werden können. Im Kleinkindalter und bei verschiedenen Erkrankungen kann der subjektive Unterschied zw. T. und Realität aufgehoben werden (z.B. in der Sch…

Dreams/Interpretation of Dreams

(5,513 words)

Author(s): Bierbaumer, Niels | Maier, Bernhard | Albani, Matthias | Rösel, Martin | Wandrey, Irina | Et al.
[German Version] I. Neurobiology and Psychology – II. Religious Studies – III. Ancient Near East and Old Testament – IV. Early Judaism – V. Greco-Roman Antiquity – VI. New Testament – VII. Church History – VIII. Fundamental Theology – IX. Practical Theology – X. Missiology – XI. Art History I. Neurobiology and Psychology Dreams are hallucinatory experiences that generally occur during sleep. Unlike real experiences, they involve associations that are temporally, spatially, and emot…
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