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Pinytus

(72 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Πίνυτος/ Pínytos). Author of a conventional, one-distich funerary epigram on Sappho (Anth. Pal. 7,16; inclusion in the Garland of Philippus [32] highly doubtful). The rarity of the name suggests identification with the grammarian P. of Bithynium, freedman of Epaphroditus and secretary to Nero (Steph. Byz. s.v. Βιθύνιον). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography GA II 1, 438f.; II 2, 464f.  M. Lausberg, Das Einzeldistichon. Studien zum antiken Epigramm, 1982, 261, 265.

Hegemon

(288 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Ornella (Bologna) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ἡγέμων; Hēgémōn). [German version] [1] Of Thasos, poet of Comedies, first professional parodist, 5th cent. BC of Thasos. Poet of the Old Comedy (preserved is a fragment of the Philínna, cf. PCG V 547) and first professional parodist (παρῳδός/ parōidós, Aristot. Poet. 1448a 12f.). Parodizing literature became a literary genre through him, a funny appendix at the rhapsode games, similar to the satyr play at the tragedy agons (cf. [1]). In the only preserved fragment, H., known by the nickname ‘Lentil’ (φακῆ; phakê), recalls with humour the difficult beginnings of his own caree…

Irenaeus Referendarius

(93 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] 6th-cent. AD poet of epigrams, author of three erotic epigrams that originate in the Cycle of Agathias: Anth. Pal. 5,249 (love with the haughty Rhodope is represented as the merging of soul and body); 5,251 (about an unnamed woman whose pride is not even broken by the evanescence of her beauty) and 253 (appeal to the coy Chrysilla to submit to Cypris' wishes). This last poem was imitated by Niketas Eugenianos. Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography Al. and Av. Cameron, The ‘Cycle of Agathias, in: JHS 86, 1966, 8.

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Cyrillus

(1,862 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Tosi, Renzo (Bologna) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Κύριλλος; Kýrillos) [German version] [1] C. of Jerusalem Bishop Born c. AD 313, he was a member of the Jerusalem clergy (Jer. Chron. 2365 [GCS Eus. 7,236,7f. Helm/Treu]), and from 348 to 386 served as bishop of Jerusalem; he came to this office rather as a follower of the Homoeans (cf. Jer. loc. cit., Socr. 2,38,2 and Sozom. Hist. eccl. 4,20,1) than as a Nicaean (cf. Theod. Hist. eccl. 2,26,6). In 358 he was relieved of his office by  Acacius [2] of Caesarea and banished to Tarsus, rehabilitated in 359 a…

Phaennus

(109 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Φάεννος; Pháennos). Epigrammatic poet of the 'Garland' of Meleager [8] (Anth. Pal. 4,1,29f.), probably 3rd cent. BC. Preserved are one funerary epigram for the Spartan Leonidas [1] who fell at Thermopylae (Anth. Pal. 7,437; belongs to the Laconophile school of Hellenistic epigrammatic poetry, cf. Epigram I E ), and another for a cricket buried by its owner (7,197); although the subject is a topos (cf. 7,189; 190; 192; 198; 364), this poem seems to depend on Mnasalces (Anth. Pal. 7,194). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography GA I 1, 159; 2, 457f.  G. Herrlinger, T…

Ptolemaeus

(19,876 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαῖος/ Ptolemaîos). Personal name meaning 'warlike' (not 'hostile'), first recorded in Hom. Il. 4,228; the name occurred in Macedonia in the 5th and 4th cents. BC, from where it spread to Thessaly, still in the 4th cent. (IG IX 2, 598). It became prominent with the Lagid dynasty, and became common, not only in Egypt, where it may at first have indicated solidarity with the dynasty, but also elsewhere. It underwent many deformations and transmutations. Ptolemies Famous persons: P. [1] I Soter, P. [6] III Euergetes; P. [22], the son of Caesar; the scientist Claudius P. [65]. Ameling, Wa…

Capiton

(87 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Καπίτων; Kapítōn). Otherwise unknown epigrammatist, of whom a witty distichon has survived: beauty without grace is compared with a ‘bait without rod’ (Anth. Pal. 5,67,2). C. (Capito) is quite a widespread Roman cognomen: the assumption that he might be identical with the epic poet from Alexandria, mentioned in Ath. 10,425, is thus without foundation; equally, it hardly is likely that he is identical with Pompeius C., who demonstrates his mastery in every metre and rhythm (TrGF 186). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography FGE 34.

Calleas

(80 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Καλλέας; Kalléas) of Argos. Otherwise unknown composer of a sympotic epigram (Anth. Pal. 11,232) based on the saying: ‘wine reveals one's character’, a version of the old saying in vino veritas (cf. Alcaeus fr. 333 Voigt; Thgn. 500; Aesch. fr. 393 Radt etc.). The very rare compound λυσσομανής (‘raging’, v. 2) was probably adopted from  Antipater [8] of Sidon (Anth. Pal. 6,219,2). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography V. Longo, L'epigramma scoptico greco, 1967, 106 H. Beckby, Anthologia Graeca, III-IV, 21967.

Mundus Munatius

(86 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] Greek epigrammatist whose inclusion in the 'Garland' of Philippus of Thessalonica has not been proved conclusively (for one thing, the combination of the nomen Munatius, [widespread in the Late Republican period], with the cognomen Mundus, [rare in Philip’s time, i.e. first half of 1st cent. AD]), is not verified). Only one formal poem about the ruins of Mycenae is preserved (Anth. Pal. 9,103; cf. e.g. Alpheus[3] of Mytilene, ibid. 9,101 and 104). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography GA II.1, 436-439; 2, 463f.

Konstantinos

(947 words)

Author(s): Vassis, Ioannis (Athens) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(see also Constantinus). [German version] [1] K. VII Porphyrogennetos Byzantine emperor (Byzantine emperor AD 905-959; sole ruler 945-959). Son of the Byzantine emperor Leon VI (886-912) and of Zoe Karbonopsina; for K. as a politician see Constantinus [9]. His literary activity was directed toward the preservation and codification of knowledge for practical purposes. Thus, the Excerpta [1], a historical and moral encyclopaedia which he inspired, are a gigantic, thematically structured compilation in 53 volumes. It consists of sections from several h…

Pompeius

(8,348 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of a Plebeian family (connection with the Campanian city of Pompeii is unclear). The family acquired political significance with P. [I 1]; he is the origin of the Rufi branch. With P. [I 8] a related branch attained consulship and with his son Cn. P. [I 3] Magnus supplied the most significant member of the gens. Both lineages continue until the early Imperial period (family trees: [1; 2; 3]). I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P., Q. Consul 141 BC A homo novus and popular orator (Cic. Brut. 96), he became consul in 141 BC, despite resistance from the nobility a…

Thymocles

(67 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Θυμοκλῆς; Thymoklês). Epigrammatist from the Garland of Meleager [8]. A single poem survives (from the style probably 3rd cent. BC), assigned without obvious reason to the part of the Anthologia Palatina dedicated to pederasty (Anth. Pal. 12,32): a rebuke to the beloved person (once rejecting advances, but now robbed of the bloom of youth). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography GA I.1, 196; 2, 552.

Cometas

(210 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Κόμητάς; Kómētás) [German version] [1] Poet of epigrams Writer of epigrams, probably to be identified with the grammatikós of the same name in the middle of the 9th cent. in Constantinople. Four poems survive: in the poems Anth. Pal. 15,36-38 (the latter consisting of seven dodecasyllables) C. claims to have restored Homer's verses by punctuating them and rescuing them from ‘useless rot’, only to be mocked for it by the scholiast J (cf.  Constantinus [2] of Rhodus), in a marginal note (in trimeters) to the 57 hexameters in which C. acclaims the rising of Lazarus (Anth. Pal. 15,40). Albiani,…

Lucillius

(268 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Λουκίλλιος; Loukíllios). Epigrammatist, lived in Rome under the patronage of Nero, to whom he dedicated the second book of his epigrams in gratitude for his financial support (Anth. Pal. 9,572). The identifications with the grammarian Lucillus of Tarrha and Lucilius [II 4], Seneca's friend, are baseless. About 120 epigrams are extant (also probably a good part of the 52 poems attributed to ‘Lucianus’; cf. [1]). These are of an often remarkable quality and are almost all satirica…

Marianus

(317 words)

Author(s): Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA)
I Greek [German version] [1] Poet c. AD 500 Early Byzantine poet, contemporary of emperor Anastasius I (AD 491-518). According to Suda s.v. M., he originally was a descendent of a Roman family of senators, emigrated to Eleutheropolis in Palestine with his father and was a patríkios under Anastasius, composed iambic paraphrases of the works of Hellenistic authors ( Theocritus; Apollonius [2] Rhodius' ‘Argonautica; Callimachus' ‘Hecale, ‘Hymns, ‘Epigrams; Aratus [4]; Nicander's‘Theriaka). Possibly identical with M. [2]. Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) Bibliography 1 J. Geffcken,…

Pytheas

(1,173 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πυθέας; Pythéas). [German version] [1] P. from Aegina 5th cent. BC, his son proposed revenge measures after the battle of Plataeae After the battle of Plataeae (479 BC) his son Lampon [1] proposed desecrating the corpse of  Mardonius [1] in revenge for Leonidas [1]  (Hdt. 9,78). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] P. from Aegina Persian POW after a battle at Sciathos, freed after Salamis Fought so bravely in a skirmish at Sciathos that he inspired wonder in the victorious Persians, who consequently treated him with the greatest respect a…

Heraclius [1-7]

(1,041 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ἡράκλειος; Hērákleios). Two prominent Sicilians known from the trial of  Verres in 70 BC: [German version] [1] Citizen of Syracuse, 1st cent. BC The son of a certain Hieron, a wealthy citizen of Syracuse. In 73 BC he inherited from a homonymous relative a magnificent house including furnishings and 3 million sesterces (Cic. Verr. 2,14,35). Because of the machinations of Verres, who contested the will, H. lost his wealth and the inheritance. The real estate was returned to him by L. Caecilius [I 13] Metellus, the successor of Verres (Cic. Verr. 2,19,47-50; 25,62). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) …

Cosmas

(834 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Κοσμᾶς; Kosmâs). [German version] [1] C. and Damianus Doctor's saints and patrons of healing Doctor saints and patrons of healing. The Greek Synaxarion (ed. by H. Delehaye) contains three different pairs of saints with these names: 1) the sons of Theodata, who were born in Asia Minor and buried in Pelusium, whose feast day is 1 November; 2) the Roman martyrs stoned during the rule of  Carinus (283-285), whose feast day is 1 July; 3) the Arab martyrs killed with their three brothers under the emperor Diocleti…

Leonidas

(1,431 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Λεωνίδας; Leōnídas). Cf. also Leonides. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 5th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), son of Anaxandridas, around 490/89 BC he succeeded his stepbrother Cleomenes [3] I. In 480, after the evacuation of the positions in the Vale of Tempe, L. was given the task of defending the gates of Thermopylae against the army of Xerxes, while the Greek fleet was to thwart the advance of the Persian squadrons at Artemisium (Northern Euboea) (Hdt. 7,175). At best, L. had 8,000 men at his disposal (among them 1,000 perioikoi and 300 Spartiates),…
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