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Ortygia

(154 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Ὀρτυγία/ Ortygía, “quails' island”). Mythical birthplace of Artemis, originally separate from that of her twin brother's Apollo (Hom. h. 3,16). The place name, which can not be geographically located in the oldest sources (Hom. Od. 5,123; 15,404), was later identified with different places of worship dedicated to Artemis (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,419), especially with Delos (Pind. Paian 7b fr. 52h,48 Maehler; Kall. h. 2,59, epigr. 62,2 and fr. 18,7; Apoll. Rhod. 1,419 and 537), the i…

Galaxaure

(68 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Γαλαξαύρη; Galaxaúrē).  Oceanid, mentioned in Hes. Theog. 353 (alongside Plexaure) and in H. Hom. 5,423 (based on that Orph. Fr. 49,26) where she picks flowers with Persephone when the latter is abducted by Hades. The etymology of the name is uncertain (for hypotheses see [1; 2]). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) Bibliography 1 E. Maass, Aglaurion, in: MDAI(A) 35, 1910, 338 2 P. Kretschmer, Mythische Namen, in: Glotta 10, 1920, 51ff.

Nesaea

(65 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Νησαίη, -α/ Nēsaíē, -a; Lat. Nesaee, -a, also Nisaee: Verg. Aen. 5,826 ‘(N. from the island ’). One of the most frequently mentioned Nereids (Hes. Theog. 249; Hom. Il. 18,40; Hyg. Fab. praef. 8; Apollod. 1,12; Verg. Aen. 5,826; Prop. 2,26,16). Name found on the lid of an Attic red-figured lekanis [1]. Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) Bibliography 1 N. Icard-Gianolio, s.v. Nesaea, LIMC 6.1, 838.

Halios geron

(212 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (ἅλιος γέρων; hálios gérōn, ‘Old Man of the Sea’). Old sea deity, originally without a name of his own, later identified with  Nereus,  Proteus,  Phorcys and  Glaucus, with whom he shares the characteristics of old age, gift of prophecy, and ability to change shape [1; 2]. In the Iliad, Halios geron (HG) appears as the father of  Thetis and the  Nereids (Hom. Il. 1,358; 538 = 556; 18,141; 20,107; 24,562; Hom. Od. 24,58), but he is not explicitly equated with Nereus until Hesiod (Theog. 234; 1003; cf. schol. Pind. Pyth. 9,164 Drach…

Thoosa

(88 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
(Θόωσα, 'who rushes off'). [German version] [1] Sea Nymph Sea nymph, daughter of  Phorcys [1], by Poseidon mother of the Cyclops Polyphemus (Hom. Od. 1,71-73, on which all later mentions depend: Nonn. Dion. 39,293; Apollod. Epit. 7,4; Porph. De antro Nympharum 35; Hesych. s. v. T.; in Theocr. 11,26 not mentioned by name). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) [German version] [2] Daughter of Poseidon Daughter of Poseidon, according to a version of the myth mother by Apollo of the singer Linus (Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi 46). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)

Halia

(166 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
(Ἁλία, Ἁλίη; Halía, Halíē), ‘belonging to the sea’ [1]. [German version] [1] Nereid  Nereid catalogued [2] in Hom. Il. 18,40, Hes. Theog. 245 (θ' Ἁλίη [3]; but Θαλίη [4]) and Apollod. 1,11. A female figure on the lid of an Attic red-figured lekanis is labelled H. [5]. Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) [German version] [2] Beloved of Poseidon According to a Rhodian myth in Diod. Sic. 5,55, sister of the  Telchines, who raised Poseidon. H. had seven children by the latter ─ six sons and a daughter, Rhodos. The sons were driven insane by Aphrodite as punish…

Theodamas

(290 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Θειοδάμας/ Theiodámas; Lat. Theodamas, Thiodamas). King of the Dryopes, who were driven from their homeland by Heracles [1]; father of Hylas. A connexion is made in Hellenistic literature between T. and the resettlement of the brigand Dryopes in the Peloponnese (Bacchyl. Paean 4; Hdt. 8,43; 8,47; Diod. Sic. 4,37) - perhaps following Hesiod's Kḗykos gámos ('the wedding of Ceyx', Hes. fr. 263-269; [1]): in Apollonius Rhodius (1,1211-1219) as a pretext for war Heracles provokes a conflict over the ploughing bull of T., a poor farmer, w…

Idyia

(63 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Ἰδυῖα/ Idyîa, also Εἰδυῖα/ Eidyîa, ‘the knowing one’).  Oceanid (Hes. Theog. 352), wife of  Aeëtes, mother of  Medea (Hes. Theog. 960; Soph. fr. 546 TrGF; Apoll. Rhod. 3,243; Lycoph. 1024; Cic. Nat. D. 3,48; Ov. Epist. 17,232; Apollod. 1,129; Hyg. Fab. 25) and of  Chalciope [2], only in Tzetz. Lycoph. 798, 1024, mother of  Apsyrtus [1] as well. Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)

Telchines

(585 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Τελχῖνες/ Telchînes). Telchines, the mythical original people of the Aegean, particularly of Rhodes; malicious blacksmiths and magicians. According to ancient etymology the name is derived from thélgein ('bewitch') (EM; Hsch. s.v. T.). According to local historical tradition the T. are the native inhabitants of the islands of Rhodes, Crete, Cyprus and Ceos; the name T. is however documented on the Greek mainland (Teumessus, Delphi, Sicyon). The T. raise Poseidon on Rhodes, who fathers children with their …

Hippothoe

(138 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
(Ἱπποθόη/ Hippothóē, ‘the one as fast as a horse’). In [1] and [3], the name indicates a connection to Poseidon and the sea. [German version] [1] Nereid  Nereid (Hes. Theog. 251; Apollod. 1,11). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) [German version] [2] Daughter and murderess of Pelias One of the daughters of  Pelias, who - deceived by  Medea's cunning - dismembered their father and boiled him in order to rejuvenate him (Apollod. 1,95; Hyg. Fab. 24). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) [German version] [3] Daughter of Mestor and Lysidice Daughter of  Mestor and  Lysidice, abducted by Poseido…

Proteus

(270 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Πρωτεύς/ Prōteús). Sea god, Poseidon's herdsman of seals, sometimes also his son. P. possesses the characteristics  typical of sea gods: old age ( hálios gérōn : Hom. Od. 4,349), the gift of prophecy, and the ability to transform (cf. Heracles' wrestling matches with Nereus and Triton, or that of Peleus with Thetis). In Hom. Od. 4,349-570, P. is taking a midday rest among the seals on the Egyptian island of Pharos; with the help of P.' daughter Eidothea, Menelaus [1] overcomes the god…

Cymodoce

(59 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Κυμοδόκη; Kymodóke, Cymodoce, ‘wave-receiver’).  Nereid who calms the wind and waves, in Hes. Theog. 252f., Hom. Il. 18,39, Verg. Aen. 5,826 (accordingly Verg. G. 4,338) and 10,225 ( Cymodocea: Aeneas's ship turned into a nymph), Hyg. Fab. praef. 8, Stat. Silv. 2,2,20. Also represented on vases [1]. Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) Bibliography 1 N. Icard-Gianolio, s.v. Kymodoke, LIMC 6.1, 163f.

Cleite

(108 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Κλείτη; Kleítē, ‘The Famous One’). The daughter of  Merops, newly wed wife of Cyzicus, king of the Doliones, who was killed by his guest  Jason [1] in a fatal night-time duel whereupon C. hung herself because of her grief (Apoll. Rhod. 1,974ff., 1063ff.; Parthenius 28 MythGr 2). The waters of spring came from C.'s tears (Orph. A. 594ff.; Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,1065f. [1]) or those of the nymphs of the grove crying around her (Apoll. Rhod. 1,1067ff. [2]). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) Bibliography 1 H. Fränkel, Noten zu den Argonautika des Apollonios, 1968, 130f. 2 S. Ja…

Glauconome

(61 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Γλαυκονόμη; Glaukonómē).  Nereid at Hes. Theog. 256 and Apollod. 1,11. Her name means ‘she who lives/rules in the glossy (γλαυκός; cf.  Glauce) sea’ [1]. For the word formation, cf. the names Amphinome: ‘she who rules widely’ and Eurynome: ‘she who rules for miles around’ (Hom. Il. 18,44; 398f.). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) Bibliography 1 G. Herzog-Hauser, s.v. Nereiden, RE 17, 15.

Hyperborei

(591 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Ὑπερβόρε(ι)οι; Hyperbóre(i)oi). The Hyperboreans, a mythical people imagined as living at the edge of the world (Pind. Isthm. 6,23) ‘beyond the North Wind (Boreas)’ (thus ancient etymology, which is considered uncertain today [1]). The H. share with other marginal peoples (such as the Ethiopians, their southern counterpart), traits of the ideal concept of a paradisical existence in proximity to the gods, in a country favoured by climate [2; 3; 4]. By their relation to  Apollo, the…

Thanatos

(298 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Θάνατος/ Thánatos). Personification of death in Greek art and mythology, of practically no cultic significance. T. is the son of Nyx (night) and the twin brother of Hypnos (Sleep, cf. Somnus; Hes. Theog. 211f.; 756f.; Hom. Il. 14,231) with whom he transported the body of the dead Sarpedon [1] from Troy to Lycia (Hom. Il. 16,453-457; 16,671-683). This scene, a favourite on Attic vases from the late 6th cent. BC on, was adopted into every-day life in that T. and Hypnos function as e…

Halitherses

(125 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
(Ἁλιθέρσης; Halithérsēs), ‘having courage on the sea’ [1; 2]. [German version] [1] Son of Ancaeus [2] and Samia Son of  Ancaeus [2] and Samia (Asius EpGF fr. 7; PEG I). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) [German version] [2] Soothsayer and companion of Odysseus Soothsayer in the Odyssey, son of Mastor (2,157f.), old friend of Odysseus and Telemachus (2,253; 17,68). Divining a bird sign in light of an earlier prophesy, he warns the suitors, in vain, of the return of Odysseus (2,161ff.). After the suitors are murdered, he advises against a civil war (24,451ff.) [3; 4]. Ambühl, Annemarie (Groni…

Halosydne

(127 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
(Ἁλοσύδνη; Halosýdnē). [German version] [1] Sea goddess Name of the sea or a sea goddess ( Amphitrite, according to schol. ad loc.) in Hom. Od. 4,404, where the seals appear as the ‘offspring of H.’ Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) [German version] [2] Epithet of Thetis The epithet of  Thetis (Hom. Il. 20,207) and the  Nereids as a whole (Apoll. Rhod. 4,1599). The etymology was disputed in antiquity (‘daughter of the sea’, among other meanings; cf. Hsch. s.v. ὕδναι); today, H. is defined as ‘sea-wave’ (with gen. ἅλός and n-stem from ὕδωρ) [1; 2; 3]. The reference may be as early as …

Galene

(156 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Γαλήνη / Galḗne, ‘calmness of the sea’).  Nereid in Hes. Theog. 244; according to the Euhemerist Mnaseas, daughter of Ichthys and Hesychia (FHG 3 155,33). As embodiment of the sea's brighter aspect, G. smoothes the waves in Anth. Pal. 5,156 (Meleager) and 7,668 (Leonidas) as well as in Lucian 5. ‘Conversation of the sea-gods’. An epigram by Adaeus (Anth. Pal. 9,544) describes a cameo of Tryphon with the portrait of G. that, however, cannot be unequivocally identified with extant m…

Opheltes

(251 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Ὀφέλτης/ Ophéltēs). Son of king Lycurgus [3] of Nemea and of Eurydice. He was killed as a child by a snake, when, despite an oracle's warning, his nurse, the Lemnian Hypsipyle (Lemnian women), left him unguarded on the ground to show the Seven against Thebes a spring. The Seven kill the snake, rescue the nurse from the death penalty and bury O. The seer Amphiaraus, who regards the misfortune as a bad omen for the war campaign, renames O. Archemorus ('beginning of death'). The fune…
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