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Nesaea

(65 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Νησαίη, -α/ Nēsaíē, -a; Lat. Nesaee, -a, also Nisaee: Verg. Aen. 5,826 ‘(N. from the island ’). One of the most frequently mentioned Nereids (Hes. Theog. 249; Hom. Il. 18,40; Hyg. Fab. praef. 8; Apollod. 1,12; Verg. Aen. 5,826; Prop. 2,26,16). Name found on the lid of an Attic red-figured lekanis [1]. Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) Bibliography 1 N. Icard-Gianolio, s.v. Nesaea, LIMC 6.1, 838.

Molorchus

(111 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Μόλορχος/ Mólorchos, Μόλορκος/ Mólorkos: reconstructed in its original form in [1]). Poor elderly farmer from Cleonae, host to Heracles [1] before and after his battle against the Nemeic lion; inventor of mousetraps. Famous because of Callimachus' Victoria Berenices (SH 254-268C) at the beginning of the 3rd book of the Aítia, to which later mentions of M. as an examplar of hospitality refer (Verg. G. 3,19; Ps.-Tib. 4,1,12f.; Stat. Theb. 4,159ff.; Nonnus, Dion. 17,52ff.; versions of the myth in Probus on Verg. G. 3,19; Apollod. 2,74f.). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groninge…

Galaxaure

(68 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Γαλαξαύρη; Galaxaúrē).  Oceanid, mentioned in Hes. Theog. 353 (alongside Plexaure) and in H. Hom. 5,423 (based on that Orph. Fr. 49,26) where she picks flowers with Persephone when the latter is abducted by Hades. The etymology of the name is uncertain (for hypotheses see [1; 2]). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) Bibliography 1 E. Maass, Aglaurion, in: MDAI(A) 35, 1910, 338 2 P. Kretschmer, Mythische Namen, in: Glotta 10, 1920, 51ff.

Opheltes

(251 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Ὀφέλτης/ Ophéltēs). Son of king Lycurgus [3] of Nemea and of Eurydice. He was killed as a child by a snake, when, despite an oracle's warning, his nurse, the Lemnian Hypsipyle (Lemnian women), left him unguarded on the ground to show the Seven against Thebes a spring. The Seven kill the snake, rescue the nurse from the death penalty and bury O. The seer Amphiaraus, who regards the misfortune as a bad omen for the war campaign, renames O. Archemorus ('beginning of death'). The fune…

Proteus

(270 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Πρωτεύς/ Prōteús). Sea god, Poseidon's herdsman of seals, sometimes also his son. P. possesses the characteristics  typical of sea gods: old age ( hálios gérōn : Hom. Od. 4,349), the gift of prophecy, and the ability to transform (cf. Heracles' wrestling matches with Nereus and Triton, or that of Peleus with Thetis). In Hom. Od. 4,349-570, P. is taking a midday rest among the seals on the Egyptian island of Pharos; with the help of P.' daughter Eidothea, Menelaus [1] overcomes the god…

Hyperborei

(591 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Ὑπερβόρε(ι)οι; Hyperbóre(i)oi). The Hyperboreans, a mythical people imagined as living at the edge of the world (Pind. Isthm. 6,23) ‘beyond the North Wind (Boreas)’ (thus ancient etymology, which is considered uncertain today [1]). The H. share with other marginal peoples (such as the Ethiopians, their southern counterpart), traits of the ideal concept of a paradisical existence in proximity to the gods, in a country favoured by climate [2; 3; 4]. By their relation to  Apollo, the…

Hekaerge

(344 words)

Author(s): Baudy, Gerhard (Constance) | Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
(Ἑκαέργη). [German version] [1] Epithet of Artemis Epithet of  Artemis (Clem. Al. Strom. 5,8,48,4f.; EpGr 460,6). Baudy, Gerhard (Constance) [German version] [2] Maiden active in the cult of Artemis A mythical maiden named Aspalis Ameilete H., from the city of Melite in Thessaly, active in the cult of  Artemis. Because she hanged herself in order to escape being raped by the tyrant Tartarus, the virgins made an annual sacrifice to her by hanging a young goat (Nikander in Antoninus Liberalis 13). Baudy, Gerhard (Constance) [German version] [3] Kore from the island of Ceos A kore from the …

Halosydne

(127 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
(Ἁλοσύδνη; Halosýdnē). [German version] [1] Sea goddess Name of the sea or a sea goddess ( Amphitrite, according to schol. ad loc.) in Hom. Od. 4,404, where the seals appear as the ‘offspring of H.’ Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) [German version] [2] Epithet of Thetis The epithet of  Thetis (Hom. Il. 20,207) and the  Nereids as a whole (Apoll. Rhod. 4,1599). The etymology was disputed in antiquity (‘daughter of the sea’, among other meanings; cf. Hsch. s.v. ὕδναι); today, H. is defined as ‘sea-wave’ (with gen. ἅλός and n-stem from ὕδωρ) [1; 2; 3]. The reference may be as early as …

Hippothoe

(138 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
(Ἱπποθόη/ Hippothóē, ‘the one as fast as a horse’). In [1] and [3], the name indicates a connection to Poseidon and the sea. [German version] [1] Nereid  Nereid (Hes. Theog. 251; Apollod. 1,11). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) [German version] [2] Daughter and murderess of Pelias One of the daughters of  Pelias, who - deceived by  Medea's cunning - dismembered their father and boiled him in order to rejuvenate him (Apollod. 1,95; Hyg. Fab. 24). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) [German version] [3] Daughter of Mestor and Lysidice Daughter of  Mestor and  Lysidice, abducted by Poseido…

Oceanus

(1,756 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
(Ὠκεανός/ Ōkeanós, Latin Oceanus). [German version] I. Myth Divine representative of the world river, later world sea, that flows in a ring around the earth. In Homer's Iliad O. lives with his wife Tethys on the boundaries of the earth (Hom. Il. 14,200ff.) and is the only god who does not take part in the meeting on Olympus (ibid. 20,7). He is the origin of the gods and of absolutely everything (ibid. 14,201 = 302; 246); from him flow the seas, the rivers, the springs and the wells (ibid. 21,195ff.). Nevertheless he is subordinate to the power of Zeus (ibid. 14,244-248; 21,198f.). Hera's tale of…

Halia

(166 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
(Ἁλία, Ἁλίη; Halía, Halíē), ‘belonging to the sea’ [1]. [German version] [1] Nereid  Nereid catalogued [2] in Hom. Il. 18,40, Hes. Theog. 245 (θ' Ἁλίη [3]; but Θαλίη [4]) and Apollod. 1,11. A female figure on the lid of an Attic red-figured lekanis is labelled H. [5]. Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) [German version] [2] Beloved of Poseidon According to a Rhodian myth in Diod. Sic. 5,55, sister of the  Telchines, who raised Poseidon. H. had seven children by the latter ─ six sons and a daughter, Rhodos. The sons were driven insane by Aphrodite as punish…

Idyia

(63 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Ἰδυῖα/ Idyîa, also Εἰδυῖα/ Eidyîa, ‘the knowing one’).  Oceanid (Hes. Theog. 352), wife of  Aeëtes, mother of  Medea (Hes. Theog. 960; Soph. fr. 546 TrGF; Apoll. Rhod. 3,243; Lycoph. 1024; Cic. Nat. D. 3,48; Ov. Epist. 17,232; Apollod. 1,129; Hyg. Fab. 25) and of  Chalciope [2], only in Tzetz. Lycoph. 798, 1024, mother of  Apsyrtus [1] as well. Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)

Thoosa

(88 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
(Θόωσα, 'who rushes off'). [German version] [1] Sea Nymph Sea nymph, daughter of  Phorcys [1], by Poseidon mother of the Cyclops Polyphemus (Hom. Od. 1,71-73, on which all later mentions depend: Nonn. Dion. 39,293; Apollod. Epit. 7,4; Porph. De antro Nympharum 35; Hesych. s. v. T.; in Theocr. 11,26 not mentioned by name). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) [German version] [2] Daughter of Poseidon Daughter of Poseidon, according to a version of the myth mother by Apollo of the singer Linus (Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi 46). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)

Thanatos

(298 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Θάνατος/ Thánatos). Personification of death in Greek art and mythology, of practically no cultic significance. T. is the son of Nyx (night) and the twin brother of Hypnos (Sleep, cf. Somnus; Hes. Theog. 211f.; 756f.; Hom. Il. 14,231) with whom he transported the body of the dead Sarpedon [1] from Troy to Lycia (Hom. Il. 16,453-457; 16,671-683). This scene, a favourite on Attic vases from the late 6th cent. BC on, was adopted into every-day life in that T. and Hypnos function as e…

Neso

(68 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
(Νησώ/ Nēsṓ). [German version] [1] Nereid Nereid (Hes. Theog. 261). For the name cf. Nesaea. Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) [German version] [2] Daughter of the Trojan king Teukros Daughter of the Trojan king Teucer, sister of Batieia, and (like her sister) wife of Dardanus [1] and mother of the Marpessian Sibyl (Lycoph. 1465 with schol.; Arr. FGrH 156 F 95; Eust. ad Hom. Il. 2,814). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)

Phorcys

(228 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Φόρκυς/ Phórkys, Latin Phorcus, Phorcys, Phorcyn). [German version] [1] Sea god Sea god, son of Pontus and Gaia, brother of Nereus (Hes. Theog. 237; in Orph. Fr. 16 son of Oceanus and Tethys, in Orph. Fr. 114 Titan); with his sister Ceto he fathered monsters (Phorcydes) such as the Graeae, Gorgons (Gorgo [1]), Echidna and the snake Ladon [1] (Hes. Theog. 270-303; 333-336); according to others he was also the father of the Sirens (Soph. fr. 861 TrGF), the Hesperides (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 4,1399d), Scylla (Apoll. Rhod. 4,828f. with schol.) and Thoosa (Hom. Od. 1,71f.). In the Odyssey, where a…

Ida

(165 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
(Ἴδη; Ídē, Lat. Ida). [German version] [1] Nymph of the Ida mountains in the Troad Eponymous nymph of the  Ida mountains [2] in the Troad (Ps.-Plut. 13,3 = GGM 2,652), in Vergil (A. 9,177), mother of  Nisus, and a huntress; image with caption on the coins of Scamandria and Scepsis [1]. Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) [German version] [2] Nymph of the Cret. Ida Eponymous nymph of the Cretan  Ida [1], daughter of Melisseus/Melissus or of Corybas, mother of the  Daktyloi Idaioi by Dactylus (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,1129) or Zeus (Stesimbrotus FGrH 107 F 12). Accor…

Oceanids

(235 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Ὠκεανίδες/ Ōkeanídes, older form Ὠκεανῖναι/ Ōkeanînai, Lat. Oceanitides). Daughters of Oceanus and of Tethys, of whom Hesiod lists the 41 eldest by name while their total number like that of their brothers, the rivers, amounts to 3,000 (Hes. Theog. 346-370). Additional O. catalogues are to be found in Hom. H. 2,418ff.; Orph. fr. 49,21ff.; Apollod. 1,8; Hyg. Fab. praef. 6; Hyg. Fab. 182; Verg. G. 4,334ff. Occasional O. are probably old deities of the Underworld [1] like Styx, the oldest …

Halios geron

(212 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (ἅλιος γέρων; hálios gérōn, ‘Old Man of the Sea’). Old sea deity, originally without a name of his own, later identified with  Nereus,  Proteus,  Phorcys and  Glaucus, with whom he shares the characteristics of old age, gift of prophecy, and ability to change shape [1; 2]. In the Iliad, Halios geron (HG) appears as the father of  Thetis and the  Nereids (Hom. Il. 1,358; 538 = 556; 18,141; 20,107; 24,562; Hom. Od. 24,58), but he is not explicitly equated with Nereus until Hesiod (Theog. 234; 1003; cf. schol. Pind. Pyth. 9,164 Drach…

Selli

(156 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Σελλοί/ Selloí). Inhabitants of Dodona, priests of the oracle of Zeus there. The S. appear as early as in Homer as its interpreters (Hom. Il. 16,234 f.; cf. Soph. Trach. 1166 f.; Callim. H. 4,286; Callim. Fr. 186,14). Their attributes (not washing their feet and sleeping on the ground) suggest a ritual connexion with the earth. The archaic priesthood of the S. later passed to the female Peleiades (Str. 7,7,12). As a variant name Helloí is recorded (ScholiaIl 16,234; Pind. Fr. 59; Callim. Fr. 675; Str. 7,7,10); it is often assumed that there is an ety…
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