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Caphisodorus

(69 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Καφισόδωρος; Kaphisódōros). Son of Caphisodorus; father of Metrophanes (PP 6, 14679) and Ptolemaeus (PP 6, 14688); between 163 and 145 BC archisōmatophýlax ( Court titles B.2.); stratēgós of the Egyptian district Xoite and priest of the políteuma of the Boeotians; in 156/55 eponymous priest of Alexander. PP 1/8, 269; 3/9, 5167. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Clarysse, G. v. d. Veken, The Eponymous Priests of Ptolemaic Egypt, 1983, 28.

Pachom

(69 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (also called Hierax). Son of Pachom (PP VIII 300b), father of Pamenches, attested as syngenḗs and stratēgós in various Egyptian nomes c. 50/30 BC. Besides his state offices, P. held a number of indigenous priestly offices, which subsequently also appear in the titles of his son. PP I/VIII 265; 301. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography L. Mooren, The Aulic Titulature in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1975, 119f. Nr. 0127.

Komarches

(282 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (κωμάρχης; kōmárchēs). Expressive designation for an official of the Ptolemaic and Roman period in Egypt, who was responsible for all the concerns of village administration ( kṓmē ), was subordinate to the toparches and nomarches (the komarches was also active in metropoleis, being responsible for city districts). In the Ptolemaic period, the office of the dioikētḗs appointed him, and it was a (much) aspired post. The komarches came from the village for which he was responsible. The differentiation from the komogrammateús is difficult; he w…

Patroclus

(1,124 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
(Πάτροκλος/ Pátroklos, also Πατροκλῆς/ Patroklês; Lat. Patroclus). [German version] [1] Companion to Achilleus Son of Menoetius [1] from Opus (Hom. Il. 11,814; his mother's name is not given in Homer, alternative suggestions in Apollod. 3,176), best friend of Achilleus [1]. In his childhood, P. kills a fellow-player out of anger during a game of dice and then flees to Phthia to Peleus, who gives him to Achilleus as a companion (Hom. Il. 23,85-90; Hellanikos FGrH 4 F 145; Apollod. 3,176). According to Pind. O…

Ptolemais

(1,304 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαίς; Ptolemaís). [German version] [1] Daughter of Ptolemaeus [1] I and Eurydice [4] Daughter of Ptolemaeus [1] I and Eurydice [4]; presumably married to a descendant of the pharaoh Nectanebus [2]; from 298 BC betrothed, and from 287 married to Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes. PP VI 14565. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Huß, Das Haus des Nektanebis und das Haus des Ptolemaios, in: AncSoc 25, 1994, 111-117  J. Seibert, Historische Beiträge zu den dynastischen Verbindungen in hellenistischer Zeit, 1967, 30 ff. 74 f. [German version] [2] P. from Cyrene Ancient scholar of m…

Lagus

(171 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Λάγος, Λαγός/ Lágos, Lagós; personal name not from lagṓs, ‘hare’, but probably from laoí, ‘people’). [German version] [1] Macedonian from Eordaia or Orestis, father of Ptolemy I Macedonian from Eordaea or Orestis. His status is unknown; no definite conclusion about high nobility can be drawn from his marriage to Arsinoe [II 1]. Father of Ptolemaios I and Menelaus. Ptolemy fostered the memory of L.: a hippodrome in Alexandria and a town in Arsinoe were called Lágeion. The legend of Philippus II fathering Ptolemy I is, therefore, probably of later origin. The Ptolemies …

Caphisophon

(40 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Καφισοφῶν; Kaphisophôn). Son of Philippus (PP 6, 16640), from Cos, doctor (?); theorós ( Theoria, Theoroi) of Ptolemy II or III sent to the sanctuary of Asclepius of Cos. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography S. Sherwin-White, Ancient Cos, 1978, 103.

Harsiesis

(108 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Son of Paious (?), established himself during the Civil War (132-124 BC) as counter-pharaoh and was the last Egyptian who carried the title ‘Pharaoh’. He was presumably supported by the Theban priests; between 26 June and November 131 BC, dating was based on him in Thebes, but already on 10 November, he was no longer recognized there. He fled to the north, where his rebellion came to an end before 15 September 130. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography K. Vandorpe, City of Many a Gate, in: S. P. Vleeming (ed.), Hundred-Gated Thebes, 1995, 203-239, esp. 233ff. B. C. McGing, R…

Argaeus

(103 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] [1] Son of Ptolemy I (Ἀργαῖος; Argaîos). Son of Ptolemy I (and of Eurydice?); murdered by Ptolemy II (because of a conspiracy?) after 282 BC. PP 6, 14489. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography C. Habicht, Argaeus, Ptolemy II. and Alexander's corpse, AHB 2,4, 1988, 88-89. [German version] [2] Volcanic massif in Cappadocia (Ἀργαῖος, also Ἀργαῖον ὄρος; Argaîon oros). Erciyes Daǧı, highest volcanic massif in  Cappadocia (3917 m) south of Kayseri. Volcanic peak of the same name (modern Hasan Daǧı) in south-west Cappadocia (3268 m). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography…

Theophilus

(1,625 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
(Θεόφιλος; Theóphilos). [German version] [1] Comic poet, 4th cent. BC Comic poet of the 4th cent. BC; victor at the Dionysia of 329 [1. test.2], fourth there in 311 with his Pankratiastḗs [2.190, 200]. T. was of the declining Middle and the incipient New Comedy [I G]. Of the nine known titles, two - Νεοπτόλεμος ( Neoptólemos, 'Neoptolemus'), Προιτίδες ( Proitídes, 'The daughters of Proitus') - are mythological plays, the others deal with everyday material. In the Ἐπίδημοι ( Epídēmoi, 'The Pilgrims'), a slave considers whether to run away from his kind master (fr. 1); in the Φίλαυλος ( Phílaul…

Trapezites

(136 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (τραπεζίτης/ trapezítēs). Leader in Egypt of the state bank (Ptolemaic: basilikḕ trápeza, 'royal bank'; Roman period: dēmosía trápeza, 'public bank') in the mētropóleis (Metropolis) of the nomes ( Nomos [2]) but also in smaller towns. The trapezites changed money, collected taxes and other monies intended for the state exchequer and passed them on to the Basilikón (Royal Exchequer). His role is comparable with those of the sitólogos ('grain commissioner') and the kollybistḗs ('money changer'). Under the Ptolemies trapezitai usually leased their posts; from…

Katalogeion

(85 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (καταλογεῖον; katalogeîon). Administrative office under the control of the archidikastḗs in Alexandria where, from the Augustan period onwards, civil documents were registered, processed and copied; the original was taken (from AD 127, POxy. 34) to the Hadrianḕ bibliothḗkē and the copy to the toû Nanaíou bibliothḗkē (comparable procedure under the Ptolemies?). In Roman times the katalogeion also handled the lists of ephebes. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography F. Burkhalter, Archives locales et archives centrales en Egypte, in: Chiron 20, 1990, 1…

Aristoteles

(5,596 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Frede, Dorothea (Hamburg) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Et al.
(Ἀριστοτέλης; Aristotélēs). [German version] [1] Athenian oligarch Athenian oligarch who, in 404 BC, was banned from Athens and sent to Sparta by  Lysander (Xen. Hell. 2,2,118). Later, he was one of the 30 Tyrants in Athens (Xen. Hell. 2,3,2;  Triakonta), who sent him to Sparta with the request for a Spartan occupational force (Xen. Hell. 2,3,13). Traill, PAA, 174765. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Rhodian envoy, 166/5 BC Rhodian envoy to Rome who, in 166/5 BC, failed in his request for a renewal of the amicitia by the Senate (Pol. 30,23,2-4) [1. 167,2; 2. 208]. Günther, …

Serapion

(769 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Σεραπίων; Serapíōn). [German version] [1] S. of Antioch Mathematical geographer, 1st cent. BC Mathematical geographer to whom Plin. HN 1,2 referred to as gnomonicus ('measurer of shadows'). In 59 BC, Cicero (who was his contemporary) received S.'s geographical treatise from Atticus as the newest source for his planned Geographica but was hardly able to understand the content (Cic. Att. 2,4,1). In the treatise, Cicero encountered S.'s fierce criticism of Eratosthenes [2] (ibid. 2,6,1). S. estimated the circumference of the sun to be 18 times t…

Philo

(5,673 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλων/ Phíl ōn). [German version] [I 1] Athenian politician Athenian from Acharnae who was exiled by the Oligarchic regime in 404 BC (Triakonta). During the civil war, he lived as a metoikos (resident without Attic citizenship) in Oropos awaiting the outcome of events. Following his return, when he applied to join the boulḗ he was accused of cowardice and other misdemeanours at a dokimasia investigation (Dokimasia) (Lys. 31; possibly 398 BC). Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography Blass, vol.1, 480f.  Th.Lenschau, A. Raubitschek, s.v. P. (2), RE 19, 2526f. …

Timarchus

(555 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Τίμαρχος/ Tímarchos). [German version] [1] Athenian from Sphettus, politician, 4th cent. BC Son of Arizelus from the demos of Sphettus, Athenian politician in the 4th cent. BC who held several offices from 361/0 on (member of the council and of the financial office, legate). The speech of Aeschines [2] (who was about the same age as T.) of 345 in which he defended against a parapresbeías graphḗ filed by T. was directed against T., who was a follower of Demosthenes [2] and an adherent of pronounced anti-Macedonian politics. The accusatio…

Thraseas

(148 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Θρασέας/ Thraséas). Son of Aëtus [1], father of Ptolemaeus [29] and Apollonius (187-175 probably his brother's successor as Seleucidian governor, cf. 2 Macc 3:5), citizen of Aspendus, Alexandria [1] and Athens (after 224; T. is honoured for obtaining copious gifts [1. 46 f. no. 17 E]); like his father strategos of Cilicia under Ptolemaeus [6] III (after 238), strategos of Syria and Phoenicia under Ptolemaeus [7] IV (between 217 and 204). His homonymous son (PP VI 14977) worked as a high official from Cyprus and hosted Delphic theōroí (Theoria) in Tamassus [4. 12328]…

Xanthippus

(704 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ξάνθιππος/ Xánthippos). [German version] [1] Athenian from the Cholargos deme, father of Pericles, around 500 BC Athenian from the Cholargos deme, father of Ariphron, Pericles [1] and a daughter, born c. 520 BC, married to Agariste [2], a niece of the Alcmeonid Cleisthenes [2]. In 489 BC X. argued as plaintiff for Miltiades' [2] conviction. In Aristoteles [6] X. therefore appears not only as a leading demagogue but also as an adversary of Miltiades ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 28,2). In the spring of 484 X. was banished by ostrakismos from Athens, perhaps as an o…

Philammon

(224 words)

Author(s): Knorr, Thorsten (Hamburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Φιλάμμων; Philámmōn). [German version] [1] Singer and lyrist Mythical singer and lyrist of Delphi, a son of Apollo (Pherecydes of Athens FGrH 3 F 120); his mother is variously given as Philonis (ibid.), Chione [2] (Ov. Met. 11,316f.) and Leuconoe [1] (Hyg. Fab. 161). His sons - for whom there are also other genealogical backgrounds - were Thamyris (Eur. Rhes. 916; 925) and Eumolpus (Theoc. 24,108). At Delphi, P. is said to have introduced choirs of virgins (Pherecydes loc. cit.) and choirs within the t…

Tryphe

(133 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (τρυφή; tryph ). A specifically Ptolemaic ruler ideal (cf. the epithet Trýphōn, Trýphaina), arising out of the cult of the victorious Dionysus and his celebrations. Thryphe meant rule providing splendour and brilliance, wealth and fortune. Since it also included the fertility of the land, it could be linked to perceptions of the activities of the pharaoh. On the other hand, as a Greek term for luxus with negative connotations, thryphe was connected, e.g. under the influence of Stoicism, with (particularly 'oriental') softness and effeminacy (Latin luxuria, effemi…
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