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Hippostratos

(167 words)

Author(s): Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἱππόστρατος). [English version] [1] Verführer der Periboia Sohn des Amarynkeus, verführte Periboia, Tochter des Hipponoos (Apollod. 1,74; Hes. fr. 12 M-W). Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg) [English version] [2] Neffe von Attalos [1] Neffe von Attalos [1], Bruder von Kleopatra, wurde nach deren Tod von Alexandros [4] d. Gr. hingerichtet (vgl. Iust. 11,5,1). Mit anderen Männern dieses Namens nicht zu identifizieren. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, Nr. 390. [English version] [3] H. Soter Indogriech. König des 1. Jh. v. Chr. in Ghandhara (Pakistan) einer …

Aristonicus

(1,329 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστόνικος; Aristónikos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (2nd half 4th cent. BC) of Marathon, a wealthy man whose political allegiances lay with  Lycurgus and  Demosthenes (Plut. Mor. 846a); in 336/335 BC, he proposed the act about the  Panathenaea (LSCG no. 33), in 335/334 BC, together with Lycurgus, the psephisma for the deployment of the Athenian fleet against pirates (IG II2 1623, B 276-285), and prior to 322 BC, several laws to the   nomothetai (Alexis PCG 2, fr. 131,2). In 324/323 BC, A. faced prosecution in the trials of Harpa…

Stratonice

(826 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Στρατονίκη; Stratoníkē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Alexander [2] I, c. 500 BC Daughter of the Macedonian king Alexander [II 2] I. In the winter of 429/8 BC, she was married by her brother Perdiccas [2] II to Seuthes [1], nephew of the Odrysian king Sitalces [1], in exchange for Seuthes' having achieved the withdrawal of Thracian troops from Macedonia (Thuc. 2,101,5 f.). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) [German version] [2] Wife of Antigonus [1], 4th cent. BC Daughter of one Corrhagus, married to Antigonus [1], mother of Demetrius [2] Poliorketes and a Philippus, who died…

Chares

(964 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Χάρης; Chárēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos, 4th cent. BC Athenian strategos of the 4th cent. BC. In 367/6 he supported Phleius when it was hard-pressed by Argos and Sicyon. The aid he gave to the oligarchs on Corcyra led to that island's leaving the 2nd Athenian League, and brought Athens discredit among its confederates. Not re-elected as strategos until 357/6. The treaty between Athens and the Thracian kings  Berisades, Amadocus I and Cersobleptes under C. in 357 both confirmed the division of Thracian rule and established Athenian poss…

Leonidas

(1,431 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Λεωνίδας; Leōnídas). Cf. also Leonides. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 5th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), son of Anaxandridas, around 490/89 BC he succeeded his stepbrother Cleomenes [3] I. In 480, after the evacuation of the positions in the Vale of Tempe, L. was given the task of defending the gates of Thermopylae against the army of Xerxes, while the Greek fleet was to thwart the advance of the Persian squadrons at Artemisium (Northern Euboea) (Hdt. 7,175). At best, L. had 8,000 men at his disposal (among them 1,000 perioikoi and 300 Spartiates),…

Marsyas

(971 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Μαρσύας; Marsýas). [German version] [1] Phrygian rivergod and Celaenae's god of protection Phrygian river god and Celaenae's god of protection, represented as satyr or silenus. The name is derived from a toponym that can be found repeatedly throughout Asia Minor and Syria; the river, at the source of which Celaenae lies, also carries this name (M. [5]). M. was considered the discoverer of flute playing ( aulós), the inventor of the bandage used for flute playing ( phorbeiá) and of songs for the worship of the goddess Cybele. According to the myth, the possibility to pla…

Meleager

(1,931 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Richard L. (Ilmmünster) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Μελέαγρος/ Meléagros, Lat. Meleager). [German version] [1] Hero from the pre-Trojan period, Argonaut, [1] Hero from the pre-Trojan period, Argonaut Mythological hero. Hero from the generation before the Trojan War, from Calydon [3], the capital city of the Aetolians. As one the Argonauts ( Argonautae) M. participated in the funereal games for Pelias (Stesich. PMG 179; Diod. 4,48,4). As the brother of Deianeira he is also linked with the Hercules cycle (Bacchyl. 5,170-175; Pind. fr. 70b). First and foremost, however, he is associated with the local legend of Calydon. In the archaic …

Demaratus

(514 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Et al.
(Δημάρατος; Dēmáratos). [German version] [1] Corinthian aristocrat 7th cent. BC Corinthian aristocrat, member of the  Bacchiadae family. D. made his fortune as a merchant around the middle of the 7th cent. BC, mainly through trade with Etruria. When he had to leave Corinth during the rule of  Cypselus he settled in Tarquinii with his followers and married an Etruscan aristocrat. According to ancient tradition the marriage produced two sons, one of whom became the first Etruscan king of Rome,  Tarquinius P…

Diphilus

(1,242 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Δίφιλος; Díphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian operator of a silver mine c. 330 BC Athenian operator of a silver mine. In 330 BC, he was charged by Lycurgus with illegally mining the mesokrineís (pillars), which served both as markers to separate the various leases within the mine but also as safety props, and sentenced to death. His assets of 160 talents were confiscated and distributed amongst the citizens (Ps.-Plut. Mor. 843D).  Mining Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. Engels, Studien zur polit. Biographie des Hypereides, 21993, 224-237 M. H. Hansen, Demography…

Marsyas

(872 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Ziegler, Konrat † (Göttingen) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Μαρσύας). [English version] [1] phryg. Flußgott und Schutzgottheit von Kelainai Phrygischer Flußgott und Schutzgottheit von Kelainai, dargestellt als Satyr oder Silen. Der Name ist aus einem im kleinasiatisch-syr. Raum mehrfach vorkommenden Toponym abgeleitet; auch der Fluß, an dessen Quelle Kelainai liegt, trägt diesen Namen (M. [5]). M. galt als Entdecker des Flötenspiels ( aulós), Erfinder der Binde, die beim Flötespielen verwendet wurde ( phorbeiá) und von Liedern zur Verehrung der Göttin Kybele. Dem Mythos zufolge ist die Möglichkeit, mit einer Flöte Musik zu machen, von Athene entdeckt worden, doch verwirft sie ihre Entdeckung, als sie feststellt, daß sich dabei ihr Gesicht entstellt. M. übernimmt die Flöte und fordert dann im Vertrauen auf seine musikalische…

Aristonikos

(1,210 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Köln) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστόνικος). [English version] [1] Athen. Politiker (2.H. 4. Jh. v. Chr.) Aus Marathon, reich und polit. auf Seiten des Lykurgos und des Demosthenes (Plut. mor. 846a), beantragte 336/5 v. Chr. das Gesetz über die kleinen Panathenäen (LSCG Nr. 33), 335/4 mit Lykurgos das Psephisma über den Einsatz der athenischen Flotte gegen Piraten (IG II2 1623, B 276-285) und vor 322 Gesetze bei den Nomothetai (Alexis PCG 2, fr. 131,2). 324/23 wurde A. in den Harpalosprozessen (Harpalos) angeklagt (Deinarch. fr. XXVII und fr. 4 p. 146 Conomis). 323/22 bewirkte…

Meleagros

(1,672 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Richard L. (Ilmmünster) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Μελέαγρος, lat. Meleager). [English version] [1] Heros aus vortroian. Zeit, Argonaut Myth. Held aus der Generation vor dem Troianischen Krieg, aus Kalydon [3], der Hauptstadt der Aitoler. Als Argonaut (Argonautai) nimmt M. an den Leichenspielen für Pelias teil (Stesich. PMG 179; Diod. 4,48,4). Als Bruder der Deianeira ist er auch mit dem Herakles-Zyklus verbunden (Bakchyl. 5,170-175; Pind. fr. 70b). In erster Linie wird er jedoch mit der Lokalsage von Kalydon assoziiert. In der archa. Epoche gab es zwei Varianten des Mythos. Der einen zufolge wird M., der Sohn des…

Leonidas

(1,269 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Λεωνίδας). Vgl. auch Leonides. [English version] [1] Spartan. König, 5. Jh. v. Chr. Spartan. König, Agiade (Agiadai), Sohn des Anaxandridas, etwa 490/89 v.Chr. Nachfolger seines Stiefbruders Kleomenes [3] I. L. erhielt 480 nach der Räumung der Tempe-Stellung den Auftrag, die Thermopylen gegen das Heer des Xerxes zu verteidigen, während die griech. Flotte bei Artemision (Nordeuboia) die Weiterfahrt der pers. Geschwader vereiteln sollte (Hdt. 7,175). L. verfügte allenfalls über 8000 Mann (darunter 1000 Perioi…

Chares

(906 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom) | Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Χάρης). [English version] [1] Athenischer Stratege, 4.Jh. v.Chr. Athenischer Stratege des 4.Jh. v.Chr. Unterstützte 367/6 das von Argos und Sikyon bedrängte Phleius. Seine Hilfe für die Oligarchen auf Korkyra führte zum Austritt der Insel aus dem 2. Att. Seebund und brachte Athen bei den Bundesgenossen in Mißkredit. Erst 357/6 wieder zum Strategen gewählt. Im Vertrag zwischen Athen und den thrak. Königen Berisades, Amadokos I. und Kersobleptes wurde unter Ch. 357 die Teilung der thrak. Herrschaft und d…

Diphilos

(1,137 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi (Latina)) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Δίφιλος). [English version] [1] Athener. Betreiber eines Silberbergwerks um 330 v. Chr. Athener. Betreiber eines Silberbergwerks. Er wurde um 330 v.Chr. wegen gesetzwidrigen Abbaus der mesokrineís (Pfeiler), die als Markscheiden für die Grubenanteile und als Sicherheitsstützen dienten, von Lykurg angeklagt und zum Tode verurteilt. Das Vermögen von 160 Talenten wurde eingezogen und an die Bürger verteilt (Ps.-Plut. mor. 843D). Bergbau Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. Engels, Studien zur polit. Biographie des Hypereides, 21993, 224-237  M.H. Hansen, Demogra…

Dioscorides

(1,511 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Διοσκουρίδης; Dioskourídēs). [German version] [1] Son of Polemaeus, naval commander in 314-313 BC Son of Polemaeus, nephew of  Antigonus [1] Monophthalmus. Led the fleet to a few victories as naval commander in 314-13 BC. Nothing further is known about his life. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography R. A. Billows, Antigonus the One-Eyed, 1990, 381f. [German version] [2] Polyhistor of the 4th and 3rd cents. BC Polyhistor of the 4th and 3rd cents. BC, pupil of Isocrates (Ath. 1,18,11 A). Of his works, the following titles are known (cf. FGrH 3 B 594): 1. Apomnēmoneúmata (‘Memorabil…

Agathocles

(1,543 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Ἀγαθοκλῆς; Agathoklês) [German version] [1] of Athens Archon 357/56 BC Archon 357/56 BC (Dem. Or. 47,44; Diod. Sic. 16,9). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Tyrant King of Syracuse (316-288 BC) Later king of Syracuse, born 361/0 BC in Thermae in Sicily. Son of Carcinus, who had been banned from Rhegium, and who under  Timoleon had received citizenship in Syracuse and had a pottery manufactory. A. had an adventurous youth, participated in several martial undertakings and early on fostered broad-reaching politica…

Nicaea

(1,521 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νίκαια; Níkaia). [German version] [1] Naiad Naiad, daughter of the Phrygian river god Sangarius and the goddess Cybele. As a huntress, N. spurns love and remains a virgin. In Memnon of Heracleia, she does not yield to Dionysus and so he resorts to a ruse and turns into wine the spring from which N. is accustomed to drinking. She becomes drunk and falls asleep. Dionysus overpowers her in her sleep and fathers with her 'satyrs and others' (Memnon FGrH 434 F 41, 8f.). In Nonnus, Dion. 15,169-16,405, the…

Philocles

(895 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Φιλοκλῆς; Philoklês). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue Athenian demagogue, elected to the office of stratēgós in 406/5 BC and dispatched with the fleet to Conon [1] at Samos, both of whom thereupon were in command of the fleet in the Hellespont. Re-elected as a stratēgós, and subsequently partially to blame for the defeat in 405 BC at Aigos Potamos, P. was captured and executed by Lysander [1] for having had the crews of two captured Spartan triremes thrown into the sea (Xen. Hell. 1,7,1; 2,1,32f.; Diod. Sic. 13,104,1f.; Paus. 9, 32,9; Plut. Lysander 13,1f.; Plut. Sulla 42,8). Schmi…
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