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Argumentatio

(700 words)

Author(s): Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen)
[German version] As a means of persuasion, argumentatio refers to the argument in its linguistic formulation as opposed to its conceptual content, which is called argumentum (Quint. Inst. 5,14,1; Fortun. 2,23). Aristot. Rh. 1354a 1-6 states that  rhetoric and  dialectics have in common the purposes of analyzing, supporting, and defending or attacking a statement. The way to achieve these purposes in speech was through certain means of persuasion (πίστεις: 1354a 13-14;   probationes ), which had been neglected in the pre-Aristotelian technai. According to Quint. Inst. 5, pr…

Alcidamas

(454 words)

Author(s): Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen)
[German version] From Aeolian Elaea, son of Diocles, author of scholarly texts ( Mousika). Contemporary of Isocrates (436-338) and Gorgias of Leontini's student (see Quint. Inst. 3,1,10). Pl. Phdr. 261d calls A. the ‘Eleatic Palamedes’, who speaks according to techne, with the effect that the same thing appears to the audience as equal and unequal, as one thing and many things, as near and far at the same time. Aristot. Rh. 1373b 18 refers to A.'s defensive speech (not extant) on behalf of the Messenes who had separated from Sparta a…

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Corax

(964 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen)
(Κόραξ; Kórax). [German version] [1] Mountains Mountains to the east of Aetolia, today's Giona in the Nomos Phokis, 2484 m high; Str. 7 fr. 6; 9,3,1; 10,2,4; Liv. 36,30,4; 37,4,7. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 1, 650. [German version] [2] see Siegecraft see  Siegecraft Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) [German version] [3] C. From Syracuse, inventor of rhetoric In ancient rhetoric tradition, C. and Tisias (T.) from Syracuse were regarded as the inventors and founders of rhetoric, the practical, learnable and teachable téchnē rhētorikḗ based on exper…

Thrasymachus

(492 words)

Author(s): Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen)
[German version] from Chalcedon (Θρασύμαχος Χαλκηδόνιος/ Thrasýmachos Chalkēdónios). Sophist rhetorician (Pl. Resp. 328b 6; epitaph: 85 A 8 DK; Suda s. v. T.). Aristot. Soph. el. 33,183b 29 placed him between Tisias and Theodorus [I 3] of Byzantium in the development of rhetorical theory. Aristophanes [3] satirized T. in the Daitalḗs (85 A 4 DK) in 427 BC as a sophist and rhetorician. T.' speech for the Larisaeans (Clem. Al. Strom. 6,16) must have been written after 413, when Archelaus [1] came to power. In Plato [1] (Resp. 328b 8), he appears along with his follower Cleitophon ( ibid. 340a…

Discourse, standards of

(636 words)

Author(s): Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen)
[German version] Standards of discourse is not a term used in ancient  rhetoric nor  dialectics. They are the requirements met in a speech or conversation, by an orator or a participant in a dialogue, which achieves the desired effects. These standards are the subject of empirical, practice-related theories (τέχνη; tēchnē, ars) of public as well as private ‘discourse’, including within the conversational setting long or short monologues as well as questions and longer or shorter answer (Pl. Grg. 449b9-c8, Prt. 334d6-335c2) ─ thus the topic of rhetoric, eristics, and dialectics. The s…

Tisias

(204 words)

Author(s): Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Walter, Uwe (Cologne)
(Τεισίας/ Teisías). [German version] [1] From Syracuse, founder of rhetoric, 5th cent. BC Syracusan; ancient tradition ascribed to him, in addition to Corax [3] (see there for details), the invention and foundation of rhetoric in the 5th cent. BC. Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) [German version] [2] From Athens, c. 400 BC Athenian, relative of Charicles [1], a councillor (Isoc. Or. 16,43) during the oligarchy ( Triákonta ), who in c. 397/6 BC sued Alcibiades for damages because at the Olympic Games (416?; [1. 202 f.]) the latter's father Alcibiades [3] had proclaimed…

Probatio

(1,226 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen)
('probation'; 'test'; 'evidence'; 'proof'.) [German version] I. Law In Roman law, probatio included, without clear distinction, the central phase in every civil trial: the hearing of the evidence as a whole, the issue of apportioning the burden of proof and, finally, the list of submissions of evidence. The hearing of evidence by the iudex ('judge') is scarcely treated in the juridical writings; it was not regarded as an issue of law. The apportioning of the burden of proof was probably not observed as strictly as it is today…