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Tagos

(144 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (ταγός; tagós). Tagos (etymologically from táxis, cf. German Herzog) is usually seen as an elected (originally for life, later in the event of war: IG IX 2,257) highest official of the Thessalian League [1. 237-249; 2]. The effect of the dominance of the noble 'clans' (Aleuadae; Echecratidae; Scopadae) in the 5th cent. BC was that the office of tageía lost its significance [3. 125-127]; under Iason [2] the office temporarily gained a new prestige [5]. Recent studies, in contrast, see tagos as a genuinely local official (the official term for a high office instead being a…

Mnaseas

(244 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale)
(Μνασέας; Mnaséas). [German version] [1] Politician Phocian, father of Aristotélous hetaíros (‘companion of Aristoteles [6]’) Mnason (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 11; Aristot. Pol. 1304a 10-14). Aristotle says the cause of the Third “Sacred War” was a dispute between M. and Euthycratus over an heiress, but this explanation (probably originating from Mnason) is considered inadequate. After the death of Onomarchus, in 352/1 BC Phayllus appointed M. guardian of Phalaecus and stratēgós, but he was killed shortly afterwards during a nocturnal attack by the Boeotians (Diod. 16,38,6f.). Beck, Ha…

Phalaecus

(335 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Φάλαικος; Phálaikos). [German version] [1] Phocian army officer Son of Onomarchus. P., while a minor, was deployed in 352 BC by his uncle Phayllus [1] as fourth stratēgòs autokrátōr ('general or executive with special powers of authority') of the Phocians in the 3rd Sacred War. Mnaseas [1] was appointed as his guardian but died as early as 351 (Diod. Sic. 16,38,6f.). After an inconclusive series of battles against Thebes, P. was deposed in 347, apparently because of his opposition to the Phocians' attempts to make peace (…

Sparton

(70 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Σπάρτων; Spártōn). Theban general of the Boeotian contingents that inflicted a heavy defeat on the Athenians at Coronea in 447 BC. The victory levelled the way for the founding of the Boeotian League (Boeotia B.). S.'s name alludes to the Sparti (Plut. Agesilaos 19,2; cf.  Thuc. 1,113,2; Diod.  Sic. 12,6,2; Xen. Mem. 3,5,4). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography D. R. Shipley, A Commentary on Plutarch's Life of Agesilaos, 1997, 239.

Neogenes

(42 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Νεογένης/ Neogénēs) from Euboea. In about 378/7 BC with the help of Iason [2] of Pherae he established a tyranny in Histiaea, but was expelled soon after by the population with Spartan help (Diod. Sic. 15,30,3f.). Beck, Hans (Cologne)

Timarchus

(555 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Τίμαρχος/ Tímarchos). [German version] [1] Athenian from Sphettus, politician, 4th cent. BC Son of Arizelus from the demos of Sphettus, Athenian politician in the 4th cent. BC who held several offices from 361/0 on (member of the council and of the financial office, legate). The speech of Aeschines [2] (who was about the same age as T.) of 345 in which he defended against a parapresbeías graphḗ filed by T. was directed against T., who was a follower of Demosthenes [2] and an adherent of pronounced anti-Macedonian politics. The accusatio…

Callaeschrus

(52 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Κάλλαισχρος; Kállaischros). Son of Critias, Athenian, born about 490 BC, grand-nephew of Solon and father of the sophist  Critias (Diog. Laert. 3,1; Pl. Chrm. 153c; Pl. Prt. 316a). C. is possibly identical with an oligarch of the same name in 411 (Lys. 12,66). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies 8792,VI.

Timoclea

(73 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Τιμόκλεια; Timókleia). Sister of the Theban general Theagenes [3]. During the Macedonian sacking of Thebes (in 335 BC) she was attacked in her house and raped, but was ultimately able to outwit and kill the perpetrator. Impressed by her courage, her dignity and her pride, Alexander [4] the Great refrained from convicting her (Plut. Alexandros 12; Plut. Mor. 259d-260d; Polyaenus, Strat. 8,40). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Berve 2, Nr. 751.

Medius

(333 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
[German version] [1] Dynast of Larisa, conqueror of Pharsalus 395 BC (Μήδιος/ Mḗdios in MSS; better Μήδειος/ Mḗdeios, in epigraphy). Dynast of Larisa [3], of the Aleuadae family, successor of Aristippus; in 395 BC he joined the newly formed anti-Spartan alliance in the fight against the tyrant Lycophron [2] of Pherae and captured Pharsalus, which housed a Spartan garrison (Diod. Sic. 14,82,5f.; cf. Aristot. Hist. an. 618b). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography H.-J. Gehrke, Stasis, 1985, 191. [German version] [2] Hetairos of Alexander the Great and author of a work about him Son of Oxyth…
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