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Theodora

(850 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Θεοδώρα; Theodṓra). [German version] [1] Roman empress, about AD 300 Roman empress; stepdaughter (Aur. Vict. Caes. 39,25; Eutr. 9,22,1) or daughter (Anon. Vales. 1,1; Philostorgius 2,16) of Maximianus [1]. Contrary to the assertions of later sources, she was already married to Constantius [1] even before he was elevated to the rank of Caesar in AD 293  ( tetrárchēs IV.), and probably when he was praefectus praetorio to Maximianus (unclear Paneg. 2,11,4). The six children of their marriage represent the younger branch of the Constantinian imperial fam…

Calocaerus

(53 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] Magister camelorum (Aur. Vict. Caes. 41,11: perhaps in the sense of ‘leading shepherd slave’) on Cyprus. The revolt of AD 334 (?), which he led, was of only local significance and quickly suppressed, C. himself sentenced in Tarsus by  Dalmatius (PLRE 1, 177). Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) Bibliography Kienast, 21996, 308f.

Valeria

(553 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] First priestess of Fortuna Muliebris, 5th cent. BC Sister of P. Valerius [I 45] Poplicola, said to have saved Rome in 488 BC from Coriolanus (Plut. Coriolanus 33; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,39; 8,43,1 f.); first priestess of Fortuna Muliebris (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,55,3-5; Fortuna B.). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography Latte, 181. [German version] [2] Daughter of P. Valerius [I44], ca. 500 BC Daughter of P. Valerius [I 44] (elected belatedly cos. for the year 509 BC), sent to Porsenna with 19 other hostages (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 5,32,3). They …

Hannibalianus

(197 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Afranius H. Cos. ord. AD 292 Officer in Probus' staff (HA Probus 22,3), in AD 285, praefectus praetorio alongside Asclepiodotus, in 292 consul ordinarius again with Asclepiodotus, in 297-8 praefectus urbi. Perhaps the father of Maximian's stepdaughter  Theodora. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) [German version] [2] Half-brother of Constantinus [1] beginning 4th cent. AD Half-brother of  Constantinus [1] († AD 337) from the marriage between Constantius [1] and Theodora. Unlike his brothers Dalmatius [1] and Iulius Constantius [4], H…

Silvanus

(1,338 words)

Author(s): Mihály-Lorand, Dészpa | Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Roman god of the forest Male deity. Mihály-Lorand, Dészpa I. Cult and places of worship Roman god of the forest [German version] A. Etymology and origin Based on the etymology of the name, four hypotheses have so far been put forward regarding the origins of this god: S. is identical with the Etruscan god Selvan [4. 54-59; 12. 200]; S. is an adjectival derivation of the word silva ('forest') and was originally an epithet of either Faunus [14. 213] or Mars [6. 132]; S. is a direct derivative of the Latin silva ('forest'), with the suffix -no- adding the meaning of 'mas…

Nepotianus

(177 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Son of Flavius N. (cos. AD 336) Son of the half-sister of Constantinus [1], Eutropia [2], and Flavius N. ( cos. AD 336). As a member of the Constaninian dynasty, he rose up in Rome against Magnentius. He defeated the army of the latter's praef. praet., Anicius (or Anicetus), in Italy and claimed to be the ruler for a while (June 350), until Magnentius's magister officiorum, Marcellinus [5], defeated him. Magnentius's retribution against N.'s supporters was bloody. PLRE 1,624, No. 5. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) [German version] [2] Father of the Emperor Nepos,…

Galerius

(1,279 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] C. G. Eques, Rom. official, praefectus Aegypti probably AD 16-31 Eques, who probably came from Ariminum. Of his public offices only the praefectus Aegypti is known, which he held for 16 years, probably AD 16-31. [1; 2]; P. Oxy 3807. Died returning from Egypt. Married to Helvia, Seneca's aunt. PIR2 G 25. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 G. Bastianini, in: ZPE 17, 1975, 270 2 I. Cazzaniga, in: Analecta Papyrologica 4, 1992, 5ff. [German version] [2] M. G. Aurelius Antoninus Son of the later emperor Antoninus Pius, died before AD 138 Son of the later emperor …

Domitius

(5,665 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
Roman plebeian family name, attested from the 4th cent. BC onwards (ThlL, Onom. 3,217-227). The most important families into the 1st cent. AD are the Ahenobarbi [I 1-8] and the Calvini [I 9-12]. Identification of some members of the family in the 2nd cent. BC is uncertain. I. Republican period [German version] Domitii Ahenobarbi Family history in Suet. Ner. 1-5. Legend of the origin of the cognomen (ThlL, 1,135; in manuscript also Aenobarbus) ‘Red-beard’, ‘Bronze-beard’ in Suet. Ner. 1,1; Plut. Aem. 25. The family was probably accorded patrician st…

Eutropia

(83 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Wife of emperor Maximianus, about AD 320 Wife of Emperor Maximianus. Mother of Maxentius and Fausta ([Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 40,12). After AD 324, she spent some time as a Christian pilgrimess in Palestine and drew Constantine's attention to the desecration of the holy place of Mambre (Eus. Vita Const. 3,52). Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) [German version] [2] Half-sister of Constantine Half-sister of Constantine. Mother of Nepotianus, who in AD 350 was declared Augustus in Rome. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)

Martinianus

(62 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] Magister officiorum of Licinius [II 4]; after the fall of Hadrianopolis [3] (3 July AD 324), Licinius made him Augustus (incorrectly Caesar in the literary sources). After Licinius's capitulation, Martianus was banished to Cappadocia, where he was executed in 325. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) Bibliography PLRE 1, 563 M. Clauss, Der magister officiorum in der Spätantike (4.-6. Jh.), 1980, 171.

Ceionius

(1,308 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] C. Commodus, L. Cos. ord. 78 AD A native of Etruria; senator from the time of Nero; cos. ord. 78; governor of Syria from AD 78/79; married to Appia Severa (PIR2 C 603) [1. I 308; 2. 45 A. 22]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. Commodus, L. Cos. ord. 106 AD Son of [1]. Cos. ord. AD 106 (PIR2 C 604). Married to one Plautia, their son being C. [3]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] C. Commodus, L. = Aelius Caesar, L. Cos. ord. 136 AD Son of [2]. His maternal half-brother was M. Vettulenus Civica Barbarus [3. 845]. Born on 13 January in about AD 1…

Helena

(1,535 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Ἑλένη; Helénē, Lat. Helena). [German version] [1] Beautiful wife of Menelaus ('Helen of Troy') Goddess who was worshipped at various cult sites in and around Sparta, especially in the Menelaion in  Therapne (Hdt. 6,61; Paus. 3,15,3; Hsch. s.v. Ἑλένεια, [1]). In  Rhodes she had a cult as H. Dendritis (Paus. 3,19,10), in  Cenchreae and  Chios she is attested as a deity of springs (Paus. 2,2,3; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἑλένη). There is no completely reliable etymology for her name [2. 63-80]. For evidence of her cult i…

Hermogenes

(2,256 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἑρμογένης; Hermogénēs). [German version] [1] Companion of Socrates Athenian, son of Hipponicus, brother of Callias, appears on many occasions in the Socratic writings of Plato and Xenophon as the companion of  Socrates. Together with the eponymous character, H. is the dialogue partner of Socrates in Plato's Cratylus. Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 SSR VI B 71-77 2 Davies, 269-270. [German version] [2] From Aspendus, assistant commander of Antiocus I H. from Aspendus. In the struggle of Antiochus [2] I (died in 261 BC) to regain territories in Asia Minor…

Diocletianus

(1,598 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] A. Origin and career Roman emperor AD 284-305. Full name (first adopted after his elevation): C. Aurelius Valerius D. (CIL III 22), previously Diocles (Lactant. De mort. pers. 9,11; 19,5; 52,3; Lib. Or. 19,45f.; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 39,1; POxy 3055). Born in 241 or 244 in Dalmatia (Malalas 311 Bonn; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 39,1), presumably in Salona (Theoph. 10,13 de Boor). In a purely military career he advanced to the position of dux Moesiae (Zon. 12,31) and after that to commander of the bodyguard ( protectores domestici) of Emperors Carus and Numerianus (Zo…

Maximinus

(1,433 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] [1] M. Daia Roman emperor, AD 305-313 Roman emperor, AD 305-313. The son of Galerius' [5] sister and like Galerius born in Dacia ripensis, possibly in Šarkamen (modern Serbia), he rose from protector to tribunus (Lactant. De mort. pers. 19,6); as Galerius' adoptive son he became Caesar in the change of rulers of 305 (thereafter: Galerius Valerius Maximinus). As co-ruler over the diocese Oriens he continued the persecutions of Christians (Euseb. Hist. eccl. 8,14,9). Like Constantinus [1] not content with the title …

Theotecnus

(83 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] (Θεότεκνος; Theóteknos). Curator civitatis ( logistḗs; Logistaí ) of Antioch [1]  c. 312 AD; instigated there a city petition to Maximinus [1] Daea to resume the persecution of Christians (Tolerance E.); later, as governor of Syria (?) and initiator of an oracle site of Zeus, he was a leading adviser of Maximinus on religious policy; Licinius [II 4] had him executed, because of his closeness to Maximinus rather than his religious conviction, in 313 AD (Eus. HE 9,11,6). Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)

Crispus

(224 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Flavius Iulius C. Son of the Emperor Constantine, 317 AD The eldest son of Constantine [1] from the liaison with Minervina, born c. AD 300; elevated together with his half-brother Constantius [2] II and Licinianus Licinius to the rank of caesar on 1 March 317 in Serdica. Unlike his brother he also became a princeps iuventutis in the same year and in 318 he was the first of the newly elevated caesars to be made consul. C., who was obviously groomed to be the successor, was sent to Gaul with his own praef. praet. after his elevation as caesar. He married Helen, an otherw…

Lollianus

(1,348 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Λολλιανός; Lollianós) [German version] [2] addendum to the family name Hedius. [German version] [3] Q. Hedius L. Plautius Avitus Consul ord. 209 AD For the form of the name, in which Gentianus is also recorded once, cf. [1. 232f.]. Patrician, brother of the virgo Vestalis maxima Terentia Flavola; son of L. [8]. L.'s career up to the consulate is known from CIL VI 32412 = ILS 1155. It is conspicuous that as patrician between the praetorship and office of consul, he was also iuridicus Asturicae et Callaeciae as well as legate of the legio VII Gemina, both in Hispania citerior. Cos. ord. in AD 20…

Prisca

(360 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Ruth (Hamburg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Missionary, 1st cent. (Πρίσκα/ Prísca, in Acts Πρίσκιλλα/ Prískilla; Latin Prisca, Priscilla). In the middle of the 1st cent. AD, P. and her husband Aquila [4] worked as Christian missionaries. As a result of the edict of emperor Claudius [III 1] (expulsion of the Jews, Acts 18:2; Suet. Claud. 25), the Jewish-Christian couple left Rome to continue their tent making in Corinth (spreading the Gospel whilst supporting themselves through additional, unrelated work). They encountered Paulus [II 2] c. AD 50, accompanying him to Ephesus. P.’s importance as a …

Constantia

(304 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Flavia Iulia C. Daughter of Constantinus [1], wife of Licinius Daughter of Constantius [1] I and Theodora, half-sister of Constantine [I], betrothed in 312 to  Licinius (Lactant. De mort. pers. 43,2). The wedding took place early in 313 when Constantine and Licinius met in Milan (Lactant. De mort pers. 45,1; Euseb. Hist. Eccl. 10,5,3; Anon. Vales. 13; Zos. 2,17). The issue of this marriage was a son, Licinianus Licinius, born in July 315. In 316 she accompanied her husband in his war against her half-brother, and fled with h…
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