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Bia

(153 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βία; Bía). Personification of violence; daughter of Pallas and the Styx, sister of Zelus, Nike and Cratus (Hes. Theog. 385-388). In the titanomachy Styx goes over to Zeus with her children and they then follow him. As Zeus' henchmen, Cratus and B. spur Hephaestus on to chain  Prometheus to a rock (Aesch. PV 1-87, in which B. plays a silent part). An Athenian scyphus shows  Ixion being bound to a wheel by Hephaestus, Cratus and B. [1]. Themistocles tells the people of Andros that h…

Chloe

(107 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Χλόη; Chlóē). ‘Greening’; epiclesis of  Demeter (Ath. 14,618d/e). She had a shrine close to the Acropolis, where a ram was sacrificed to her (Paus. 1,22,3; Aristoph. Lys. 835; FGrH 328 F 6; Eupolis PCG V fr.196). She is also attested in Eleusis (IG II2 949,7), on Myconus (LSCG 96,11) and in the Tetrapolis (LSCG 20 B 49). An exuberant festival, the Chloia, placed by late antique theology at around springtime, was celebrated in her name (Cornutus, Theol. 28). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography A. B. Chandor, The Attic Festivals of Demeter and their Relation to the …

Catillus

(105 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Mythical founder of Tibur (Hor. Carm. 1,18,2; Sil. 4,225; Stat. Silv. 1,3,100). According to Cato (Orig. fr. 56 in Solin. 2,7) he was an Arcadian and fleet commander of Euander. A certain Sextius considered him to be an Argive (Solin. 2,7). He was the son of an Argive seer  Amphiaraus and upon the behest of his grandfather he moved to Italy as   ver sacrum . His three sons Tiburtus (Tibur/Tiburnus), Coras and C. drove the Sicans out of their town and then called it Tibur (Solin. ibid; Verg. Aen. 7,670 with Serv.; Hor. Carm. 2,6,5; Plin. HN 16,237). Bloch, René (Berne)

Damasichthon

(79 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δαμασίχθων; Damasíchthōn). [German version] [1] One of the sons of Niobe One of the sons of  Niobe (Apollod. 3,45) who like his brothers is killed by Apollo (Ov. Met. 6,254-260). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. Bömer, Kommentar zu Ov. met. 6-7,1976, 78. [German version] [2] Son of the Athenian Codrus Son of the Athenian Codrus. Together with his brother Promethus, who later murdered him, he was the leader of the Ionian colony in Colophon (Paus. 7,3,3). Bloch, René (Berne)

Dia

(455 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Δῖα, Δία; Dîa, Día). [German version] [1] Female equivalent of Zeus The female equivalent of  Zeus, as Diwiya on the Linear B inscriptions from Pylos and Knossos, with her own sanctuary, just as  Poseidon also has his female counterpart in the Mycenaean pantheon [1]. In the post-Mycenaean period the three heroines who can be linked with the Mycenaean goddess by name, are all linked with Zeus, but the individual derivation is problematical. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Heroine in the local cults of Phlius and Sicyon The heroine is most likely D. in the local cult…

Caelus, Caelum

(121 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Translation of the Greek  Uranus (‘Heaven’). The genealogy of C. (Cic. Nat. D. 2,63.3,44; Hyg. Fab. praef. 2) corresponds with some variations to that in Hesiod. Varro (Ling. 5,57) named C. and Terra as the oldest of the deities. C. had no cult in Rome; inscriptions venerating him as aeternus (CIL VI 181-84; cf. also Vitr. 1,2,5) refer to foreign cults [1]. Graphically, C. is portrayed as a bearded man holding a garment above his head in the shape of an arch, as for example on the breast plate of the statue of Augustus of Prima Porta [2]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 G. Wiss…

Egerius

(159 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] [1] Son of Arruns Son of Arruns, grandson of Demaratus. E. was only born after the death of his father and grandfather, which is why the entire fortune went to Arruns' brother Lucumo. His nephew supposedly received the name E. because of his poverty ( egere, ‘to suffer want’). When Lucumo later became Roman king with the name L. Tarquinius Priscus, E. was granted rule over the Latin town of Collatia by him and took the epithet Collatinus. His son L. Tarquinius Collatinus was the husband of  Lucretia (Liv. 1,34,2f.; 57,6; Dio…

Bitias

(92 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] [1] Companion of Aeneas B. and Pandarus, companions of Aeneas, are sons of Alcanor who were brought up by Iaera. Against Aeneas' command they open a gate of the Trojan encampment; consequently both are killed by Turnus (Verg. Aen. 9,672ff.; 722ff.). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Man in Dido's retinue Man in Dido's retinue (Verg. Aen. 1,738). According to Serv. (commenting on this point), who drew on Livy, he was the commander of the Carthaginian fleet. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography Ph. Hardie, Virgil Aeneid Book IX, 1994, 213f.

Diomus

(171 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δίομος; Díomos). Son of Colyttus, eponymous hero of the Attic deme  Diomea. D. is understood to be connected to the aetiology of the first ‘ox murder’ ( Bouphonia), although the name of the bull killer (βουτύπος; boutýpos) varies. D., priest of Zeus Polieus, was the first to kill an ox at the Dipolieia after the latter had eaten from the sacrificial grain (Porph. De abstinentia 2,10). The bull killer is also called Thaulon (Androtion FGrH 324 F 16) or Sopater (Porph. ibid. 2,29). D. also plays a central role in th…

Euthyphron

(119 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐθύφρων; Euthýphrōn). Athenian seer, a character in Plato's eponymous dialogue: Socrates, who has been summoned to court, meets E., who wants to see his father prosecuted for manslaughter by criminal negligence, because he has allowed a slave to die who had been guilty of murder. Socrates' reservations about this way of action lead to a debate on the nature of piety. E. is also mentioned in Pl. Crat. 396d; 399e; 428c. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography M. L. McPherran, Socratic Piety in the E., in: H. H. Benson (ed.), Essays on the Philosophy of Socrates, 1992, 220-241 A. …

Damon

(975 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Harmon, Roger (Basle)
(Δάμων; Dámōn) [German version] [1] Prince of the Telchines Prince of the  Telchines. Father-in-law of Minos and ancestor of Miletus. When the Telchines were struck dead by lightning by Jupiter because they poisoned crops, D. and his family were spared in gratitude for hospitality provided. Only his daughter Macelo and her husband were among the victims (Nic. in the schol. Ov. Ib. 475). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Pythagorean from Syracuse A Pythagorean from Syracuse, friend of Phintias, for whom he stood surety with his life. According to Aristoxenus (…

Candidus

(240 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
A popular cognomen in the Imperial Age, attested with certainty from the 1st cent. AD (ThlL, Onom. 2,133ff.). [German version] [1] Christian in AD 200 Christian in c. AD 200, author of various lost treatise about the Hexaemeron (Eus. HE 5,27; Jer. vir. ill. 48). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] A follower of the Gnostic Valentinianus, 3rd cent. AD A follower of the Gnostic Valentinianus; in c. AD 230, he had a public dispute with  Origen, who accused him of retrospectively falsifying the records (Rufin. Apol. Orig. epil. = PG 17,625; Hier. Adv. Ru…

Monotheism

(1,572 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
[German version] I. Concept Monotheism - the belief in the existence of a single god, in contrast to polytheism and henotheism (worship of a single god while still recognizing other gods) - is a concept from the early modern era, probably first evident in the Cambridge Platonist H. More [1] (Christian-apologetic dissociation from pagan forms of religion; argument defending the trinitarian concept of God). Monotheism has been viewed both from an evolutionary perspective as a final stage of development and as an original form of religion that later degenerated…

Elate

(57 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐλάτη; Elátē, ‘spruce’). Sister of the  Aloads Otus and Ephialtes. She was similar in stature to them. When she mourned the demise of her brothers she was transferred into a spruce tree towering to the sky (Lib. Narrationes 37; Eust. on Hom. Od. 5,239 and on Hom. Il. 5,560; 14,287). Bloch, René (Berne)

Euphorion

(1,434 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence)
(Εὐφορίων; Euphoríōn). [German version] [1] Winged son of Achilles and Helena A figure invented by Ptolemy Chennus (Phot. 149a): E., a winged son of Achilles and Helena, is killed on the island of Melos by a bolt of lightning from Zeus whose love he does not reciprocate. The nymphs who bury the corpse are changed into frogs by Zeus. In Goethe's Faust (2nd Part), E. appears as the son of Faust and Helena. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography K.-H. Tomberg, Die Kaine Historia des Ptolemaios Chennos, 1967, 108. [German version] [2] of Athens Tragedian Tragedian, son of Aeschylus. He won priz…

Echetus

(97 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἔχετος; Échetos, ‘Holder’). Cruel king with whom the suitor Antinous threatened the beggar Irus and Odysseus (Hom. Od. 18,85; 116; 21,308; Suda s.v. E. 493 Adler). He blinded his daughter Amphissa (or Metope) and had her crush ore in a chamber; he dismembered her lover Aechmodicus (Apoll. Rhod. 4,1093 with schol.). Schol. Hom. Od. 18,85 (= Marsyas FGrH 135-136 F 19) explains that he was a Sicilian tyrant who tortured strangers, but who was eventually stoned by his own subjects. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography J. Russo et al., Homer's Odyssey, vol. 3 (comm.), 1992, 52f.

Euryalus

(331 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὐρύαλος; Eurýalos, ‘far-voyaging’ [1. 71, 195]); the name of several heroes, usable in hexameters. [German version] [1] Argive hero An Argive hero, son of Mecisteus from Argos. He is mentioned both as one of the  Argonauts (Apollod. 1,113) and one of the Epigoni (sons of the seven heroes who fought in vain against Thebes; Apollod. 3,82; Paus. 2,20,5). E. marches against Troy with Diomedes and Sthenelus (Hom. Il. 2,566; 6,20-28 aristeia; Apollod. 1,103; Paus. 2,30,10). At the funerary games for Patroclus he is defeated in the boxing competition by Epius (Hom. Il…

Elymus

(77 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Trojan, eponymous forefather of the  Elymi. He came to Sicily either with Aegestus (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,47; 52f.; Tzetz. schol. Lycoph. 965) or Aeneas (Str.13,1,53), and settled in the region around the  Eryx. Virgil, who refers to him as Helymus, depicts him as the winner in a competition (Verg. Aen. 5,73; 323). According to Serv. Aen. 5,73, he was the founder of the cities of Asca, Entella, and Egesta. Bloch, René (Berne)

Eunomia

(171 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐνομία, Εὐνομίη; Eunomía, Eunomíē). Personification of good order. Along with  Dike and  Eirene she is one of the three  Horae (Hes. Theog. 901-902), the daughters of Zeus and Themis. Only in Alcman (PMG 64) is E. the daughter of Promatheia (‘foresight, consideration’) and sister of  Tyche and  Peitho. In her role as the guardian of peace (cf. Pind. Pyth. 5,66-67: eunomía apólemos, ‘unwarlike E.’), E. is praised particularly in times of crisis (Tyrtaeus IEG fr. 1-4; Solon IEG fr. 4, 32-39); in the 5th cent. (in the Peloponnesian War) E. b…

Eurymachus

(63 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐρύμαχος; Eurýmachos; for the name cf. [1]). Son of Polybus; one of the most respected of  Penelope's suitors (Hom. Od. 1,399). In the suitors' board games he is often the victor (Ath. 1,17 a b). He is killed by Odysseus, in spite of offering him atonement (Hom. Od. 22,44-88). Cf. also Aesch. 179 TrGF. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 Kamptz, 72.
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