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Dryope

(212 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δρυόπη; Dryópē). [German version] [1] Nymph, transformed into a tree Name of a nymph. Two widely diverging accounts exist of D.'s metamorphosis. According to Nik. in Antonius Liberalis 32, D. was the daughter of  Dryops and wife of  Andraemon [2]. She took onto her lap Apollo, who had been transformed into a tortoise, and subsequently gave birth to  Amphissus. D. was abducted by the nymphs with whom she played as a girl and to whose world she originally belonged. In her place, a black poplar and a spring…

Echeclus

(108 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἔχεκλος; Écheklos). [German version] [1] Son of the Trojan Agenor Son of the Trojan Agenor, killed by Achilles (Hom. Il. 20,474). Paus. 10,27,2 points to a parallel motive in the Iliad parva (18 PEG I) where the son of Achilles, Neoptolemus, kills the father of E. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography W. Kullmann, Die Quellen der Ilias, Hermes ES 14, 1960, 354 P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, vol. 1, 1988, 555f. [German version] [2] Trojan, killed by Patroclus Trojan, killed by Patroclus (Hom. Il. 16,694). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des…

Electryon

(79 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἠλεκτρύων; Ēlektrýōn). Tirynthian or Mycenaean hero, son of Perseus and Andromeda, husband of Anaxo, the daughter of  Alcaeus, father of  Alcmene. He lost almost all his sons fighting the Teleboans (Taphians). When the cattle stolen from E. were handed over, he was killed by his son-in-law  Amphitryon. This was the occasion for the latter and Alcmene to emigrate to Thebes (Hes. Sc. 3; 11-12; Apollod. 2,52-56; Hyg. Fab. 244,1; 4; Paus. 2,25,8). Bloch, René (Berne)

Cura

(1,298 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Personification of worry Personification of worry (ThlL, Onom. 2,753). In Horace's first Roman Ode, C. is a black, ghostly companion of man (Hor. Carm. 3,1,40: post equitem sedet atra C.). Aeneas encounters the ‘avenging worries’ ( ultrices Curae) at the gate of Hades (Verg. Aen. 6,274 and Serv. Aen. on this passage). According to Hyginus Fab. 220, C. formed man from a piece of earth. Saturn determines that man belongs to C. in life and to Jupiter after death. The fable is of Greek origin [1]. In all probability, evidence for C. exists on a poculum deorum (CIL I2 442: Coira p…

Chrysothemis

(165 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χρυσόθεμις; Chrysóthemis). [German version] [1] Beloved of Apollo Beloved of Apollo. From their union Parthenus was born, but died as a child and was transformed into a constellation by Apollo (Hyg. Poet. Astr. 2,25). According to Diodorus (5,62,1f.) she was the wife of Staphylus and mother of Molpadia, Parthenus and Rhoeo. The latter bore Appollo's son  Anius. Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Daughter of Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra Daughter of Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra, sister of Laodice and Iphianassa (Hom. Il. 9,145.287), in Soph. El. 157 of Electr…

Eurytion

(231 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὐρυτίων; Eurytíōn). Frequently used name of heroes and  centaurs. [German version] [1] Leader of the centaurs Thessalian centaur; in the house of Peirithous, while drunk on wine, he violates Peirithous' bride  Hippodamia, whereupon the Lapiths disfigure him; this leads to the conflict between  Lapithae and centaurs. The suitor  Antinous [1] holds E.'s fate up before Odysseus as a warning (Hom. Od. 21,295-304). Later too, E. as leader of the centaurs is frequently represented as a terrifying example (Thgn. 1,542). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Peloponnesian centaur Pel…

Dolius

(114 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δόλιος; Dólios). [German version] [1] Epithet of Hermes ‘The cunning’, epithet of Hermes (Aristoph. Thesm. 1202; Soph. Phil. 133; Cornutus 16). On the road to Pellene there stood a statue of Hermes D. (Paus. 7,27,1). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Old slave of Penelope Old slave of  Penelope, who looked after her garden on Ithaca for her (Hom. Od. 4,735-741; 24,222). He put his sons at Odysseus' disposal for the battle with the relatives of the slain suitors (Hom. Od. 24,386-411; 492-501). According to Hom. Od. 17,212; 18,321f. …

Erythea

(107 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐρύθεια; Erýtheia). One of the  Hesperids (Hes. fr. 360; Apollod. 2,114). According to schol. Apoll. Rhod. 4,1399, the mythical island E. (‘Red Country’) on which  Geryoneus lived (Hes. Theog. 290) is named after her. According to Paus. 10,17,5 (after him Steph. Byz. s.v. Ε.), E. was Geryoneus' daughter and the mother of  Norax by Hermes. E. was usually thought to be in the area of Gadera or Tartessus (Stesichorus fr. 184 PMGF 1; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 18b; Ephorus FGrH 70 F 129a; Philistides FGrH 11 F 3; Hdt. 4,8). This view was challenged by Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 26). Bloch, René …

Calatores

(133 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] From calare -- ‘to call’. a) Slaves who convey orders (Fest. p. 34; differently [1] who equates calatores with nomenclatores on the basis of Plaut. Merc. 852. The latter are slaves who give their masters the names of those passing while away). b) Assistants of the higher priests, almost exclusively freed persons. They are already in evidence on the Forum stele (CIL I2 1). Their task was to prepare the way for the priest by calling and to stop the priest coming into contact with polluted elements or unfavourable omens prior to sacrifices. The…

Demonassa

(148 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δημώνασσα; Dēmṓnassa). [German version] [1] Daughter of the Argive seer Amphiaraus Daughter of the Argive seer  Amphiaraus and  Eriphyle, wife of  Thersander, a son of Polyneices, mother of Tisamenus (Paus. 3,15,8, 9,5,15). On the Cypselus Chest described by Pausanias she is shown standing with her siblings Eurydice and Alcmaeon before the house of Amphiaraus who is mounting the chariot (Paus. 5,17,7) [1]. On a late Corinthian crater that also depicts the departure of Amphiaraus the inscription calls her …

Deiphontes

(173 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δηιφόντης; Dēiphóntēs). Great-great grandson of Heracles (Heracles-Ctessipus-Thrasyanor-Antimachus-D.). He married  Hyrnetho, daughter of the Heraclid  Temenus. The latter had been awarded Argos in the land lottery after the conquest of the Peloponnese. Temenus' sons, who felt neglected compared with D. and Hyrnetho, had their father killed. As he was dying, Temenus handed over rule to D. and Hyrnetho. But the Temenids did not relinquish their claims to power. For this reason D. m…

Evadne

(175 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὐάδνη; Euádnē, ‘the pleasing one’). [German version] [1] Daughter of Poseidon and Pitane Daughter of Poseidon and Pitane, the daughter of the river god Eurotas, who was brought up by the Arcadian king  Aepytus [1]. She secretly gave birth to Apollo's son  Iamus, the ancestor of the prophetic clan of the Iamidae in Olympia, and abandoned him in a bed of violets (Pind. Ol. 6,28-73) [1; 2]. Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Wife of Capaneus, with whom she died Daughter of Iphis (Apollod. 3,79) or Phylacus (Hyg. Fab. 243,3; 256). She threw herself on the burning funera…

Eudorus

(435 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster)
(Εὔδωρος; Eúdōros). [German version] [1] One of the five leaders of the Myrmidons under Achilles One of the five leaders of the  Myrmidons under Achilles. A son of Hermes and  Polymele, he was brought up by his grandfather Phylas after Polymele later married the Actorid Echecles. His aptitude for fighting, being a fast runner, is strongly emphasized (Hom. Il. 16,179-186) but apart from this, the Iliad is silent on his fate. Eust. Od. 1697,56 reports of his death at the hands of Pyraechmes at the first clash with the Trojans (cf. also Eust. Od. 1053,54). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography R. Jan…

Daphnaeus

(121 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δαφναῖος; Daphnaîos). [German version] [1] Strategos in Syracus 406 BC Strategos in Syracuse, was supposed to relieve Acragas in 406 BC when it was besieged by the Carthaginians, but this went wrong, apparently because of his corruption (Diod. Sic. 13,86,4ff.). This failure led to the removal from office of the group of commanders, the appointment of  Dionysius [1] as an authorized strategos and thereby to the latter's tyrannis. Dionysius killed D. in 405 (Diod. Sic. 13,96,3). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2] Epiclesis of Apollo Epiclesis of Apollo (Anth. Pal. 9,477…

Deion(eus)

(103 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δηιών, Δηιονεύς; Dēiṓn, Dēioneús). [German version] [1] Mythical king of Phocis Son of Aeolus [1] and Enarete the daughter of Deimachus. He was king of Phocis, and married Diomede the daughter of  Xuthus. From this marriage issued Asterodia, Ainetus,  Actor [2],  Phylacus and  Cephalus (Apollod. 1,51; 86; Hyg. Fab. 189,1; Callim. H. 3,209; Str. 10,2,14). The two last names show connections with Attica, as does the name Xuthus. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. Graf, Greek Mythology, 1993, 127. [German version] [2] A frequent erroneous spelling of Eioneus A frequent erroneous s…

Spes

(423 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Büchli, Jörg (Zürich)
(The Roman personification of 'hope'). [German version] I. Roman Unlike the Greek Elpis, Spes ('Hope') had a cult and temples. In the 1st Punic War, A. Atilius [I 14] Calatinus dedicated a temple to Spes on the Forum Holitorium in Rome (Cic. Leg. 2,28; Tac. Ann. 2,49). The building burned down on several occasions (Liv. 25,7,6; Cass. Dio 50,10,3); there was a rededication under Germanicus in AD 17; the remains of the temple are visible in the church of St. Nicola in Carcere. According to Liv. 2,51,2 and …

Euneus

(158 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὔνηος; Eúnēos). [German version] [1] Great-grandson of Dionysus, warrior on both fronts in the Trojan War Lemnian ruler, son of Hypsipyle ( Lemnian women) and of Jason (Apollod. 1,115; Hyg. Fab. 15), brother of  Thoas [2], grandson of  Thoas [1] and great-grandson of  Dionysus. In the Trojan War he assisted both the Achaeans and the Trojans. While he was sending wine-laden ships to the former (Hom. Il 7,467-469), he bought freedom for Priamus' son Lycaon who was a prisoner of war (Hom. Il 23,746-747). ─ In Athens there was a ‘musicians' guild’ ( génos musikṓn) by the name of Euneidai …

Moloch

(266 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (ְךֶלֹמ, molæk, LXX: Μολοχ/ Moloch, Vulg.: Moloch). M. is most probably the name of a Canaanite deity to whom children were supposedly sacrificed. However, it is difficult to determine how M. fit into the Canaanite pantheon (Malik? Milkom? Adad-Milki?). Referring to the Phoenician-Punic term for a sacrifice, mlk/ molk, Eissfeldt interpreted M. not as a god, but as a technical term for the sacrifice of children (or substitutes) [1]. But this view is contradicted by passages in which M. clearly referred to a god (cf. Lv 20:5). The Hebrew Bible explicitly forbids sacri…

Broteas

(140 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Βροτέας; Brotéas). [German version] [1] Son of Tantalos Son of Tantalus and Euryanassa, brother to Pelops and Niobe, father of the younger Tantalus, who was married with Clytaemnestra before Agamemnon (schol. Eur. Or. 5; Paus. 2,22,3). The Magnetes believed that he had created the oldest rock carving of the Mother of the Gods near Magnesia on the Sipylus (Paus. 3,22,4). In another tradition he was a huntsman who scorned  Artemis and who, after asserting that fire could do him no harm, hurled himself into a fire in a fit of insanity and perished (Apollod. Epit. 2,2). Bloch, René (Berne) …

Chromius

(113 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χρομίος; Chromíos). [German version] [1] Brother of Nestor Son of Neleus and Chloris; brother of Nestor (Hom. Od. 11,286). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Companion at arms of Nestor Companion at arms of Nestor (Hom. Il. 4,295). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [3] Son of Priam Son of Priam; killed by Diomedes (Hom. Il. 5,160; Apollod. 3,152). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [4] Trojan, killed by Teucer Trojan; killed by Teucer (Hom. Il. 8,275). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [5] Lycian, killed by Odysseus Lycian; killed by Odysseus (Hom. Il. 5,677). Bloch, Ren…
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