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Clementia

(124 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Personification of clemency (ThlL, Onom. II, 487). Pliny (HN 2,14) names C. in a series of deified abstractions. The C. of Caesar [1; 2] was famous: the senate had a joint temple built for the Divus Iulius and the deified C. in which Caesar and the goddess were depicted extending their hands to each other (Plut. Caes. 57,4; App. B Civ. 2,106; Cass. Dio 44,6,4). On the golden shield of Augustus C. is one of the four virtues attributed to him (R. Gest. div. Aug. 34). C. is the central theme in Seneca's speculum regum ( De clementia). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 M. Treu, Zur C…

Erigone

(248 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἠριγόνη; Ērigónē). Name of two similar figures of Attic mythology: [German version] [1] Suicide, daughter of Icarius, welcomer of Dionysus Daughter of  Icarius, who had given Dionysus a hospitable reception and, for this, had received as a present the knowledge of making wine. When Icarius, on behalf of Dionysus, tried to introduce viticulture, he was killed by the farmers who thought they had been poisoned after they had drunk unblended wine. E. was led to her father's body by the dog Maera and thereupon hanged h…

Daunus

(175 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δαῦνος; Daûnos). [German version] [1] Eponymous hero of the Daunians Hero who gave his name to the Daunians ( Daunia); son of  Lycaon. Of Illyrian origin (Fest. p. 69), he immigrated to Italy together with his brothers Iapyx and Peuketios. There they expelled the native Ausonians and founded three kingdoms: Messapia, Peuketia and Daunia, which together are called  Iapygia (Nik. fr. 47 = Anton. lib. 31). When  Diomedes comes to Italy, D. receives him kindly and is supported by him against the Messapians. …

Eeriboea

(70 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἠερίβοια; Ēeríboia). [German version] [1] Stepmother of the Aloads Stepmother of the  Aloads, who kept Ares prisoner. However, E. told Hermes the location of the prison (Hom. Il. 5,389f.). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Spouse of Telamon, mother of Ajax (also Eriboea/Periboea). The daughter of Alcathous, spouse of Telamon and mother of  Ajax [1] (Pind. Isthm. 6,45; Soph. Aj. 569; Paus. 1,42,2; Apollod. 3,162). Bloch, René (Berne)

Discordia

(148 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] The Latin equivalent of the Greek  Eris. In contrast with  Concordia, D. was never more than a literary personification, and not a cult goddess. Ennius (Ann. 225f.) has D. break down the gates of war (cf. Hor. Sat. 1,460f.). According to Hyg. Fab. praef. 1, D. is a daughter of the ‘night’ ( Nox) and of  Erebos. In Virgil (Aen. 6,280), she stands guard at the entrance to the Orcus; in Aen. 8,702 she appears ─ in a torn cloak ─ on Aeneas' shield amidst the tumult of the battle of Ac…

Euryganea

(52 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐρυγάνη, -εια; Eurygánē, -eia). In the  Oidipódeia of the Cyclic Epics the second wife of  Oedipus, after  Iocaste (Epicaste) commits suicide upon discovery of her incest. From her come the children that are elsewhere ascribed to Jocasta (Oedipodea, argumentum; fr. 2 PEG I; Apollod. 3,55). Bloch, René (Berne)

Echemus

(153 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἔχεμος; Échemos). [German version] [1] King of Tegea in Arcadia King of Tegea in Arcadia, son of Aeropos, married to Leda's daughter Timandra who left him (Hes. Cat. fr. 23a, 31-35; 176,3-4; Paus. 8,5,1; Apollod. 3,126). E. won in an Olympic wrestling match (Pind. Ol. 10,66). Due to his victory in single combat against Heracles' son Hyllus, E. is said to have checked the advance of the Heraclids into the Peloponnese by 50 (Diod. Sic. 4,58,3-5) or 100 years (Hdt. 9,26). A relief fragment shows E. as an heroic fighter [1]. Paus. 8,53,10 describes the grave of E. in Tegea. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibli…

Damasistratus

(26 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δαμασίστρατος; Damasístratos). King of Plataeae who buried  Laius after he had been killed by Oedipus (Paus. 10,5,4; Apollod. 3,52). Bloch, René (Berne)

Elpis

(205 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐλπίς; Elpís, from ἔλπομαι/ἐλπίζω; élpomai/elpízō, ‘expect, hope’). As a term and a character a vox media, which in its fundamentally neutral quality (‘expectation’) alternates between ‘hope’ (positive or false) and ─ less often ─ ‘apprehension’ (Pl. Leg. 644c; Hom. Od. 16,101; 19,84; Semonides fr. 1,6-7 IEG 2; Pind. Fr. 214). In Hes. Op. 90-105, the personified E. remains in  Pandora's box, while the other evil spirits (κακά; kaká) escape (cf. Babr. 58; [1; 2; 3]). According to Thgn. 1135-1146, E. was the only benevolent power to remain on eart…

Echetlus, Echetlaeus

(88 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἔχετλος, Ἐχετλαῖος; Échetlos, Echetlaîos). A man of peasant demeanour who in the battle of Marathon killed many Persians with his plough ( echétlē, ‘plough handle’) and subsequently disappeared. Because of an oracle, the Athenians worshipped him as the Hero Echetlaeus. On the painting of the battle of Marathon in the Stoa Poikile, he was depicted with a plough in his hand (Paus. 1,15,3; 32,5) Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography M. H. Jameson, The Hero Echetlaeus, in: TAPhA 82, 1951, 49-61 J. G. Szilágyi, s.v. Echetlos, LIMC 3.1, 677-678.

Charops

(182 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χάροψ; Chárops). [German version] [1] Epithet of Heracles Epithet by which Heracles was worshipped in Boeotia near the sanctuary of Zeus on Mount Laphystion. It was there that, in Boeotian tradition, he fetched Cerberus from the underworld (Paus. 9,34,5). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Grandfather of Orpheus Thracian; father of Oeagrus, grandfather of Orpheus. After the death of the Thracian King  Lycurgus, Dionysus appointed C. as one of his followers and initiated him into the Bacchic rites; C. then told the god of the assault pl…

Caligo

(40 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Personification of darkness, analogous to the Greek  Erebus and Skotos. She is the mother of  Chaos, and by him she is also mother of Nox, Dies, Erebos and Aether (Hyg. Fab. praef. 1). Bloch, René (Berne)

Dorus

(89 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δῶρος; Dôros). Mythological first ancestor of the Dorians, son of Hellen and of Orseis, grandson of Deucalion, brother of Xuthus and of Aeolus. His sons are Tectamus and  Aegimius (Hes. Cat. fr. 9,2; Apollod. 1,49-50; Diod. Sic. 4,58,6; 60,2). Starting from Phthia, D. led the people into the Thessalian Hestiaiotis (Diod. Sic. 5,80,2), into the central Greek landscape of Doris (Str.8,7,1) or to southern Aetolia (Apollod. 1,57). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. Graf, Greek Mythology, 1993, 132-133 I. Malkin, Myth and Territory in the Spartan Mediterrane…

Copia

(148 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Personification of fullness, depicted with the horn of plenty (Plaut. Pseud. 671; 736;  Amalthea), later also called cornucopia (Amm. Marc. 22,9,1). C. with the horn of plenty appears on the coins of two cities with the name Colonia C., which not necessarily indicates the existence of a cult [1; 2]. C. is also mentioned in an inscription from Avennio (today's Avignon, CIL XII 1023). According to Ovid (Met. 9,85-88), C. received the horn filled with fruit and flowers, which Hercules had broken off the  Achelous, from the Naiades. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 G. Wiss…

Euryclea

(66 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐρύκλεια; Eurýkleia, the ‘widely-famed’ [1], Euryclia). Daughter of Ops, from childhood the trusted servant in the house of  Odysseus. She recognizes him by a scar when she is washing the beggar's feet (Hom. Od. 1,429; 2,345-347; 19,350-507; Hyg. Fab. 125,20; 126,7) [2]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 Kamptz, 37 2 O. Touchefeu, s.v. Eurykleia, LIMC 4.1, 101-103. G. Ramming, Die Dienerschaft in der Odyssee, PhD thesis 1973.

Eurymedusa

(15 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐρυμέδουσα; Eurymédousa). Maidservant to  Nausicaa (Hom. Od. 7,8). Bloch, René (Berne)

Brizo

(88 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βριζώ; Brizṓ). A deity who predicted the future as a person lay sleeping. She was worshipped by Delian women as the protective goddess of boats. They brought her votive offerings in small barks which were not allowed to contain any fish. The name B. was derived from βρίζειν ( brízein, ‘to slumber’) (Semus of Delos in Ath. 8,335a-b = FGrH 396F4). B. is explained by [1] as a goddess who sends the wind and the waves to sleep. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 H. Usener, Götternamen, 1896, 147.

Epii

(103 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐπειοί; Epeipoí). The oldest population in Elis (Pind. Ol. 9,58).  Augeias was regarded as one of their kings (Pind. Ol. 10,35; Hom. Il. 11,698). According to the Homeric catalogue of ships, the E. fall into four different groups (Hom. Il. 2,618-625). Nestor reports of conflicts between the E. and Pylians in Hom. Il. 11,670-762. According to Paus. 5,1,4; 8, they were named after Epius, but later their name was changed into Elii (cf. also Hecat. FGrH 1 F 25). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography E. Visser, Homers Katalog der Schiffe, 1997, 195; 556-557; 562-563 B. Hainsworth…

Eleos

(121 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἔλεος; Éleos). ‘Compassion’. Appears personified in Timocles fr. 33 PCG. An altar dedicated to E. stood on a market square in Athens (Paus. 1,17,1; Diod. Sic. 13,22,7) [1], a well-known  asylon/asylum (Lucian Demonax 57 and schol.; Schol. Aeschin. 2,15). According to Apollod. 2,167, it was there that the Heraclides sought refuge, according to Philostr. Epistula 39, they even appear as the founders of the altar. According to Aristotle's poetic theory, through éleos and phóbos (‘pity and fear’), tragedy should lead to  katharsis (Aristot. Poet. 5, 1449 …

Buzygae

(87 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βουζύγαι; Bouzýgai). One of the most distinguished Athenian dynasties of priests, that traced its origins back to  Buzyges. Amongst others, Xanthippus, the victor of Mycale, also belonged to this family as well as his son Pericles (schol. Aristid. 473). The B. carried out the sacred ploughing below the Acropolis (Plut. praecepta coniugalia 42 p. 144). Furthermore, they were the hereditary priests for Zeus Teleios (CIA 294) and for Zeus on the Palladium (CIA 71; 273). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography Burkert, 159 Nilsson GGR, 1,709.
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